The Giant Sequoia of the Sierra Nevada
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ALEY, T. J. 1963. Final report on the type mapping and regeneration studies in the giant sequoia groves of Kings Canyon and Sequoia National parks. Contract research report for the Western Region, National Park Service. 63 p.

ANDERSON, A. B., R. RIFFER, and A. WONO. 1968. Chemistry of the genus Sequoia. Phyrochemistry 7(8):1367-1371.

ANDREWS, R. W. 1958. Redwood classic. Superior Publishing Co., Seattle, Wash. 174p.

ANON. 1853. An immense tree. Gleason's Pictorial Drawing Room Companion. 5(14):217.

______. 1854. Description of the great tree recently felled upon the Sierra Nevada, California. Herald Job Printing Office, New York. 14 p. Reprinted by Francis P. Farquhar, San Francisco, 1960.

______. 1855a. The big tree (Wellingtonia gigantea). Gardener's Chronicle 15(1):7-8.

______. 1855b. The Wellingtonia of Lindley. Am. J. Sci. Ser. 2. 20(59):281-282.

______. 1858. (Title unknown), emend. Gordon, Pinetum 330. Published in synonomy.

______. 1859. Wellingtonia gigantea. Gardener's Chronicle 19(43):850.

______. 1862. (Title unknown) Hort. Am. ex Gordon, Pinetum Suppl. 106. Published in synonomy.

______. 1876. Age of the mammoth trees. Gardener's Monthly 18(214):310-311.

______. 1891. (Origin of name of big tree). Garden and Forest 4(164):179.

______. 1903. Save the big trees. The Outlook 74(2):105.

______. 1960. Effects of photoperiod on sequoia. Argonne National Laboratory annual report. ANL—6275. (University of Chicago). p 102.

AXELROD, D. I. 1959. Late Tertiary evolution of the Sierran big-tree forest. Evolution 13:9-23.

______. 1962. A Pliocene Sequoiadendron forest from western Nevada. Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci. 39(3):195-268.

______. 1964. The Miocene Trapper Creek flora of southern Idaho. Univ. Calif Publ. Geol. Sci. 51:1-148.

BAKER, F. S. 1949. A revised tolerance table. J. For. 47:179-181.

BALOGH, B., and A. B. ANDERSON. 1965. Chemistry of the genus Sequoia, II. Isolation of sequirins, new phenolic compounds from the coast redwood, Sequoia sempervirens. Phyrochemistry 4(4):569-575.

______. 1966. Chemistry of the genus Sequoia, III. Structural studies of isosequirin. Phyrochemistry 5(3):325-330.

BEETHAM, N. M. 1962. The ecological tolerance range of the seedling stage of Sequoia gigantea. Ph.D. Thesis. Duke Univ., 135 p. Univ. Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich.

BEGA, R. V. 1964. Diseases of sequoia. In Proc. of FAO/IUFRO symposium on internationally dangerous forest diseases and insects. FAO/FOREST 64:131-139.

BEIDLEMAN, R. G. 1950. Sequoia cones and seeds. Yosemite Nature Notes 29(1):9-11.

BELLUE, A. J. 1930. Origin of the name Sequoia. Yosemite Nature Notes 9(8):75.

BERLAND, O. 1962. Giant Forest's reservation: the legend and the mystery. Sierra Club Bull. 47(9):68-82.

BERRY, J. B. 1924. Western Forest trees. World Book Co., Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York. (Reprinted by Dover Publications, Inc., New York. 1966)

BISWELL, H. H. 1961. Big trees and fire. Natl. Parks Mag. 35(163):11-14.

BLICK, J. D. 1963. The giant sequoia; a study in autecology. Contract report for the Western Region, National Park Service. 93 p. (In Sequoia and Kings Canyon National parks files.)

BLOOMER, H. G. 1868. On the scientific name of the big trees. Calif Acad Sci. Proc. 3:399.

BROWN, S. 1868. Coning of the Wellingtonia. Gardener's Chronicle 28(33):872.

BUCHHOLZ, J. T. 1938. Cone formation in Sequoia gigantea. Am. J. Bot. 25:296-305.

______. 1939. The generic segregation of the sequoias. Am. J. Bot. 26(7):535-538.

CALIFORNIA, STATE OF. 1924. Big tree measurements, Calaveras Groves of big trees, South Grove. Report from the Evans Cruise, Calaveras Big Trees State Park.

______. 1952. Status of Sequoia gigantea in the Sierra Nevada; Senate concurrent resolution No. 44, 1951, general session. Compiled and written by Frederick A. Meyer, Chief Forester, California Div. of Beaches and Parks. State of California Printing Office, Sacramento. 75 p.

CHALLACOMBE, J. R. 1954. When the giants fell. Pop. Mech. Mag. 101(6):65-70, 234-236.

CHANEY, R. W. 1951. A revision of fossil Sequoia and Taxodium in western North America based on the recent discovery of Metasequoia. Am. Phil. Soc. Trans. 40(3):171-263.

CLARK, G. 1907. Big trees of California. Reflex Publ. Co., Redondo, California. 104 p.

CLARK, S. A. 1937. Golden tapestry of California. Robert McBride and Co., New York.

CLARKE, G. L. 1954. Elements of ecology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

COOK, L. F. 1955. The giant sequoias of California. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 28 p.

DAYTON, W. A. 1943. The names of the giant sequoia. Leafl. West. Bot. 3(10):209-219.

DEBANO, L. F., and J. S. KRAMMES. 1966. Water repellent soils and their relation to wild fire temperatures. Int. Assoc. Sci. Hydrol. 11:14-19.

DECAISNE, J. 1854. Botanical reference to a 'Conifers gigantea of California', probably the Sequoia gigantea. Soc. Bot. de France Bull. 1:70-71.

DEN OUDEN, P., and B. K. BOOM. 1965. Manual of cultivated conifers. Marinus Nijhoff, The Hague.

DIETZ, R. S., and J. C. HOLDEN. 1970. The breakup of Pangaea. Sci. Am. 223(4):30-41.

DONAGHEY, J. L. 1969. The properties of heated soils and their relationships to giant sequoia germination and seedling growth. M.S. Thesis. San Jose State University, San Jose, Calif. 173 p.

DUNBAR, C. O. 1960. Historical geology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

ELLSWORTH, R. S. 1924. The giant sequoia. J. D. Berger Press, Oakland. 167 p.

EMBERGER, L. 1968. Les plantes fossiles. Masson et Cie, Paris.

ENDLICHER, S. 1847. Synopsis coniferarum. Scheitlin und Zollikofer, St. Gallen, Switzerland, p. 4.

FRITTS, H. C. 1969. Bristlecone pine in the White Mountains of California: growth and ring-width characteristics. Papers of the Lab, of Tree-ring Research, the Univ. of Ariz., Tucson, 44 p.

FRY, W., and J. R. WHITE. 1930. Big trees. Stanford Univ. Press, Palo Alto, Calif. 114 p. (9th ed. 1948).

GILLETTE, H. P. 1930. Alternate wet and dry periods of 11.2 years shown by California sequoias for 3,125 years. Water Sewage Works 77:14-16.

HARTESVELDT, R. J. 1962. The effects of human impact upon Sequoia gigantea and its environment in the Mariposa Grove, Yosemite National Park, California. Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. of Michigan. Univ. Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. 310 p.

_______. 1963. Reconnaissance study of the effects of human impact upon moderately to heavily used sequoia groves in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Contract research report to the Regional Director, National Park Service, San Francisco. 46 p.

______. 1964. Sequoia-human impact soil analyses. Report for the Regional Director, National Park Service, San Francisco. 14 p.

______. 1965. An investigation of the effect of direct human impact and of advanced plant succession on Sequoia gigantea in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California. Contract research report to the Regional Director, Western Region, National Park Service. 82 p.

HARTESVELDT, R. J., and H. T. HARVEY. 1967. The fire ecology of sequoia regeneration. Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conf. Proc. 7:65-77.

HARTESVELDT, R. J., H. T. HARVEY, and H. S. SHELLHAMMER. 1967. Giant sequoia ecology. Contract report to Regional Director, National Park Service, San Francisco. 55 p.

HARTESVELDT, R. J., H. T. HARVEY, H. S. SHELLHAMMER, and R. E. STACKER. 1968. Giant sequoia. Contract report to Regional Director, National Park Service, San Francisco. 19 p.

HARWELL, C. A. 1947. Little known facts about the big tree. Audubon 49(5):271.

HINDS, J. I. D. 1893. The big trees of California. Science 21(523):76-77.

IRVING, L., H. KROG, and M. MONSON. 1955. The metabolism of some Alaskan animals in winter and summer. Physiol. Zool. 28(3):173-185.

ISE, J. 1961. Our national park policy, a critical history. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.

JOLY, C. 1883. The Wellingtonia in their natural state. Revue de L'Horriculrure Belge et Etrangere (Gand, France) 9(1):190, 201-203.

JOURDAN, J. W. 1932. Accurate surveys determine sizes of rival big trees. Engineering News-Record 180(7):254-255.

KELLOGG, A., and H. BEHR. 1855. Taxodium giganteum; or, the Washington cypress. The Pacific, San Francisco. (Reprinted as Calif. Acad. Sci. Proc., 1873 2nd edition, 1:51-52.)

KILGORE, B. M. 1968. Breeding bird populations in managed and unmanaged stands of Sequoia gigantea. Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. Calif. 196 p. Univ. Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. (Diss. Abstr. 29(9):3145B).

______. 1971. Response of breeding bird populations to habitat changes in a giant sequoia forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 85(1):135-152.

KOCH, K. H. 1873. Dendrologie, v. 2. F. Enke, Erlangen, Germany.

KRESSMAN, F. W. 1911. Report on sequoia gum. U.S. Forest Products Lab., Madison, Wis. 5 p.

KRUSSMAN, G. 1966. Introduction of Sequoiadendron. Gardener's Chronicle. 159(12):279-280.

LAMBERT, A. B. 1828. Taxodium sempervirens, Tab. 48. In A description of genus Pinus . . ., vol. 2, second edition.

LEONARD, Z. 1839. Narrative of Zenas Leonard, 1831-36. Burrows Bros. Co., Cleveland. (Reprinted in 1904 and 1908).

LEWIS, O. 1955. High Sierra country. Duell, Sloan and Pearce, New York.

LINDLEY, J. T. 1853. (no title). Gardener's Chronicle 29 December:819-820, 823.

______. 1855. Wellingtonia gigantea. Hooker's J. Bot. and Kew Misc. 7:26.

MARTIN, E. 1957-58. Die Sequoien and ihre Anzucht. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., Yearbook no. 60. 62 p.

MARTIN, E. J. 1957. Neoplastisches Wachstum bei Sequoiadendron giganteum Buchholz. Phyropathology 30(3):342-343. (Neoplastic growth of Sequoiadendron giganteum Buchholz.)

MASON, H. L. 1955. Do we want sugar pine? Sierra Club Bull. 40(8):40-44.

MEINECKE, E. P. 1926. Memorandum on the effects of tourist traffic on plant life, particularly big trees, Sequoia National Park, California. Unpubl. 19 p.

_______. 1927. Letter regarding the effects of excessive tourist travel in the Mariposa Grove, Yosemite National Park, Cal., to Stephen T. Mather, Director, National Park Service. 4 p.

MENNINGER, E. A. 1967. Fantastic trees. The Viking Press, New York.

METCALF, W. 1948. Youthful years of the big tree. Pacific Discovery 1(3):4-10.

MOONEY, J. 1900. In U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology, Nineteenth Annual Report, Part I, p. 108-110, 135-139, 147-148, 219-220, 351, 353-355, 485, and 501. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

MORRIS, R. 1967. Germination of Sequoia gigantea seeds. Unpubl. biology class project, San Jose State University.

MUGGLETON, H. 1859. Wellingtonia gigantea. Gardener's Chronicle 19(45):890.

MUIR, J. 1878. The new sequoia forests of California. Harpers 57(342):813-827.

______. 1894. The mountains of California. The Century Co., New York.

______. 1901. Hunting big redwoods. Atlantic Monthly 88(77):304-320.

______. 1911. My first summer in the Sierra. Atlantic Monthly 107(4):521-528.

______. 1912. The Yosemite. The Century Co., New York.

MUNZ P. A., and D. D. KECK. 1959. A California flora. The University of California Press, Berkeley.

NELMES, W. 1964. The ugliest tree in Britain. Gardener's Chronicle 155(20):457.

NELSON, J. 1866. Pinaceae, being a handbook of the firs and pines, by J. Senilis (pseud.). Hatchard and Co., London.

NOYES, W. 1928. Wood and forest. William Noyes, New York. Second Edition.

OLMSTED, F. L. 1952. The Yosemite Valley and Mariposa big trees (1865). Landscape Architecture 43(1):12-25.

PEATTIE, D. C. 1953. A natural history of western trees. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston 751 p.

POST, T. V., and O KUNTZE. 1904. Lexicon Genarum Phanerogramarum. Stuttgart: Deutsch Verlags-Anstalt. p. 533.

POWERS, S. 1877. Tribes of California. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 398 p.

PRINCE, W. R. 1854. The giant taxodium of California. Mag. of Hortic., Boston 20(5):243.

PRESL, K. B. 1838. In C. V. Sternberg, Versuch einer geognostich-botanischen darstellung der flora der vorwelt. Fr. Fleischer, Leipzig, Vol. 2, Heft 8.

REMY, J. 1857. Description of gigantic trees of California. Le Belgique Horricole, Liege 7:19-23.

RENFREW, C. 1971. Carbon 14 and the prehistory of Europe. Sci. Am 225(4):63-72.

REYNOLDS, R. D. 1959. Effect of natural fires and aboriginal burning upon the forest of the Central Sierra Nevada. M.A. Thesis. Univ. of Calif., Berkeley. 262 p.

RICKETT, H. W. 1950 Botanical name of the big tree. J. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 51(601):15.

ROBINSON, C. D. 1882. The two redwoods. The Californian 5(30):485-491.

RUNDEL, P. W. 1969. The distribution and ecology of the giant sequoia ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada, California. Ph.D. Thesis. Duke University, Durham, N.C. 204 p.

______. 1971. Community structure and stability in the giant sequoia groves of the Sierra Nevada. Am. Midl. Nat. 85(2):478-492.

______. 1973. The relationship between basal fire scars and crown damage in giant sequoia. Ecology 54(1):210-213.

RUSSELL, C. P. 1957. One hundred years in Yosemite. Yosemite Nat. Hist. Assn., Inc. Yosemite National Park. 195 p.

ST. JOHN, H., and R. W. KRAUSS. 1954. The taxonomic position and the scientific name of the big tree known as Sequoia gigantea. Pac. Sci. 8(3):341-358.

SALT, G. W. 1953. An ecological analysis of three California avifaunas. Condor 55(5):258-273.

______. 1957. An analysis of avifaunas in the Teton Mountains and Jackson Hole, Wyo. Condor 59(6):373-393.

SAUNDERS, C. F. 1926. Trees and shrubs of California gardens. Robert McBride and Co., New York.

SCHMECKEBIER, L. F. 1912. The Yosemite. Natl. Geogr. Mag. 23(6):550-556.

SCHUBERT, G. H. 1952. Germination of various coniferous seeds after cold storage. Calif. Forest and Range Experiment Sta. Research Note 83. U.S. Forest Service, Berkeley. 7 p.

______. 1957. Silvical characteristics of giant sequoia. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Sta. Tech. Paper 20. U.S. Forest Service, Berkeley. 13 p.

SCHUBERT, G. H., revised by N. M. Beetham. 1962. Silvical characteristics of giant sequoia. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Sta. Tech. Paper No. 20, rev. U.S. Forest Service. 16 p.

SCHWARZ, G. F. 1904. The big trees and forest fires. Forestry and Irrigation (Washington, D.C.). 10(5):213-214.

SEEMAN, B. 1855. Disagreement on bigtree nomenclature. Bonplandia (Hanover). 3(2):27.

SHELLHAMMER, H. S. 1966. Cone-cutting activities of Douglas squirrels in sequoia groves. J. Mammal. 47(3):525-526.

SHINN, C. H. 1889. The great sequoia. Garden and Forest 2:614-615.

SMITH, C..C. 1968. Adaptive nature of the social organization in the genus of tree squirrels Tamiasciurus. Ecol. Monogr. 38:31-63.

SPURR, S. H. 1952. Forest inventory. Ronald Press Co., New York. 476 p.

STARK, N. 1968. Seed ecology of Sequoiadendron giganteum. Madrono 19(7):267-277.

STARKER, T. J. 1935. Giant growers of the globe. Am. For. 41(6):266-268.

STEBBINS, G. L. 1948. Chromosomes and relationships of Metasequoia and Sequoia. Science 108(2796):95-98.

STECKER, R. E. 1969. Giant sequoia insect ecology. Contract research report to the Western Region, National Park Service. 15 p.

STEELE, R. 1914. Tragedy of a before Christmas tree. Pioneer Western Lumberman 62(7):15, 19, 21.

STEWART, O. C. 1956. Fire as the first great force employed by man. Pages 115-133 in W. L. Thomas, Jr., ed. Man's role in changing the face of the earth. Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill.

STORER, T. I., and R. L. USINGER. 1963. Sierra Nevada natural history. Univ. of California Press, Berkeley.

SUDWORTH, G. B. 1897. Nomenclature of the arborescent flora of the United States. Division of Forestry Bull. No. 14. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

_______. 1908. Forest trees of the Pacific slope. U.S. Forest Service. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

SWEENEY, J. R. 1956. Responses of vegetation to fire. Botany 28(4):143-250.

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TODD, J. 1870. The sunset land. Lee and Shepard, Boston.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 1948. Woody seed plant manual. Pages 335-336 in U.S. Dep. Agric. Misc. Publ. No. 654. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 1940. Forest conservation on lands administered by the Department of the Interior. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. 187 p.

VANKAT, J. L. 1970. Vegetation change in Sequoia National Park. Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. of California, Davis. 197 p.

VOSS, A. 1908. Coniferen-Nomenclatur-Tabelle. Mitt. Dtsch. Dendrol. Ges. 16(1907):88-95.

WHITE, J. R. 1934. Among the big trees of California. Natl. Geogr. Mag. 66(2):219-232.

WILSON, H. E. 1928. The lore and lure of Sequoia. The Wolder Printing Co., Los Angeles. 132 p.

WINSLOW, C. F. 1854. Dr. Winslow's letters from the mountains, the big tree. Calif Farmer 2(8):58.

WOLFE, L. M. 1938. John of the Mountains. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston.

WRIGHT, G. M., J. S. DIXON, and B. H. THOMPSON. 1933. A preliminary survey of faunal relations in national parks. U.S. Dep. Inter. Fauna Series No. 1, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 157 p.

WULFF, J. V., G. W. LYONS, and E. G. DUDLEY. 1911. A study of the reproduction of Sequoia washingtonia, Sierra Sequoia Stanislaus. Report to the forest supervisor, Stanislaus National Forest. 51 p.

ZINKE, P. J., and R. L. CROCKER. 1962. The influence of giant sequoia on soil properties. For. Sci. 8:2-11.

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Last Updated: 06-Mar-2007