Barrier Island Ecology of Cape Lookout National Seashore and Vicinity, North Carolina
NPS Scientific Monograph No. 9
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Traditional Management Approaches
Present Research
General Features of the Coastal Environment


Shoreline Change
Beach Cycles
Shoreline Retreat—Erosion
Shoreline Retreat—Overwash


Shoreline Changes
Inlet Dynamics
Barrier Island Vegetation
General Zonation Patterns




INDEX (omitted from the online edition)

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Godfrey, Paul J.
Barrier island ecology of Cape Lookout National Seashore and vicinity, North Carolina.

(National Park Service scientific monograph series; no. 9)
Bibliography: p.

1. Seashore ecology—North Carolina—Cape Hatteras National Sea Shore. 2. Cape Hatteras National Sea Shore, N.C. I. Godfrey, Melinda M., joint author. II. Title. III. Series: United States. National Park Service.
Scientific monograph series; no. 9.
QH105.N8G6   574.5'26  76-608314

1 Apollo 9 photograph of Outer Banks
2 Hurricane tracks and frequency
3 Sea level curve for the past 35,000 years
4 Spit theory of barrier island formation
5 Drowned beach ridge theory of barrier island formation
6 Response of barrier islands under various conditions
7 Deltaic ridge on continental shelf
8 Results of continuing slow submergence and barrier island retreat
9 Map of Cape Lookout National Seashore
10 Aerial views of Cape Lookout National Seashore and its environs
11 Physiographic changes of Shackleford Banks and Cape Lookout
12 Maps nearly a century apart of Core Banks
13 Former forest on the west end of Shackleford
14 Stumps and peat exposed at low tide
15 A salt marsh with tree stumps
16 Overwash from high storm tides
17 Once-wooded area of western Shackleford
18 Profile 14 on Core Banks
19 Profile 14.2 on Core Banks
20 Elevation changes relative to permanent markers
21 Changes caused by overwash on Core Banks at Codds Creek
22 Response of grassland vegetation to a simulated overwash
23 Views of the sea wall behind the Atlantic Coast Guard Station
24 Two profiles on Codds Creek Transect 1
25 Diagrammatic cross-section of Core Banks Transect 1
26 Old salt marsh surfaces and recent overwash deposit
27 Diagrammatic cross-section contrasting new salt marsh with old
28 Effects of Hurricane Ginger on Core Banks at Codds Creek
29 Effects of Ginger on Core Banks south of Old Atlantic Coast Guard Station
30 Results of tropical depression on Bogue Banks
31 Results of tropical depression on Core Banks
32 Damage caused by dune breaks and overwash
33 Results of tropical storm Doria
34 Core Banks after Hurricane Ginger
35 Effects of Hurricane Ginger in Cape Lookout and Cape Hatteras
36 The overwash process and recovery of a low barrier island
37 Shoreline changes during the period 1960—71
38 Drum Inlet closing
39 Drum Inlet in 1971
40 Older shoals of Drum Inlet tidal delta
41 Large shoals behind Drum Inlet
42 Site of Cedar Inlet
43 Guthrie's Hammock seems to be located at a former inlet
44 Map of Drum Inlet
45 Cedar Inlet in 1888 and 1963
46 Locations of known historic inlets and features along the Outer Banks
46A Summary of barrier island dynamics and migration
47 Codds Creek study area
48 Diagrammatic cross-section of ecosystem zonation at Codds Creek
49 Uniform width of the berm on Core Banks
50 Dune line affecting the width of the berm
51 A normal wide berm and dune line
52 Locations of Cape Hatteras Lighthouse and Cape Lookout
53 Berm environment opposite Cape Lookout Lighthouse
54 The beach on Hatteras Island
55 Barren and frequently overwashed berm on Core Banks
56 Vast reaches of Portsmouth Island are without dunes or vegetation
57 Open Spartina pa tens grassland on Core Banks
58 The most recent overwash fan on Transect 1 at Codds Creek
59 Closed grassland on the Codds Creek transect
60 The beginnings of dunes on the open berm
61 Sea oat seedlings of the first year
62 Sea oat seedlings beginning to create small dunes
63 Major dune forming from what was a drift line
64 The primary dune line on Core Banks
65 Close-up of Spartina patens dunes on Core Banks
66 Dune lines on Cape Lookout and Shackleford Banks
67 Remnants of forest show through sea oats
68 A new, stabilized barrier dune system on Shackleford Banks
69 Large, naturally stabilized dunes on Bogue Banks
70 Continuous man-made stabilized dune on Hatteras Island
71 Low interdune slacks and blowouts
72 Large interdune slack on Shackleford Banks
73 Cross-sections of barrier island woodland types
74 Shrub savannah on Ocracoke Island
75 Closed shrubland on Shackleford Banks
76 Densely tangled thicket on Shackleford Banks
77 Aerial view of the accreting west end of Shackleford Banks
78 Shackleford forest behind the barrier dunes
79 The leading edge of Shackleford forest
80 Dune moving into Shackleford forest
81 Interior of Shackleford forest
82 Large live oak in Shackleford forest
83 Leading edge of a forest
84 Woodland on Guthrie's Hammock
85 Leading edge of Guthrie' s Hammock woods
86 Hammock on a marsh island
87 Savannah in the vicinity of Guthrie's Hammock
88 Fresh water marsh on Shackleford
89 Mullet Pond on Shackleford
90 High salt marsh on Hatteras Island
91 High marsh completely dominated by black needle rush
92 Salt panne dominated by Salicornia spp.
93 Upper part of a low marsh
94 Lower edge of a low marsh
95 Experimental marsh planting
96 Portsmouth Village
97 Feral cattle on Shackleford Banks
98 Effects of grazing on the Shackleford dunes
99 Network of paths and openings among Shackleford dunes
100 The parklike appearance of Shackleford woods
101 Part of the Shackleford horse herd
102 Vehicle tracks on Core Banks
103 Effects of modern development on Bogue Banks
104 Bogue Banks at Atlantic Beach
105 Dunes leveled by a developer on Bogue Banks
106 A resort motel under construction
107 Eroded scarp typical of beaches artificially built
108 Road cut through an outstanding maritime forest
109 Salt marsh mosquito ditches
110 Boat-launching bay
111 Marsh adjacent to boat-launching bay
112 Cape Lookout Lighthouse
113 Cape Hatteras Lighthouse in serious danger from the sea
114 Three views south along the Hatteras Island beach
115 A typical fishing camp on Core Banks
116 Old cars starting a few small Uniola dunes
117 A representative scene inside the fishing camp
118 Solid waste and the remains of a feral cat
119 Young Uniola plants
120 Road running at right angles to the Core Banks beach
121 The same road with downcutting by the channelized overwash
122 The other end of the road
123 Barden Inlet with a dredged channel aimed at the lighthouse
124 The resultant eroding shore of Barden Inlet
125 The land end of the dock in 1970 and 1971
126 A dredging operation in Carteret County
127 The Harker's Island-to-Cape Lookout channel
128 Planting of Spartina alterniflora
129 Cape Lookout in 1965
130 Charts from 1888 and 1965 of Cape Lookout
131 Jetty on the sound side of Shackleford Banks
132 A sessile community on a piling
133 Black skimmers taking off from a spoil island rookery
134 Schematic responses of natural and stabilized barrier islands to storms

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Last Updated: 21-Oct-2005