On-line Book


Table of Contents


I. In the Beginning: 1872 - 1916

II. The Landscape Influence: 1916 - 1918

III. The Formative Decade: 1918 - 1927

IV. Maturity Achived: 1927 - 1932

V. Roosevelt's Emergancy Programs: 1933 - 1935

VI. The Decline: 1935 - 1942


Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Author's Note

National Park Service
National Park Service Arrowhead

Rustic Architecture:
1916 - 1942


Ackerman, Phyllis, Mary Curry Tressider, and Jeanette Spencer, The Awwahnee, n.p.: Yosemite Park and Curry Company, 1970.

Albright, Horace Marden, Letter to William Tweed, June 4, 1976. Sherman Oaks, California.
___________. Origins of National Park Service Administartion of Historic Sites, Philadelphia: Eastern Parks and Monuments Association, 1971.

American Society of Landscape Architects, "Our National Parks: A Conference," Landscape Architecture, A Quarterly, VI (April, 1916), pp. 101 - 123.

Baker, Howard. Interview by William Tweed. August 20, 1976.

Battle, D. G. .and E. N. Thompson.Fort Yellowstone Historic Structure Report, Denver: National Park Service. 1972.

Bryant, Harold C. and Newton B. Drury. Development of the Naturalist's Program in the National Park Service, transcript of interview by Amelia Fry, University of California at Berkeley Cultural History Project. 1964.

Carnes, William. Interview by William Tweed, August 31, 1976.

________, Letter to Gordon S. Chappell, November 28, 1976, Green Valley, Arizona.

Civilian Conservation Corps, CCC, The Organization and Its Work,, Washington, D. C. : Civilian Conservation Corps, 1938.

Colby, William E., "The Completed LeConte Memorial Lodge, Sierra Club Bulletin, V (January, 1904), pp. 66-69.

Department of the Interior, Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, Editions of 1927-1930 and 1933-1942.

Doty, Cecil, Letter to Laura E. Soulliere, August, 1976, Walnut Creek, California.

Fein, Albert, Frederick Law Olmsted and the American Environmental Tradition, New York: George Braziller, 1972.

Freudenheim, L. M. and E. Sussman, Building with Nature: Roots of the San Francisco Bay Region Tradition, Santa Barbara, California: Peregrine Smith, Inc., 1974.

Gebhard, David, et. al, A Guide to Architecture in San Francisco and Northern California, Santa Barbara, California: Peregrine Smith, Inc., 1973.

Great Northern Railway, "Glacier National Park. Hotels and Tours," promotional pamphlet, circa 1915.

Ise, John, Our National Park Policy: A Critical History, Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1967.

James, G. W., The Grand Canyon and How to See It, Boston: Little. Brown and Co., 1910.

Johnston, Hank, Railroads of the Yosemite Valley, Corona del Mar, California: Trans-Anglo Books, 1975.

Judd, Hank, Interview by Laura Soulliere and William Tweed, September 14, 1976.

McCoy, Esther, Five California Architects, New York: Praeger, 1975.

Maier, Herbert, "The Purpose of the Museum in National Parks," Yosemite Nature Notes, (May, 1926), pp. 37 -40.

Nash, Roderick, Wilderness and the American Mind, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973.

Nason, George, "Architecture and Its Relationship tothe Design of Parks," 1940 Yearsbook, Park And Recreation Progresss, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1940, pp. 56-58.

National Park Service, "Annual Report of the Superintendent of Sequoia National Park," for years 1937-1940, unpublished manuscripts in the files of Sequoia National Park.

________, A Brief History of the National Park Service, Washington, D.C.: National Park Service 1940.

________, Park and Recreation Structures, three volumes, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1938.

________, Park Structures and Facilities, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1935.

________, Personnel File, Herbert Maier.

________, Personnel Files, Thomas C. Vint.

________, Report of the Director of the National Park Service, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Officem Editions of 1917 - 1926.

________, Branch of Plans and Design, Landscape architect's field reports, unpublished manuscripts in Federal Records Center, San Bruno, California. The following files were consulted:
    Crater Lake National Park, FRC Box 306854
    General Grant National Park, FRC Box 306854
    Glacier National Park, FRC Box 306854
    Lassen Volcanic National Park, FRC Box 306849
    Mount Rainer National Park, FRC Box 306840
    Sequoia National Park, FRC Box 306849
    Yosemite National Park, FRC Box 306849

Nickel, Edward A., "Report on the Building Program from Allotments of the Public Works Administration, 1933-1937, unpublished manuscript in the Interior Department Library, Washington, D.C., circa 1937.

Peterson, Charles E., Interview by Laura Soullier, September 15, 1976.

Sager, Merel S., Interview by William Tweed, August 18, 1976.

Sargent, Shirley, Yosemite, and Its Innkeepers, Yosemite National Park: Flying Spur Press, 1975.

Shankland, Robert, Steve Mather of the National Parks, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1954.

Short, C.W. and R. Stanley Brown, Public Buildings, A Study of Architectural Projects Constructed by Federal and other Governmental Bodies Between the years 1933-1939 with the Assistance of the Public Works Administration, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1939.


William C. Tweed, Historian
Laura E. Soulliere, Architectural Historian
Henry G. Law, Architect

National Park Service
Western Regional Office
Division of Culutral Resource Management
February, 1977

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