America's National Monuments
The Politics of Preservation
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Chapter 2:

1. Charles B. Hosmer, Jr., Presence of the Past: A History of the Preservation Movement in the United States Before Williamsburg (New York: G. P Putnam's Sons, 1965), 21-29. Hosmer's book and its later companion two-volume set, Preservation Comes of Age: From Williamsburg to the National Trust 1926-1949 (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1981) are the authoritative sources on the history of American preservation.

2. Hosmer, Presence of the Past, 102-3.

3. Ibid., 123-32; for more about the romanticization of California, see Leonard Pitt, The Decline of the Californios (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971), 285-91.

4. Roderick Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind, 3d ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), 141-60.

5. Harold K. Steen, The United States Forest Service: A History (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1976), 5-6. Steen cites Samuel Trask Dana, the dean of forest historians, for the view that Congress did not understand the implications of Section 24 of the General Revision Act of 1891.

6. Ibid., 29, 36.

7. William H. Goetzmann Exploration and Empire: The Explorer and the Scientist in the Winning of the American West (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966), 274-76, 324-26, 523-26.

8. Curtis M. Hinsley, Jr., Savages and Scientists: The Smithsonian Institution and the Development of American Anthropology 1846-1910 (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981), 200-204; Ronald F. Lee, The Antiquities Act of 1906 (Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1971), 16.

9. John Ise, Our National Park Policy: A Critical History (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1961), 147-48, 158; Lee, Antiquities Act, 10.

10. Ise, Our National Park Policy, 144.

11. For details of the Mindeleff's work, see 13th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology for the Years 1891-1892 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1892), 289-319, which covers the excavations at Casa Grande. Adolph Bandelier's novel, The Delightmakers (1890; reprint, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971), is one example of a work that brought attention to the prehistoric Southwest.

12. Samuel P. Hays, Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement 1890-1920 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1959), 2.

13. For a more efficient view of this position, see J. Leonard Bates, "Fulfilling American Democracy: The Conservation Movement 1907-1921, Mississippi Valley Historical Review 44 (June 1957), 29-57.

14. See G. Edward White, The Eastern Establishment and the Western Experience: The West of Frederick Remington, Theodore Roosevelt, and Owen Wister (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968), for an interesting discussion of the East-West dialectic that White believes characterized the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.

15. Lee, Antiquities Act, 44; Hays, Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency, 13.

16. According to Hays, Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency, 13, "the very word 'withdrawal' aroused Western farmers to a fighting pitch."

17. Frank McNitt, Richard Wetherill: Anasazi (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1957), 56-57.

18. Ibid., 22-23, 27.

19. Ibid., 31, 35-37; see also Florence C. Lister and Robert F. Lister, Earl Morris and Southwestern Archaeology (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1968), 2, 8-9, 32, 42.

20. McNitt, Richard Wetherill, 62-74.

21. Lee, Antiquities Act, 47-77, details the legislative battles that preceded the Antiquities Act.

22. H.R. 8066, 56th Cong., 1st sess., discussed in Ise, Our National Park Policy, 149.

23. Lee, Antiquities Act, 47-50.

24. McNitt, Richard Wetherill, 188.

25. Max Pracht, "Report to the Commissioner of the General Land Office," 16 May 1900, NA, RG 79, Series 1, Records Relating to National Parks and Monuments 1872-1916, Letters Received by the Office of the Secretary of the Interior Relating to National Parks 1872-1907, Tray 166. All subsequent citations to letters and reports in this chapter are to documents in Tray 166.

26. Ibid.

27. Lee, Antiquities Act, 36. Former New Mexico territorial governor J. Bradford Prince used the term depredations.

28. S. S. Mathers to the commissioner of the General Land Office, 18 January 1901.

29. Ibid.

30. Stephen J. Holsinger to the commissioner of the General Land Office, 5 December 1901, 69, 81, 83. The Holsinger report has three separate sets of pagination; I will cite only the first from here on. Holsinger's assertions were incorrect. Lt. James H. Simpson's expedition visited the ruins and excavated there in 1849. See William H. Goetzmann, Exploration and Empire, 326-27.

31. Holsinger to commissioner, 5 December 1901, 71.

32. Ibid., 74-75.

33. McNitt, Richard Wetherill, 202.

34. Among others, Congressman Irving Wanger of New York asked that a constituent of his, a dentist, be granted a permit to dig archaeological sites in Arizona to make a collection for the University of Pennsylvania. Although neither GLO commissioner Binger Hermann nor the young and inexperienced Frank Pinkley objected, William Henry Holmes at the Bureau of Ethnology protested vigorously. The permit was flatly denied. Wanger's letter requesting the favor is in NA, RG 79, Series 1, Records Relating to National Parks and Monuments 1872-1916, Letters Received, Tray 166.

35. Stephen J. Holsinger to the commissioner of the General Land Office, 15 May 1902.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid.

38. Richard Wetherill to Talbot Hyde, 26 January 1903. See McNitt, Richard Wetherill, 203-15, for another interpretation. He suggests that the new manager of the Hyde Exploring Expedition conspired against Wetherill.

39. Stephen J. Holsinger to the commissioner of the General Land Office, 18 December 1902.

40. Ibid.


America's National Monuments: The Politics of Preservation
©1989, Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois
©1994, University Press of Kansas
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Copyright © 1989 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. Material from this edition published by the University Press of Kansas by arrangement with the University of Illinois Press and may not be reproduced in any manner without the written consent of the author and the University of Illinois Press.