Pony Express
Historic Resource Study
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Adams, Samuel Hopkins. The Pony Express. New York: Random House, 1950.

Arrington, Leonard J. Great Basin Kingdom: Economic History of the Later Day Saints, 1830-1900. Lincoln, Nebraska: University, 1958.

Ashton, Wendell. Voice in the West: Biography of a Pioneer Newspaper. New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1950.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, Volume XXIV History of California, Vol. VII, 1860-1890. San Francisco: The History Company Publishers, 1890.

_______. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, Volume XXV History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, 1540-1888. San Francisco: The History Company Publishers, 1890.

________. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, Volume XXVI History of Utah, 1540-1886. San Francisco: The History Company Publishers, 1889.

_______. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, Volume XXX History of Oregon, Vol. II, 1848-1888. San Francisco: The History Company Publishers, 1888.

Banning, Captain William and George Hugh Banning. Six Horses. New York: The Century Company, 1930.

Bartlett, Richard A. The New Country: A Social History of the American Frontier, 1776-1890. New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Beebe, Lucius, and Kegg, Charles. The Saga of Wells Fargo. New York: Bonanza Books, 1949.

Biggs, Donald C. The Pony Express, Creation of the Legend. San Francisco: Privately Printed, 1956.

Blake, Herbert Cody. Blake's Western Stories: The Truth about Buffalo Bill and Wild Bill Hickok. Brooklyn: Herbert Cody Blake, 1929.

Bloss, Roy S. Pony Express—The Great Gamble. Berkeley: Howell-North, 1959.Botkin, Benjamin Albert ed., A Treasury of Western Folklore. New York: Crow Publishers, Inc., 1951.

Bradley, Glenn D. The Story of the Pony Express. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Company, 1913.

_______. The Story of the Pony Express. Edited by Waddell F. Smith. San Francisco: Hesperian House, 1960.

Brininstool, E. A. Fighting Indian Warriors: True Tales of the Wild Frontiers. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: The Stackpole Company, 1953.

Bristow, J. T. The Overland Trail: Old Military Road and Pony Express Route. Horton, Kansas: Charles H. Browne and the Headlight Printshop, 1937.

Bromley, George Tisdale. The Long Ago and Later On: Or Recollections of Eighty Years. San Francisco: Stanley-Taylor Company, 1904.

Bulla, Clyde Robert. Riding the Pony Express. New York: T.Y. Crowell Company, 1948.

Burke, John. "Buffalo Bill": From Prairie to Palace; An Authentic History of the Wild West. New York: Rand, McNally & Company Publishers, 1893.

Burton, Richard F. The City of the Saints and Across the Rocky Mountains to California. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1862.

Carter, Kate B. Riders of the Pony Express. Salt Lake City: Daughters of the Utah Pioneers, 1947.

_______. Utah and the Pony Express. Salt Lake City: Utah Pony Express Centennial Corporation, 1960.

Chapman, Arthur. The Pony Express: The Record of a Romantic Adventure in Business. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1932.

Clampitt, John W. Echoes from the Rocky Mountains: Reminiscences and Thrilling Incidents of the Romantic and Golden Age of the Great West. Chicago: Belford, Clarke & Company, 1889.

Clark, Arthur Hamilton. The Clipper Ship Era, 1843-1869. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1910.

Cleland, Robert Glass. A History of California: The American Period. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1922.

Cody, Bill. An Autobiography of Buffalo Bill and Wild Bill Hickok. New York: Cosmopolitan Book Corporation, 1920.

Coman, Katharine. Economic Beginnings of the Far West. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1912.

Conkling, Roscoe P. and Margaret B. The Butterfield Overland Mail, 1857-1869. Glendale, California: A.H. Clarke Company, 1947.

Covey, Joan. Pony Express '76. Soldotna, Alaska: N.p., 1982.

Cross, Ralph Herbert. The Early Inns of California, 1844-1869. San Francisco: N.p., 1954.

Dick, Everett. Vanguards of the Frontier. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1941.

Driggs, Howard R. The Pony Express Goes Through: An American Saga Told by Its Heros. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1935.

Egan, Howard. Pioneering the West, 1846-1878: Major Howard Egan's Diary. Salt Lake City: Skelton Publishing Company, 1917.

Elliot, Russell R. History of Nevada. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1973.

Erskine, Gladys Shaw. Broncho Charlie: A Saga of the Saddle. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1934.

Fike, Richard E. and John W. Headley. The Pony Express Stations of Utah in Historical Perspectives. Washington, D. C.: Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1979.

Floherty, John Joseph. Make Way for the Mail. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1939.

Floyd, William H., III. Phantom Riders of the Pony Express. Philadelphia: Dorrance & Company, 1958.

Forman, Henry James. The Pony Express: A Romance. New York: Grosset & Dunlap Publishers, 1925.

Franzwa, Gregory M. Maps of the Oregon Trail. St. Louis: The Patrice Press, 1990.

Frederick, J. V. Ben Holladay, the Stagecoach King: A Chapter in the Development of Transcontinental Transportation. Glendale, California: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1940.

Gardiner, Dorothy. West of the River. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1941.

Gray, Arthur. Men Who Built the West. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 1945.

Guise, Eulalia and Byron. An Affair with the Past. N.p., 1991.

Hafen, Le Roy R. The Overland Mail: Promoter of Settlements, Precursor of Railroad. Reprint of 1926 Edition. New York: AMS, 1969.

Hardesty, Donald L. The Pony Express in Central Nevada: Archaeological and Documentary Perspectives. Reno, Nevada: Bureau of Land Management, 1979.

Harlow, Alvin F. Old Way bills: The Romance of the Express Companies. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1934.

Hawthorne, Hildegarde. Ox-Team Miracle: The Story of Alexander Majors. New York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1950.

Howard, Robert West; Coy, Roy E.; Robertson, Frank C.; and Agnes Wright Spring. Hoofbeats of Destiny. New York: New American Library, 1960.

Hungerford, Edward. Wells Fargo: Advancing the American Frontier. New York: Bonanza Books, 1949.

Inman, Colonel Henry and Cody, William F. The Great Salt Lake Trail. 1898. Reprint. Williamstown, Mass.: Corner House Publishers, 1978.

James, George Wharton. Heroes of California: The Story of the Founders of the Golden State. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1910.

Jensen, Lee. The Pony Express: Illustrated with a Unique Collection of Historical Pictures. New York: Grosset & Dunlap Publishers, 1955.

Johnson, Edward C., et al. Walker River Paiutes: A Tribal History. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Printing Service, 1975.

Kemble, John H. The Panama Route, 1848-1869. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1943.

Kimball, Stanley. Historic Sites and Markers Along the Mormon and Other Great Western Trails. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.

Knack, Martha C. and Omer C. Stewart. As Long as the River Shall Run: An Ethnohistory of Pyramid Lake Indian Reservation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.

Lamar, Howard R., ed. The Reader's Encyclopedia of the American West. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1977.

Loomis, Noel M. Wells Fargo. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1968.

Loving, Mabel. The Pony Express Rides On!: A History of the Central Overland Pony Express 1860-1861 Between Saint Joseph, Missouri and Sacramento and San Francisco, California. St. Joseph, Missouri: Robidoux Printing Company, Inc., 1961.

Mabey, Charles Rendell. The Pony Express: An Epic of the Old West. Salt Lake City: Beverly Craftsmen, 1940.

Mack, Effie Mona. Nevada: A History of the State From the Earliest Times Through the Civil War. Glendale, California: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1936.

Majors, Alexander. Seventy Years on the Frontier: Alexander Majors' Memoirs of a Lifetime on the Border. 1893. Reprint. Columbus, Ohio: Long's College Book Company, 1950.

Mattes, Merrill J. The Great Platte River Road: The Covered Wagon Mainline Via Fort Kearney to Fort Laramie. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1967.

Mattes, Merrill and Henderson, Paul. The Pony Express: From St. Joseph to Fort Laramie. St. Louis: The Patrice Press, 1989.

Monaghan, Jay. The Overland Trail. New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1947.

Moody, Ralph. Riders of the Pony Express. Boston: Houghton Muffin Company, 1958.

_______. Stagecoach West. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1967.

Morgan, Dale L. The Humboldt: Highroad of the West. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1943.

Morgan, Gene. Westward the Course of Empire: The Story of the Pony Express, Forerunner of the Burlington Zephyrs. Chicago: Lakeside Press, 1945.

Mumey, Nolie. Hoofs to Wings: The Pony Express. Boulder, Colorado: Johnson Publishing Company, 1960.

Nathan, M. C. and Boggs, W. S.. The Pony Express: Collections Club Handbook No. 15. New York: Collectors Club, Inc., 1962.

Nevin, David and Editors of Time-Life Books. The Old West: The Expressmen. New York: Time-Life Books, 1974.

No Author. Nevada: A Guide to the Silver State. Portland: Binfords & Mort, 1940.

Ormsby, Waterman. The Butterfield Overland Mail. San Marino: Huntington Library, 1954.

Paden, Irene D. The Wake of the Prairie Schooner. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1943.

Parrish, Randall. The Great Plains: The Romance of Western American Exploration, Warfare and Settlement, 1527-1870. Chicago: A.C. McClurg and Company, 1907.

Paxson, Frederick L. History of the American Frontier, 1763-1893. Cambridge, Mass.: The Riverside Press, 1924.

_______. The Last American Frontier. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1911.

Pierson, James. The Pony Express Trail, 1860-1861. St. Joseph, Missouri: Pony Express Productions, 1960.

Reinfeld, Fred. Pony Express. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966.

Richardson, Albert D. Beyond the Mississippi: From the Great River to the Great Ocean, Life and Adventure on the Prairies, Mountains, and Pacific Coast. 1867. Reprint. New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1968.

Rideing, William H. The Overland Express. Ashland, Oregon: Lewis Osborne, 1970.

Root, Frank A. and Connelly, William Elsey. The Overland Stage to California: Personal Reminiscences and Authentic History of the Great Overland Stage Line and Pony Express. Topeka: Frank A. Root and William Elsey Connelly, 1901.

Rydell, Raymond. Cape Horn to the Pacific: The Rise and Decline of an Ocean Highway. Berkeley: University of California, 1952.

Scheele, Carl H. A Short History of the Mail Service. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1970.

Scott, Edward B. The Saga of Lake Tahoe: A Complete Documentation of Lake Tahoe's Development Over the Last One Hundred Years. Vol. L Crystal Bay, Lake Tahoe, Nevada: Sierra-Tahoe Publishing Co., 1957.

______. The Saga of Lake Tahoe: A Complete Documentation of Lake Tahoe's Development Over the Last One Hundred Years. Vol. II Crystal Bay, Lake Tahoe, Nevada: Sierra-Tahoe Publishing Co., 1973.

Settle, Raymond W. and Mary L. Empire on Wheels. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1949.

_______. Saddles and Spurs: The Pony Express Saga. Harrisburg, PA.: The Stackpole Company, 1955.

_______. War Drums and Wagon Wheels: The Story of Russell, Majors, and Waddell. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966.

Simpson, James H. Report of the Explorations Across the Great Basin in 1859. Reno, Nevada: University of Nevada Press, 1983.

Skelton, Charles L. Riding West on the Pony Express. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1942.

Smith, Waddell F. Stage Lines and Express Companies in California. San Rafael, California: Pony Express History and Art Gallery, 1965.

________. The Story of the Pony Express. San Rafael, California: Pony Express History and Art Gallery, 1964.

Taylor, Morris F. First Mail West: Stagecoach Lines on the Santa Fe Trail. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1971.

Thompson and West. History of Nevada, 1881: With Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of the Prominent Men and Pioneers. Introduction by David F. Myrick. Berkeley: Howell-North, 1958.

Twain, Mark. Roughing it. 1872. Reprint. New York: Airmont Publishing Company, 1967.

Young, Levi Edgar. The Founding of Utah. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1923.

Visscher, William Lightfoot. A Thrilling and Truthful History of the Pony Express: Or Blazing the Westward Way, and Other Sketches and Incidents of those Stirring Times. Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, 1909.

West, Tom. Heroes on Horseback: The Story of the Pony Express. New York: Four Winds Press, 1969.

Winther, Oscar Osburn. The Transportation Frontier: Trans-Mississippi West, 1865-1890. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964.

________. Via Western Express & Stagecoach. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1945.



"Anniversary of the Pony Express." Journal of the National Education Association (April 1935).

Bailey, W. F. "The Pony Express." Century Magazine LVI (October 1898): 882-892.

Berthold, Victor M. "William H. Russell, Originator and Developer of the Pony Express." The Collectors' Club Philatelist VIII (January 1929): 1-11 and 67-74.

Bishop, Curtis. "Eighteen Months of Glory." True West (August 1961): 20-21, 48, and 50.

Boder, Bartlett. "Mrs. Kingston's Confession." Museum Graphic X (Spring 1959): 14-27.

_______. "The Pony Express." Museum Graphic II (Spring 1950): 4-7.

_______. "The Pony Express." Museum Graphic XI (Spring 1959): 4-13.

_______ "Old Saint Jo and Guittard's Pony Express Station." Museum Graphic XII (Spring 1960): 15-22.

_________. "There Were Three Johnny Frys." Museum Graphic XI (Spring 1959): 14-24.

Hagen, Olaf T., "The Pony Express Starts from St. Joseph." Missouri Historical Review XLIII ( n.d.): 1-7.

Hartung, A. H. "Pony Express and the Old West: Mounted Postmen Eighty Years Ago." The Cattleman (December 1943): 12-15.

Hauck, Louise Platt. "The Pony Express Celebration." Missouri Historical Review XLVII (July 1923): 435-439.

Henderson, Paul. "The Story of Mud Springs." Nebraska History XXXII (June 1951): 108-119.

Hickman, Joseph. "Racing with the Indians." Improvement Era 26 (August 1923): 895-906.

Hinrichs, O. W. "Diamond Springs Pony Express Station." The Goldenrod 2 (Winter 1932): 1-3.

Jackson, W. Turrentine. "Well Fargo's Pony Expresses." Journal of the West XI (July 1972): 405-436.

_________. "Wells Fargo: Symbol of the Wild West?" The Western Historical Quarterly III (April 1972): 179-196.

_______. "A New Look at Wells Fargo, Stagecoaches and the Pony Express." California Historical Society Quarterly (December 1966): 291-324.

Jarosz, Donald J. "Spirit of the Pony Express." American Bar Association Journal 58 (February 1972): 163-165.

Kennon, Leslie G. "Pony Express." True West. (December 1958): 26-28.

King, Terral F. "The Pony Express Rides Again!" Our Public Lands (Fall 1965).

Lewin, Jaqueline. "Log Chain Pony Express Station Owners Recognized." The Happenings: St. Joseph Museum 17 (1990): 18.

_______. "The Pony Express Trail in Kansas." The Happenings: St. Joseph Museum 18 (1991): 6-16.

________. "Czechoslovakian Pony Express Riders Visit the St. Joseph & Pony Express Museums." The Happenings: St. Joseph Museum 17 (1990): 23-27.

_______. "130 Years Ago." The Happenings: St. Joseph Museum 17 (1990): 11-12.

Loeb, Julius. "The Pony Express." The American Philatelist 44 (November 1930): 91-120.

Mattes, Merrill and Henderson, Paul. "The Pony Express: Across Nebraska from St. Joseph to Fort Laramie." Nebraska History 41 (June 1960): 83-122.

McVeigh, Blake. "The Pony Express Comes to the Screen." Union Pacific Magazine (November 1925):15-16.

Miles, Eileen. "Johnny Frey's Shirt Tail: A Story of the Pony Express." The Cattleman (September 1947): 162-169.

Nolf, Rich and Jaqueline Lewin. "The Pony Express Museum." The Happenings: St. Joseph Museum 16 (March-April 1989): 2-4.

Pack, Mary. "The Romance of the Pony Express." Union Pacific Magazine II (August 1923): 6-9.

"The Pony Express: 1860 Equivalent of Advertising Campaign." The Westerner's Brand Book 3 (March 1946): 2-3, 9-12.

"The Pony Express Rides Again." Kansas Historical Quarterly XXV (Winter 1959): 369-385.

Reynolds, Don L. "Grand Old Gentlemen of the Pony Express." Museum Graphic XXI (Spring 1969): 3-6.

Rhodes, Lynwood. "How They Carried the Mail West." American Legion Magazine (January 1973): 18-23, 53-56.

Root, George A. and Russell K. Hickman. "Pike's Peak Express Companies." Kansas Historical Quarterly XIII (August, November 1944 and November 1945): 163-195, 211-242, 485-527.

________. "Pike's Peak Express Companies." Kansas Historical Quarterly XIV (1946): 36-92.

Roth, Carloyn Z. "On the Trail of the Pony Express." American West XXV (August 1988): 40-46.

Settle, Raymond W. "The Pony Express: Heroic Efforts—Tragic End." Reprinted. Utah Historical Quarterly XXVII (April 1959): 102-126.

Settle, Raymond W. and Mary L. "Blood on the Pony Express Trail." True West (October 1962): 32-33 and 65-68.

"Seventieth Anniversary," Supplement to The Washington County Register 70 (September 1938).

Shoemaker, Floyd C. "The Pony Express—Commemoration—Stables and Museum." Missouri Historical Review XLIV (July 1950): 343-363.

Smith, Waddell F. "The 1960-1961 Pony Express Centennial. The Far Westerner (July 1962).

Starnes, Lee. "The Pony Express Mystery." Museum Graphic III (Winter 1951): 4-11.

Transierra Roisterous Alliance of Senior Humbugs (TRASH). Central Overland Route and Transcontinental Telegraph Through Nevada, 1858-1868.


Addenbrooke, Alice Baltzelle. The Enchanted Fortress: Fort Churchill. Sparks, Nevada: Western Printing and Publishing Company, 1968.

Bloss, Roy S. Pony Express: Fact & Fiction. Presentation to Contra Costa County Historical Society, 28 September 1991.

Bureau of Land Management. Nevada Pony Express Route: Historic Digest and Interim Recreation Management Plan. May 1975. Unpublished.

Bureau of Land Management. The Pony Express in Nevada. Reno: Harrah's, 1976.

Bureau of Land Management. The Pony Express in Nevada. Department of the Interior. 1981.

Dieker, Leo E. A Brief Historical Sketch: Hollenberg Ranch, Pony Express Station. The Hanover News, n.d.

Ellenbecker, John G. The Pony Express. N.p., n.d.

Hardesty, Donald L. Historical and Archaeological Investigations of the Rock Creek Stage and Telegraph Stations. Report prepared for the Bureau of Land Management by University of Nevada, Reno Department of Anthropology, 1978.

________. Historical, Architectural, and Archaeological Studies of Fort Churchill, Nevada. Report prepared for Nevada Division of State Parks. April 1978.

_______. The Archaeology of Cold Springs. Report prepared for Bureau of Land Management, Carson City District, Nevada, 1977.

National Park Service. Eligibility I Feasibility Study and Environmental Assessment for the California and Pony Express Trails. U.S. Department of the Interior, (1986).

Roberts, Allen D. Hanks, Maxine and John Senulis. Report of Historical, Architectural, Archaeological Aspects of Mountain Dell Station, Utah. 1989. Report prepared for Department of the Army, Sacramento Branch Corps of Engineers by Cooper/Roberts Architects, ALA.

Smith, Waddell F. Pony Express Versus Wells Fargo Express: Or Hoof Prints That Can No Be Eroded by Time. San Rafael, California: Pony Express History and Art Gallery, 1966.

Stutheit, Ted. The Pony Express on the Oregon Trail. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission. N.d.

Townley, John M. The Pony Express Guidebook: Across Nevada with the Pony Express and Overland Stage Line. Reno, Nevada: Great Basin Studies Center, 1986.

U.S. Post Office. "The Saga of the Pony Express." Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.: 1983.


U.S. Congress. Senate. Report of the Postmaster General. 35 Cong., 2nd sess. S. Ex. Doc. 1, 1858-1859.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Report of the Postmaster General. 36 Cong., 1st sess. S. Ex. Doc. 2, 1859-1860.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Contract with Overland Mail Company. 37 Cong., 2nd sess., 1881. S. Ex. Doc. 21. Serial 1941.


Hubert Howe Bancroft Library, San Francisco, California.

California State Historic Preservation Division, Sacramento, California.

Colorado State Historical Society, Denver, Colorado.

Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado.

The Huntington Library, San Marino, California.

Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas.

National Parks Service, Omaha, Nebraska.

Nebraska State Historical Society Lincoln, Nebraska.

Nevada State Historical Society, Reno, Nevada.

Nevada State Museum, Carson City, Nevada.

University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.

University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.

University of Missouri, Kansas City, Missouri.

University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska.

University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada.

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.

Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Wyoming State Historical Society, Cheyenne, Wyoming.


Chicago Press & Tribune. Chicago, Illinois, 1860-1861.

Deseret News. Salt Lake City, Utah, 1860-1861.

Missouri Republican. St. Louis, Missouri, 1860-1861.

Nevada Territorial Enterprise. Comstock, Nevada Territory, 1860-1861.

New York Times. New York, 1860-1861.

New York Tribune. New York, 1860-1861.

Rocky Mountain News. Denver, 1860-1861.

Sacramento Daily Union. Sacramento, California, 1860-1861.

St. Joseph Free Democrat. St. Joseph, Missouri, 1860-1861.

St. Louis, Missouri Democrat. St. Louis, Missouri, 1860-1861.

San Francisco Daily Evening Bulletin. San Francisco, California, 1860-1861.

Western Journal of Commerce. Kansas City, Missouri, 1860-1861.

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Last Updated: 17-Jan-2008