Cultures at a Crossroads: An Administrative History
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Location and Environment

Utah and the Arizona Strip, Ethnographic and Historical Background

Native American Occupation, pre-1776
Spanish and Euroamerican Exploration and Contact
The Coming of the Saints and the Call to Dixie
The Honeymoon Trail
The Impact of Latter-day Saint Colonization on the Southern Paiute
Pipe Spring and Its Ownership, 1863-1909
Moccasin Ranch and Spring
The Federal Government's Response: Creation of the Kaibab Indian Reservation
The Pipe Spring "Compromise"
The Heaton Family Claims to Lands Within the Reservation
The Kaibab Indian Reservation in 1922
The Heaton Family and Pipe Spring, 1909-1924

The National Park Service, Historical Background

National Context, 1916-1923
Regional Context, 1910s-1920s


The Impact of Auto Touring on Utah's Southern Parks and the Arizona Strip
Mather Visits Pipe Spring
"If You Build It They Will Come" - The Challenge of Roads Less Traveled
The Role of Union Pacific in the Parks' Transportation Network
The Railroad Comes to Cedar City
The Establishment of Pipe Spring National Monument
Reasons for the Establishment of Pipe Spring National Monument
Bryce Canyon Declared a National Monument
"Shall We Go This way, or That Way?" - Officials Decide Best Route for Tourists
A Deal Is Struck at Pipe Spring
The Heatons Have Second Thoughts
Pipe Spring's Purchase and Belated Transfer to the Federal Government
Area Developments, Late 1924


Area Developments
Presenting Pipe Spring National Monument
The "Boss" Directs First Improvements
East Cabin Repairs; A New Caretaker Is Hired
Repairs to the Interior of Pipe Spring Fort
Repairs to the Fort Exterior and West Cabin
So Much To Do, So Little Help
The Heatons' Store, Gas Station, and Lunch Stand
Pipe Spring as a Gathering Place
The Greening of Pipe Spring
"A New Highway
Early Interpretive Efforts in National Monuments
A Monument to Mormon Pioneers
Early Fort Exhibits
The Utah Pioneer Trails and Landmarks Association's Marker


Water Problems at Moccasin Spring
The Indian Service Looks Toward Pipe Spring
A Bittersweet Trade
The Opposition Rallies
The Rose Report
Monument Development Planning, 1933
Water Regulations Issued


The First New Deal
Completing the Division of Water
The Second New Deal
Planning Continues at Pipe Spring
The Establishment of DG-44
To File or Not to File?
The Aftermath of DG-44
The Fredonia-Toroweap Approach Road
The Hurricane-Fredonia Road
Monument Interpretation during the Great Depression


Monument Administration
Wartime Visitation
Weathering the Infirmary and Other Cold Places
Flood Problems
Museum Collection
The Ponds and Fish Culture
Leaving Their Mark
The Stockmen's Two-acre "Reserve"
Area Roads
Water Issues


Monument Administration
Planning and Development
Post-war Visitation
Births, Deaths, and Accidents
Historic Buildings
The Heaton Residence
Fish and Ponds
Flood Diversion, Irrigation, and Pipelines
Soil Conservation
Museum Collection
Historical Research
Area Roads


Cold War Background
Pipe Springs and Weapons Testing
Uranium and Oil Exploration
Monument Administration
The "Neglect" of Pipe Spring National Monument
Historic Buildings
The Heaton Residence
Planning and Development
The Ponds, Fish, and Fowl
Flood Diversion, Irrigation, and Pipelines
Museum Collection
Water Issues and the Kaibab Indian Reservation
Accidents, Deaths, and Heaton Family Matters
Alcohol and Law Enforcement Problems
Area Roads


Monument Administration
The Final Push for Power
Historic Buildings
The Heaton Residence
Planning and Development
Ponds, Fish, Fowl, and Springs
Flood Diversion, Irrigation, and Pipelines
Museum Collection
Water Issues
Deaths, Accidents, Missing Persons, and Heaton Family Matters
Oil Exploration and Drilling
Area Roads


Monument Administration
Planning and Development with the Kaibab Paiute Tribe and Associated Water Issues
Nature Trail
General Historical Research and Publications
Historic Buildings
Other Historic Resources
Residences, Utility Area, and Walkways
Sewage System
Ponds, Fish, and Fowl
Flood Diversion, Irrigation, and Pipelines
Museum Collection
Water Issues (pre-1968)
Deaths, Accidents, Missing Persons, and Family Matters
Law Enforcement
Area Roads


Monument Administration
Visitor Services Operated by the Kaibab Paiute Tribe
Developments in Kaibab Village
Neighborhood Youth Corps, Comprehensive Employment Training Act
The VIP Program
Zion Natural History Association
Historic Buildings
Landscape Changes
Planning and Development
Museum Collection
Movies and Other Filming
Natural History
Archeological and Historical Research
Seasonal Residence
Solid Waste Disposal
The Navajo-McCullough Transmission Line
Measurements of Spring Flow
Ponds, Fish, Fowl, and Farm Animals
Flood Diversion
Fire Protection
Safety and Law Enforcement


Federal Legislation and Federal Water Rights
Monument Administration
Tribal Developments and Tribal-Monument Relations
Employment of the Kaibab Paiute at Pipe Spring
Water System
Decline in Spring Flow and Area Water Studies
Tunnel Spring Rehabilitation
Water Developments in Moccasin
Water Issues, 1988-1989
Visitor Services Operated by the Kaibab Paiute Tribe
xvii.Building Maintenance Issues
Comprehensive Employment Act, Job Training Partnership Act, and Student Conservation Association Programs
The VIP Program
Zion Natural History Association
Historic Buildings
Landscape Changes
Planning and Development
Roads, Walks, and Nature Trail
Museum Collection
Natural History
Archeological and Historical Research
Permanent Residences
Seasonal Residence
Solid Waste Disposal
Ponds, Fish, Fowl, and Farm Animals
Fire Protection
Radio Communication
Accidents, Thefts, and Law Enforcement




INDEX (omitted from on-line edition)


I. Pipe Spring ranch ownership summary
II. Proclamation establishing Pipe Spring National Monument
IIIa. Quitclaim deed from Charles C. Heaton to the U.S. government
IIIb. Charles C. Heaton's withdrawal of homestead application
IV. Robert H. Rose report summary, September 1933
V. Regulations for the division of the waters of Pipe Springs
VI. Visitation, Pipe Spring National Monument (1925-1990)
VII. Water agreement between NPS and Kaibab Paiute Tribe, April 13, 1972
VIII. Monument's administrative budget (1972-1988)
IX. Personnel, Pipe Spring National Monument (1923-1990)
X. List of officials, Pipe Spring National Monument (1923-1999)
XI. Kaibab Indian Reservation statistics (1910-1955)
XII. Maps and drawings, Pipe Spring National Monument


Part I

 1. Pipe Spring National Monument vicinity map, 1959, modified
 2. "The Mormon Exodus to the Rocky Mountains"
 3. Erastus Snow, in charge of Arizona colonization
 4. Mormon settlements along the Arizona Strip and in Arizona
 5. Map showing early settlement and roads in Arizona
 6. Map showing boundary changes to Utah and surrounding territories, 1850-1896
 7. Detail from USGS survey map, John Wesley Powell's expeditions of 1871, 1872 and 1873
 8. An ox dragged building stone on a "rock lizard" down the quarry trail
 9. The quarry trail followed along the cliff face to the fort's construction site
10. Albert Tissandier and his drawing of Pipe Spring, 1885
11. Pipe Spring fort, April 27, 1891
12. William B. Maxwell, first Mormon claimant of Moccasin, undated
13. Kaibab Paiute Indians at Moccasin, 1904
14. Jonathan Heaton and his 15 sons, Moccasin, 1907
15. Map of Kaibab Reservation, 1911
16. GLO survey map, approved in 1916
17. Map of Kaibab Reservation, Arizona, 1921
18. Edgar and Anna Farrow and children, September 1923
19. Charles C. Heaton, September 1923
20. Stephen T. Mather, 1923

Part II

21. Barbara Babcock opening gate for car at Pipe Spring, ca. 1920
22. Map showing National Park-to-Park Highway and interpark road system, 1920
23. Map detail, Utah State Trunk Lines, State Road Commission, 1923
24. Map showing Union Pacific's future five-day "circle tour" of southern Utah parks and the Grand Canyon's North Rim
25. President Warren G. Harding at Angel's Landing, Zion National Park, June 1923
26. LDS Church President Heber J. Grant at Angel's Landing, Zion National Park, undated
27. Utah Parks Company map of southern Utah and northern Arizona, ca. 1923
28. Charles and Maggie Heaton with 8 of their 10 children in Moccasin, Arizona, September 1923
29. Jonathan and his plural wife, Lucy Elizabeth (Carroll) Heaton in Moccasin, September 1923
30. Jonathan and his first wife, Clarissa Amy (Hoyt) Heaton, September 1923
31. Mather standing on wall of west cabin with the Heatons, September 1923
32. View of Pipe Spring fort, taken from the north, September 1923
33. Jonathan Heaton and four sons, September 1923
34. Sketch map showing suggested watering place for local non-Indian cattlemen, May 1924
35. Map of Kaibab Indian Reservation, May 1924
36. Union Pacific tour map, 1924

Part III

37. Utah Parks Company buses lined up at Cedar City depot, ca. 1928
38. Tourists boarding buses at Cedar City, ca. 1928
39. Officials at Pipe Spring, en route to the dedication of Grand Canyon Lodge, September 1928
40. Pipe Spring fort, ca. 1925
41. Southwestern National Monuments' Superintendent Frank Pinkley inspecting southwest corner of fort; undated, ca. 1923-1925
42. East cabin and corrals, ca. 1924
43. West cabin and meadow, ca. 1924
44. Restored east cabin, undated
45. Floor plans of the Pipe Spring fort, 1940
46. Flood at Pipe Spring National Monument, ca. 1926-1927
47. West cabin ruins, ca.1924
48. Landscape and view of meadow and west cabin, ca. 1924
49. Kanab Lodge, ca. 1928
50. Union Pacific promotional map, May 1929
51. Cover of Union Pacific's publication on Zion-Mt. Carmel Highway, 1929
52. "If it's a National Park
53. Sketch map of Southwest Utah and Grand Canyon, 1930
54. Leonard Heaton and caged reptile exhibit, September 1933
55. Utah Pioneer Trails and Landmarks Association plaque affixed in 1933 to Pipe Spring fort

Part IV

56. Kaibab Paiutes hauling water, Kaibab Indian Reservation, 1932
57. Sketch map showing location of Pasture No. 2 ("calf pasture"), 1921
58. Sketch map of Pipe Spring landscape, 1932
59. Sketch map of Pipe Spring National Monument, June 1933
60. Sketch map showing location of springs, September 1933
61. Overflow pipe at upper meadow pool, September 1933
62. Custodian Leonard Heaton's stables and poultry sheds, east of meadow ponds, September 1933
63. Indian pond/reservoir, located southeast of the fort area on reservation land, September 1933
64. Sketch map of Pipe Spring National Monument and plan for division box, November 1933
65. Sketch map showing water situation, December 1933

Part V

66. Sketch map of tunnel spring, December 1933
67. View of Pipe Spring landscape, looking west toward the fort, 1934
68. Early photo of CCC Camp DG-44, ca. late 1935
69. Trees being planted on the monument by CCC enrollees, probably 1935
70. CCC barracks with meadow pond in foreground, late 1935 or early 1936
71. Morris Jake, Dan Bulletts, and CCC enrollee Bernie Effler, 1936
72. CCC enrollees watching Kaibab Paiute cowboys dehorn cattle in monument corrals, undated
73. Dan Bulletts and John Boyce, January 23, 1936
74. CCC enrollees placing line fence, February 26, 1936
75. Diversion ditch under construction by CCC enrollees to prevent flooding of campground, probably 1936
76. Camp DG-44's Headquarters building with swimming pool in foreground, June 1938
77. First Sergeant Boyd Clevenger all dressed up to meet his girlfriend in Kanab, July 1939
78. Custodian C. Leonard Heaton in front of his fort office, ca. 1935
79. Detail from "Water Systems Study" map, April 9, 1937
80. Campground with poplar log tables and benches, late 1930s
81. Plan of the Monument, part of 1937 Master Plan for Pipe Spring National Monument
82. A few of CCC Company 2557, Camp DG-44, March, 1938
83. Custodian C. Leonard Heaton in dress uniform, 1938
84. View of Camp DG-44, looking south, 1939
85. General Development Plan, 1940 Master Plan for Pipe Spring National Monument

Part VI

86. Custodian C. Leonard Heaton in spring room of the fort, ca. 1942
87. Charles J. Smith, superintendent of Zion National Park from 1943 to 1952, undated

Part VII

88. Developed Area Plan, 1947 Master Plan for Pipe Spring National Monument
89. Crowd gathered in meadow for the community barbecue at Pipe Spring, April 29, 1950
90. Custodian's residence (old CCC infirmary), 1946
91. Monument campground and picnic area, June 1950


92. Leonard Heaton with "rainmaker machine," April 1951
93. Joseph Frank Winsor, age 88, taken August 31, 1951
94. Custodian's residence, April 10, 1951
95. Map of Kaibab Indian Reservation, 1953

Part IX

96. Park Historian Lloyd S. Sandberg, 1957
97. General Development, 1959 Master Plan
98. Park Historian James C. McKown with hand-cranked wood lathe, ca. 1959
99. Ray Mose, undated; probably late 1950s or early 1960s
100. Panoramic view of Pipe Spring National Monument, February 5, 1959
101. Leonard Heaton in front of office trailer, August 20, 1959
102. Excavation of Whitmore-McIntyre dugout, undated; probably August 1959
103. Seven Zion National Park superintendents, assembled at Zion for the dedication of its new visitor center, June 17, 1961
104. Scaffolding erected on south side of fort, January 19, 1959
105. Comfort station, ca. 1957
106. New staff residences and parking, October 1960
107. New east entrance sign, 1961
108. Sketch showing location of spring and collection box, February 1959
109. Pipe Spring National Monument Boundary Status Map, May 1957

Part X

110. Newly-reconstructed corral, August 1966
111. An authentic telegraph pole behind the east cabin, September 1999
112. Arizona Governor Jack Williams, assisted by "Miss Fredonia," at ribbon cutting ceremony for dedication of State Highway 389, August 5, 1967
113. Fredonia Mayor Warren Dart Judd with his wife Olive (left) and Governor Jack Williams and wife (right) at the Pipe Spring fort, August 5, 1967
114. Map showing nature trail and native grass restoration project areas, 1968
115. Barney Burch (left) and Tony Heaton (right) take part in a branding demonstration, 1969
116. Attentive onlookers watch Tony Heaton (left) and Herman Tso (right) lasso a calf during a branding demonstration, 1969
117. Joe Bolander, undated
118. Sketch map showing initial area proposed to locate Indian developments, April 1968
119. Sketch map showing general area Park Service proposed to acquire from the Kaibab Paiute Tribe through land exchange, 1968
120. Sketch map of proposed locations of developments, April 1970
121. NYC boys working on the nature trail, July 1968
122. Visitor contact station after flood, August 1969

Part XI

123. Aerial view of Pipe Spring National Monument, April 1971
124. Program to dedicate new Kaibab-Paiute Tribal Cultural Building/Visitor Center, May 26, 1973
125. View of visitor center and crowd gathered for its dedication, May 26, 1973
126. Visitor center ribbon-cutting ceremony, May 26, 1973
127. Kaibab Paiute dancers at visitor center dedication, May 26, 1973
128. Superintendent Bernard Tracy stands behind new visitor center, May 26, 1973
129. NYC crew take a break from work, July 27, 1971
130. NYC girls by fort gate, August 3, 1971
131. Quilting demonstration in the fort, 1977
132. Duke and Mel Heaton on wagon pulled by Mick and Molly, undated
133. Adeline Johnson demonstrating cheese making, July 1977
134. Bicentennial Wagon Trek, September 1976
135. Julie Heaton and Tina Esplin baking cookies in the fort's kitchen, September 1976
136. Mel Heaton plowing demonstration garden, May 1977
137. Mel Heaton resting with Mick and Molly, June 1977
138. Filming of "Brigham Young" in November 1976
139. Filming of "The Last of the Mohicans" in September 1977
140. Burros at Pipe Spring National Monument, 1970s

Part XII

141. Williams M. ("Bill") Herr and his wife Jan at Pipe Spring, undated
142. Elva Drye (left) and Gail Bulletts (right) demonstrate their beadwork skills at crafts exhibit, summer 1988
143. Work in progress on the fort's underground drainage system along the north wall, June 1980
144. Mature Lombardy poplars screening residence 9, planted under Bill Herr's direction in the early 1980s
145. Live monument geese were plucked to make goose down pillows, 1980

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Last Updated: 28-Aug-2006