The National Parks:
Index 2009–2011
NPS Logo

Wright Brothers National Memorial

Part 2:
Listing of National Park System Areas by State


Horseshoe Bend
National Military Park

11288 Horseshoe Bend Road
Daviston, AL 36256

On March 27, 1814, at the “horseshoe bend” on the Tallapoosa River, Gen. Andrew Jackson’s forces broke the power of the Upper Creek Indian Confederacy and opened large parts of Alabama and Georgia to settlement.

Authorized July 25, 1956.
Acreage—2,040, all federal.

Little River Canyon
National Preserve

2141 Gault Avenue North
Fort Payne, AL 35967-3673

The preserve protects the natural, recreational, and cultural resources of the Little River Canyon of northeast Alabama. A variety of rock expanses, benches, and bluffs creates a unique environment for several threatened and endangered species and for recreational pursuits, including kayaking and rock climbing. Hunting, fishing, and trapping are permitted.

Authorized Oct. 24, 1992.
Acreage—13,632.96 Federal: 10,338.15 Nonfederal: 3,294.81

Natchez Trace
National Scenic Trail

(See Mississippi)

Natchez Trace Parkway
(See Mississippi)

Russell Cave
National Monument

3729 County Road 98
Bridgeport, AL 35740-9770

An almost continuous archeological record of human habitation from at least 7000 B.C.E. to about 1650 C.E.—Transitional Paleo to Mississippian cultural periods—is revealed in this cave.

Proclaimed May 11, 1961.
Acreage—310.45, all federal.

Tuskegee Airmen
National Historic Site

c/o Tuskegee Institute
National Historic Site
P.O. Drawer 10
Tuskegee Institute, AL

This site preserves the airfield, historic hangar, and other buildings at Moton Field, where African American pilots known as the Tuskegee Airmen received their initial flight training during World War II.

Acreage—89.69 Federal: 44.71 Nonfederal: 44.98.

Tuskegee Institute
National Historic Site

PO Drawer 10
Tuskegee Institute, AL

Booker T. Washington founded this college for African Americans in 1881. Preserved here are the brick buildings the students constructed themselves, Washington’s home, and the George Washington Carver Museum, which serves as the visitor center. The college is still an active institution that owns most of the property within the national historic site.

Authorized Oct. 26, 1974.
Acreage—57.92 Federal: 8.92 Nonfederal: 49.


Alagnak Wild River
Katmai National Park
and Preserve

PO Box 7
King Salmon, AK 99613-0007

The Alagnak River flows from Kukaklek Lake in Katmai National Preserve and offers 69 miles of outstanding whitewater floating. The river is also noted for abundant wildlife and sport fishing for five species of salmon.

Established Dec. 2, 1980. Length: 69 miles.
Acreage—30,655.45 Federal: 26,806 Nonfederal: 3,859.45.

National Monument and
National Preserve

PO Box 7
King Salmon, AK 99613-0007

The Aniakchak Caldera, covering some 30 square miles, is one of the great dry calderas in the world. Located in the volcanically active Aleutian Mountains, the Aniakchak last erupted in 1931. The crater includes lava flows, cinder cones, and explosion pits, as well as Surprise Lake, source of the Aniakchak River, which cascades through a 1,500-foot gash in the crater wall. NO FEDERAL FACILITIES.

Proclaimed Aniakchak National Monument Dec. 1, 1978; established as a national monument and national preserve Dec. 2, 1980.
Acreage—National monument: 137,176, all federal. National preserve: 464,117.93 Federal: 439,863 Nonfederal: 24,254.93

Bering Land Bridge
National Preserve

PO Box 220
Nome, AK 99762-0220

Located on the Seward Peninsula, the preserve is a remnant of the land bridge that once connected Asia with North America over 13,000 years ago. Paleontological and archeological resources abound; large populations of migratory birds nest here. Ash explosion craters and lava flows, rare in the Arctic, are present. LIMITED FEDERAL FACILITIES.

Proclaimed a national monument Dec. 1, 1978; established as a national preserve Dec. 2, 1980.
Acreage—2,697,393.11 Federal: 2,537,672 Nonfederal: 159,721.11.

Cape Krusenstern
National Monument

PO Box 1029
Kotzebue, AK 99752-0029

Archeological sites located along a succession of 114 lateral beach ridges illustrate Eskimo communities of every known cultural period in Alaska, dating back some 4,000 years. LIMITED FEDERAL FACILITIES.

Proclaimed Dec. 1, 1978. Boundary change: Dec. 2, 1980.
Acreage—649,085.04 Federal: 588,241.79 Nonfederal: 60,843.25.

Denali National Park and
Denali National Preserve

PO Box 9
McKinley Park, AK

The park contains North America’s highest mountain, 20,320-foot Mount McKinley. Large glaciers of the Alaska Range, caribou, Dall sheep, moose, grizzly bears, and timber wolves are highlights of this national park and preserve.

Established as Mt. McKinley National Park Feb. 26, 1917. Separate Denali National Monument proclaimed Dec. 1, 1978. Both incorporated into and established as Denali National Park and Denali National Preserve Dec. 2, 1980. Wilderness designated Dec. 2, 1980. Other boundary changes: Jan. 30, 1922; March 19, 1932. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1976.
Acreage—National park: 4,740,911.72 Federal: 4,724,790.51 Nonfederal: 16,121.21. Wilderness area: 1,900,000. National preserve: 1,334,117.87 Federal: 1,303,972 Nonfederal: 30,145.87.

Gates of the Arctic
National Park and
Gates of the Arctic
National Preserve

201 First Avenue
Doyon Building
Fairbanks, AK 99701-4848

Lying north of the Arctic Circle, the park and preserve include part of the Central Brooks Range, the northernmost extension of the Rocky Mountains. Often called the greatest wilderness in North America, these NPS units are characterized by jagged peaks, gentle arctic valleys, wild rivers, and many lakes. With adjacent Kobuk Valley National Park and Noatak National Preserve, they form one of the largest park areas in the world.

Proclaimed Gates of the Arctic National Monument Dec. 1, 1978; established as a national park and national preserve Dec. 2, 1980. Wilderness designated Dec. 2, 1980. Designated a Biosphere Reserve (portion) 1984.
Acreage—National park: 7,523,897.74 Federal: 7,266,102.39 Nonfederal: 257,795.35. Wilderness area: 7,052,000. National preserve: 948,607.96 Federal: 948,200.00 Nonfederal: 407.96.

Glacier Bay National Park
and Glacier Bay
National Preserve

PO Box 140
Gustavus, AK 99826-0140

Great tidewater glaciers, a dramatic range of plant communities from rocky terrain recently covered by ice to lush temperate rain forest, and a large variety of animals, including grizzly bears, mountain goats, whales, seals, and eagles, are found within these parks.

Proclaimed Glacier Bay National Monument Feb. 26, 1925; established as a national park and national preserve Dec. 2, 1980. Boundary changes: April 18, 1939; March 31, 1955; December 1, 1978. Wilderness designated Dec. 2, 1980. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1986. Designated a World Heritage site Dec, 14, 1992.
Acreage—National park: 3,224,840.31 Federal: 3,223,018.23 Nonfederal: 1,822.08. Wilderness area: 2,770,000. National preserve: 58,406, all federal.

Katmai National Park and
Katmai National Preserve

PO Box 7
King Salmon, AK 99613-0007

Variety marks this vast land: lakes, forests, mountains, and marshlands abound in wildlife. The Alaska brown bear, the world’s largest carnivore, thrives here, feeding on red salmon that spawn in the lakes and streams. Wild rivers and renowned sport fishing add to the attractions of this subarctic environment. Here, in 1912, Novarupta Volcano erupted violently, forming the ash-filled “Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes” where steam rose from countless fumaroles.

Proclaimed Katmai National Monument Sept. 24, 1918; established as national park and national preserve Dec. 2, 1980. Boundary changes: April 24, 1931; Aug. 4, 1942; Jan. 20, 1969; Dec. 1, 1978; Dec. 2, 1980. Wilderness designated Dec. 2, 1980.
Acreage—National park: 3,674,529.68 Federal: 3,611,708.62 Nonfederal: 62,821.06. Wilderness area: 3,473,000. National preserve: 418,699.22 Federal: 405,432 Nonfederal: 13,267.22.

Kenai Fjords
National Park

PO Box 1727
Seward, AK 99664-1727

The park includes one of the four major ice caps in the U.S., the 300-square-mile Harding Icefield, and coastal fjords. Here a rich, varied rain forest is home to tens of thousands of breeding birds, and adjoining marine waters support a multitude of sea lions, sea otters, and seals. The visitor center is in Seward, 10 miles from the park.

Proclaimed a national monument Dec. 1, 1978; established as a national park Dec. 2, 1980.
Acreage—669.982.99 Federal: 601,839.20 Nonfederal: 68,143.79.

Klondike Gold Rush
National Historical Park

PO Box 517
Skagway, AK 99840-0517
(See also Washington)

Historic buildings and exhibits in Skagway and portions of Chilkoot and White Pass trails, all prominent in the 1898 gold rush, are included in the park. A visitor center and 13 other restored historic buildings are in downtown Skagway.

Authorized June 30, 1976.
Acreage—13,191.35 Federal: 2,418.93 Nonfederal: 10,772.42.

Kobuk Valley
National Park

PO Box 1029
Kotzebue, AK 99752-1029

Embracing the central valley of the Kobuk River, the park, located north of the Arctic Circle, includes a blend of biological, geological, and cultural resources. Here, in the northernmost extent of the boreal forest, a rich array of arctic wildlife can be found, including caribou, grizzly and black bear, wolf, and fox. LIMITED FEDERAL FACILITIES.

Proclaimed a national monument Dec. 1, 1978; established as a national park Dec. 2, 1980. Wilderness designated Dec. 2, 1980.
Acreage—1,750,716.50 Federal: 1,669,912.98 Nonfederal: 80,803.52. Wilderness area: 190,000.

Lake Clark National Park
and Lake Clark
National Preserve

4230 University Drive
Suite 311
Anchorage, AK 99508-4626

Located in the heart of the Chigmit mountains, the park and preserve contain great geologic diversity, including jagged peaks, granite spires, and two symmetrical active volcanoes. Over a score of glacially carved lakes rim the mountain mass. Lake Clark, over 40 miles long, is the largest lake here and also the headwaters for red salmon spawning.

Proclaimed Lake Clark National Monument Dec. 1, 1978; established as a national park and national preserve Dec. 2, 1980. Wilderness designated Dec. 2, 1980.
Acreage—National park: 2,619,733.21 Federal: 2,226,807.06 Nonfederal: 392,926.15. Wilderness area: 2,470,000. National preserve: 1,410,291.98 Federal: 1,209,360.25 Nonfederal: 200,931.73.

Noatak National Preserve
PO Box 1029
Kotzebue, AK 99752-0129

The Noatak River basin is the largest mountain-ringed river basin in the nation still virtually unaffected. The preserve includes landforms of great scientific interest, including the 65-mile-long Grand Canyon of the Noatak, a transition zone and migration route for plants and animals between subarctic and arctic environments. It also has an array of flora among the most diverse anywhere in the Earth’s northern latitudes. LIMITED FEDERAL FACILITIES.

Proclaimed a national monument Dec. 1, 1978; established as a national preserve Dec. 2, 1980. Wilderness designated Dec. 2, 1980. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1976.
Acreage—6,569,904.39 Federal: 6,276,089.98 Nonfederal: 293,814.41. Wilderness area: 5,800,000.

National Historical Park

106 Metlakatla Street
Sitka, AK 99835-7665

The site of the 1804 fort and battle that marked the last major Tlingit Indian resistance to Russian colonization is preserved here. Tlingit totem poles and crafts are exhibited. The Russian Bishop’s House, built in 1842, is the oldest intact piece of Russian-American architecture.

Proclaimed a national monument March 23, 1910; redesignated Oct. 18, 1972. Boundary changes: Feb. 25, 1952; Oct. 18, 1972.
Acreage—112.16 Federal: 111.50 Nonfederal: 0.66.

Wrangell-St. Elias
National Park and
Wrangell-St. Elias
National Preserve

PO Box 439
Copper Center, AK 99573

The Chugach, Wrangell, and St. Elias mountain ranges converge here in what is often referred to as the “mountain kingdom of North America.” The national park is the largest unit of the National Park System. The park and preserve include the continent’s largest assemblage of glaciers and the greatest collection of peaks above 16,000 feet, including Mount St. Elias. At 18,008 feet it is the second highest peak in the U.S.

Proclaimed Wrangell-St. Elias National Monument Dec. 1, 1978; established as a national park and national preserve Dec. 2, 1980. Wilderness designated Dec. 2, 1980. Designated a World Heritage Site Oct. 24, 1979.
Acreage—National park: 8,323,147.59 Federal: 7,662,705.29 Nonfederal: 660,442.30. National preserve: 4,852,753.10 Federal: 4,002,707.60 Nonfederal: 850,045.50. Wilderness area: 8,700,000.

Yukon-Charley Rivers
National Preserve

201 First Avenue
Doyon Building
Fairbanks, AK 99701-4848

Located along the Canadian border in central Alaska, the preserve protects 115 miles of the 1,800-mile Yukon River and the entire Charley River basin. Old cabins and relics are reminders of the importance of the Yukon River during the 1898 gold rush. The Charley, an 88-mile wild river, is considered by many to be the most spectacular river in Alaska. LIMITED FEDERAL FACILITIES.

Proclaimed Yukon-Charley National Monument Dec. 1, 1978; established as a national preserve Dec. 2, 1980.
Acreage—2,526,512.31 Federal: 2,183,172.98 Nonfederal: 343,339.33.

World War II
Valor in the Pacific
National Monument

(See Hawaii)

American Samoa

National Park of
American Samoa

Pago Pago
American Samoa 96799-0001

Paleotropical rain forests, pristine coral reefs, and white sand beaches on three volcanic islands in the South Pacific are home to a variety of tropical animals, including the flying fox fruit bat. Overnights in villages are encouraged.

Authorized Oct. 31, 1988; 50-year lease signed Sept. 9, 1993.
Acreage—9,000, all nonfederal. Water area: 2,500.


Canyon de Chelly
National Monument

PO Box 588
Chinle, AZ 86503-0588

In canyon wall alcoves and at the base of sheer red cliffs are remains of American Indian villages built between 350 and 1300. Navajos live and farm here today.

Authorized Feb. 14, 1931; proclaimed April 1, 1931. Boundary change: March 1, 1933.
Acreage—83,840, all nonfederal.

Casa Grande Ruins
National Monument

1100 Ruins Drive
Coolidge, AZ 85228-3200

This multi-storied, earthen-walled structure surrounded by the remains of smaller buildings and a compound wall was constructed by the Hohokam, who farmed the Gila Valley in the early 1200s. Casa Grande was abandoned by the mid-1400s.

Authorized as Casa Grande Ruin Reservation March 2, 1889; proclaimed June 22, 1892; redesignated Aug. 3, 1918. Boundary changes: Dec. 10, 1909; June 7, 1926.
Acreage—472.50, all federal.

National Monument

12856 E. Rhyolite Creek Rd.
Willcox, AZ 85643-9737

The rock formations here were created millions of years ago by volcanic activity, resulting in a landscape of rare beauty. Faraway Ranch, a cattle ranch/guest ranch, has been restored.

Proclaimed April 18, 1924; transferred from Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary changes: June 10, 1938; Nov. 10, 1978; Aug. 28, 1984. Wilderness designated Oct. 20, 1976; Aug. 28, 1984.
Acreage—11,984.73 Federal: 11,982.38 Nonfederal: 2.35. Wilderness area: 10,290.

National Memorial

4101 East Montezuma
Canyon Road
Hereford, AZ 85615-9376

In a natural setting on the Mexican border, the memorial commemorates the first organized expedition into the Southwest led by Francisco Vasquez de Coronado in 1540 and affirms the ties that bind the United States to Mexico and Spain.

Authorized as International Memorial Aug. 18, 1941; redesignated July 9, 1952; established Nov. 5, 1952. Boundary changes: Sept. 2, 1960; Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—4,750.22 Federal: 4,748.22 Nonfederal: 2.

Fort Bowie
National Historic Site

3327 S. Old Fort Bowie Road
Bowie, AZ 85605-0158

Established in 1862, the fort was the focal point of military operations against the Chiricahua Apache. The site also preserves part of the Butterfield Overland Mail Route.

Authorized Aug. 30, 1964; established July 29, 1972.
Acreage—999.45, all federal.

Glen Canyon
National Recreation Area

(See Utah)

Grand Canyon
National Park

PO Box 129
Grand Canyon, AZ 86023-0129

The park’s famous Grand Canyon of the Colorado River encompasses 277 miles of the river and adjacent uplands, from the southern terminus of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area to the eastern boundary of Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Formations illustrate periods of geological history.

Proclaimed as Grand Canyon Forest Reserve Feb. 20, 1893; Grand Canyon Game Preserve proclaimed Nov. 28, 1906; Grand Canyon National Monument proclaimed Jan. 11, 1908; national park established Feb. 26, 1919; transferred from Forest Service, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Aug. 15, 1919. Boundary changes: Feb. 25, 1927; March 7, 1928. A separate Grand Canyon National Monument proclaimed Dec. 22, 1932. Boundary change: April 4, 1940. Marble Canyon National Monument proclaimed Jan. 20, 1969. Three units and portions of Glen Canyon and Lake Mead national recreation areas combined with additional lands as a national park Jan. 3, 1975. Designated a World Heritage Site Oct. 26, 1979.
Acreage—1,217,403.32 Federal: 1,180,862.78 Nonfederal: 36,540.54.

Hohokam Pima
National Monument

c/o Casa Grande Ruins
National Monument
1100 Ruins Drive
Coolidge, AZ 85228-3200

Preserved here are the archeological remains of the Hohokam culture. Hohokam is a Pima Indian word meaning “those who have gone.” NOT OPEN TO THE PUBLIC.

Authorized Oct. 21, 1972.
Acreage—1,690, all nonfederal.

Hubbell Trading Post
National Historic Site

PO Box 150
Ganado, AZ 86505-0150

Little changed since its opening in 1878, Hubbell is the oldest continuously operated trading post on the Navajo Reservation. It has been a bridge between cultures for generations.

Authorized Aug. 28, 1965.
Acreage—160.09, all federal.

Lake Mead
National Recreation Area

(See Nevada)

Montezuma Castle
National Monument

PO Box 219
Camp Verde, AZ 86322-0219

Built in the 1100s and 1200s, this five-story, 20-room cliff dwelling is one of the best preserved in the United States. Included is Montezuma Well, a collapsed limestone sinkhole that contains invertebrates found nowhere else in the world.

Proclaimed Dec. 8, 1906. Boundary changes: Feb. 23, 1937; Oct. 19, 1943; April 4, 1947; June 23, 1959; Nov. 10, 1978, Dec. 19, 2003.
Acreage—1214.71 Federal: 1197.88 Nonfederal: 16.83.

National Monument

HC 71, Box 3
Tonalea, AZ 86044-9704

Ancient cliff dwellers built three dwellings here: Betatakin, Keet Seel, and Inscription House (closed to the public due to its fragility).

Proclaimed March 20, 1909. Boundary change: March 14, 1912. Headquarters is on 244.59 acres of tribal land adjacent to the Betatakin section; used by agreement of May 1962. A right-of-way of 4.59 acres was granted to the National Park Service in 1977.
Acreage—360, all federal.

Organ Pipe Cactus
National Monument

10 Organ Pipe Drive
Ajo, AZ 85321-9626

Sonoran Desert plants and animals found nowhere else in the United States are protected here, as are traces of the Camino del Diablo historic trail.

Proclaimed April 13, 1937. Wilderness designated Nov. 10, 1978. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1976.
Acreage—330,688.86 Federal: 329,365.29 Nonfederal: 1,323.57. Wilderness area: 312,600.

Petrified Forest
National Park

PO Box 2217
Petrified Forest, AZ 86028

Featured are petrified logs composed of multicolored quartz; shortgrass prairie; part of the Painted Desert; and archeological, paleontological, historic, and cultural resources.

Proclaimed a national monument Dec. 8, 1906; redesignated Dec. 9, 1962. Boundary changes: July 31, 1911; Nov. 14, 1930; Nov. 30, 1931; Sept. 23, 1932; March 28, 1958, Dec. 3, 2004. Wilderness designated Oct. 23, 1970.
Acreage—93,532.57, all federal. Wilderness area: 50,260.

Pipe Spring
National Monument

HC 65, Box 5
Fredonia, AZ 86022

The springs have sustained hundreds of years of cultural occupation. The Ancestral Puebloan culture thrived here, followed by the Paiute people and Mormon pioneers. Historic structures associated with the 1870s pioneer ranching operation remain.

Proclaimed May 31, 1923.
Acreage—40, all federal.

Saguaro National Park
3693 South Old Spanish Trail
Tucson, AZ 85730-5601

Giant saguaro cacti, unique to the Sonoran Desert, cover the valley floor and rise into the neighboring mountains. Five biotic life zones are represented, from desert to ponderosa pine forest. There are also ancient petroglyphs.

Proclaimed a national monument March 1, 1933; transferred from Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Aug. 10, 1933;
redesignated Oct. 4, 1994. Boundary changes: Nov. 15, 1961; Oct. 21, 1976; June 19, 1991; Oct. 4, 1994. Wilderness designated Oct. 20, 1976.
Acreage—91,439.71 Federal: 87,526.07 Nonfederal: 3,913.64. Wilderness area: 70,905.

Sunset Crater Volcano
National Monument

6400 N. Highway 89
Flagstaff, AZ 86004

This volcanic cinder cone with summit crater was formed just before 1100. Its upper part is colored as if by a sunset.

Proclaimed Sunset Crater National Monument May 26, 1930; transferred from Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Aug. 10, 1933; renamed Nov. 16, 1990.
Acreage—3,040, all federal.

National Monument

HC 02, Box 4602
Roosevelt, AZ 85545

Between the 1200s and 1300s, the Salado culture farmed the Salt River Basin, leaving behind these well-preserved cliff dwellings.

Proclaimed Dec. 19, 1907; transferred from Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary change: April 1, 1937.
Acreage—1,120, all federal.

National Historical Park

PO Box 67
Tumacacori, AZ 85640-0067

This historic Spanish Catholic mission building stands near the site first visited by Jesuit Father Kino in 1691. The park includes two other separate mission ruins sites, Calabazas and Guevavi, that are not yet open to the public. The primary site at Tumacacori includes a partially restored Franciscan church that is still used to celebrate special events.

Proclaimed a national monument Sept. 15, 1908; redesignated Aug. 6, 1990. Boundary changes: April 28, 1959; Nov. 10, 1978; Aug. 6, 1990, Aug. 21, 2002.
Acreage—360.32 Federal: 357.74 Nonfederal: 2.58.

National Monument

PO Box 219
Camp Verde, AZ 86322-0219

Ruins of a large Indian pueblo that flourished in the Verde Valley between 1100 and 1450 have been excavated here.

Proclaimed July 25, 1939. Boundary changes: Nov. 10, 1978; Sept. 15, 2005.
Acreage—811.89 Federal: 381.53 Nonfederal: 430.36.

Walnut Canyon
National Monument

6400 N. Highway 89
Flagstaff, AZ 86004

These cliff dwellings were built in shallow caves under ledges of limestone by Sinagua People about 800 years ago.

Proclaimed Nov. 30, 1915; transferred from Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary changes: Sept. 24, 1938; Nov. 12, 1996.
Acreage—3,579.46 Federal: 3,288.62 Nonfederal: 290.84.

National Monument

6400 N. Highway 89
Flagstaff, AZ 86004

Ruins of red sandstone pueblos built by farming Ancestral Puebloan people between 1120 and 1250 are preserved here.

Proclaimed Dec. 9, 1924. Boundary changes: July 9, 1937; Jan. 22, 1941; Aug. 10, 1961; Nov. 12, 1996.
Acreage—35,422.13, all federal.


Arkansas Post
National Memorial

1741 Old Post Road
Gillett, AR 72055-9707

The park commemorates key events that occurred on site and nearby: the first semi-permanent European settlement in the Lower Mississippi Valley (1686); a Revolutionary War skirmish (1783); the first territorial capital of Arkansas (1819–1821); and the Civil War Battle of Arkansas Post (1863).

Authorized July 6, 1960. Boundary change: Nov. 14, 1997.
Acreage—757.51 Federal: 649.91 Nonfederal: 107.6.

Buffalo National River
402 North Walnut
Suite 136
Harrison, AR 72601-1173

Offering both swift-running and placid stretches, the Buffalo is one of the few remaining unpolluted, free-flowing rivers in the lower 48 states. It courses through multicolored bluffs and past numerous springs along its 135.75-mile length.

Authorized March 1, 1972. Wilderness designated Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—94,293.31 Federal: 91,813.09 Nonfederal: 2,480.22. Wilderness Area: 36,000.

Fort Smith
National Historic Site

PO Box 1406
Fort Smith, AR 72902-1406
(Also in Oklahoma)

This was one of the first U.S. military posts in the Louisiana Territory and served as a base of operations for enforcing federal Indian policy from 1817 to 1896. The park contains the remains of two frontier military forts and a federal court.

Authorized Sept. 13, 1961. Boundary change: Oct. 21, 1976.
Acreage—75 Federal: 37.96 Nonfederal: 37.04.

Hot Springs
National Park

101 Reserve Street
Hot Springs, AR 71901-4195

The 47 hot springs, numerous hiking trails, and scenic drives are located in the forested Ouachita Mountains. Eight historically and architecturally significant bathhouses compose Bathhouse Row, a National Historic Landmark District. Thermal bathing continues today.

Established as Hot Springs Reservation April 20, 1832; dedicated to public use as a park June 16, 1880; redesignated March 4, 1921. Boundary changes: June 22, 1892; July 14, 1892; Feb. 21, 1903; May 23, 1906; Sept. 18, 1922; June 5, 1924; June 25, 1930; Feb. 14, 1931; June 15, 1936; June 24, 1938; Aug. 10, 1939; Aug. 24, 1954; Aug. 18, 1958; Sept. 21, 1959; Aug. 2, 1993.
Acreage—5,549.75 Federal: 4,932.78 Nonfederal: 616.97.

Little Rock
Central High School
National Historic Site

2120 Daisy Bates Drive
Little Rock, AR 72202-5212

The park commemorates the struggle in 1957 to desegregate Central High School and the role these events played as a catalyst for the civil rights movement. The site emphasizes the stories of citizens who exercised their rights to pursue justice and equal treatment.

Established Nov. 6, 1998.
Acreage—27.28 Federal: 2.22 Nonfederal: 25.06.

Pea Ridge
National Military Park

PO Box 700
Pea Ridge, AR 72751-0700

The victory here on March 7–8, 1862, in one of the major battles of the Civil War west of the Mississippi, allowed the Union to maintain control of Missouri, thus assisting the strategic Mississippi campaign. Among the Confederate troops at Pea Ridge were about 1,000 Cherokee and Choctaw-Chickasaw Indians.

Authorized July 20, 1956.
Acreage—4,300.35 Federal: 4,278.75 Nonfederal: 21.60.

Fordyce Bathhouse, Hot Springs National Park


National Monument

1800 Cabrillo Memorial Drive
San Diego, CA 92106-3601

Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, Iberian explorer who claimed this coast for Spain in 1542, is memorialized here. Old Point Loma Lighthouse is restored to its most active period—the 1880s. Remnants of World War II coastal defense batteries dot the landscape. Gray whales migrate offshore in winter. Intertidal habitats are among the most sensitive in the world.

Proclaimed Oct. 14, 1913; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary changes: Feb. 2, 1959; Sept. 28, 1974; July 3, 2000.
Acreage—159.94, all federal.

Channel Islands
National Park

1901 Spinnaker Drive
Ventura, CA 93001-4354

The park consists of five islands off southern California: San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Anacapa, and Santa Barbara. Nesting sea birds, sea lion rookeries, and unique plants inhabit the area. Anacapa, Santa Rosa, and Santa Barbara are administered by the National Park Service; Santa Cruz Island is administered by the National Park Service and The Nature Conservancy; San Miguel, by the National Park Service and the U.S. Navy.

Proclaimed a national monument April 26, 1938; redesignated March 5, 1980. Boundary changes: June 10, 1949; May 15, 1978; Oct. 25, 1978. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1976.
Acreage—249,561 Federal: 79,018.62 Nonfederal: 170,542.38.

Death Valley
National Park

PO Box 579
Death Valley, CA 92328-0579
(Also in Nevada)

This large desert, nearly surrounded by high mountains, contains the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere. The area includes Scotty’s Castle, the grandiose home of a famous prospector, and other remnants of gold and borax mining.

Proclaimed a national monument Feb. 11, 1933; redesignated Oct. 31, 1994. Boundary changes: March 26, 1937; Jan. 17, 1952; Oct. 31, 1994. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1984. Wilderness designated Oct. 31, 1994.
Acreage—3,372,401.96 Federal: 3,323,771.75 Nonfederal: 48,630.21.

Devils Postpile
National Monument

PO Box 3999
Mammoth Lakes, CA 93546

Hot lava cooled and cracked some 100,000 years ago to form basalt columns 40 to 60 feet high resembling a giant pipe organ. The John Muir Trail and Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail traverse the monument.

Proclaimed July 6, 1911; transferred from Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Aug. 10, 1933.
Acreage—798.46, all federal. Wilderness area: 750.

Eugene O’Neill
National Historic Site

PO Box 280
Danville, CA 94526-0280

Tao House was built for playwright Eugene O’Neill, who lived here from 1937 to 1944. “The Iceman Cometh” and “Long Day’s Journey Into Night” were written here.

Authorized Oct. 12, 1976.
Acreage—13.19, all federal.

Fort Point
National Historic Site

Fort Mason, Building 201
San Francisco, CA 94123

This classic brick and granite mid-1800s coastal fort is the only one of its style on the west coast of the United States.

Established Oct. 16, 1970.
Acreage—29, all federal.

Golden Gate
National Recreation Area

Fort Mason, Building 201
San Francisco, CA 94123

The park encompasses shoreline areas of San Francisco, Marin, and San Mateo counties, including ocean beaches, redwood forest, lagoons, marshes, military properties, a cultural center at Fort Mason, and Alcatraz Island.

Established Oct. 27, 1972. Boundary changes: Dec. 26, 1974; Nov. 10, 1978; Sept. 8, 1980; Dec. 28, 1980; June 9, 1992; Oct. 24, 2000; Dec. 20, 2005. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1988.
Acreage—80,020.26 Federal: 53,213.57 Nonfederal: 26,806.69.

John Muir
National Historic Site

4202 Alhambra Avenue
Martinez, CA 94553-3883

The home of conservationist John Muir, Martinez Adobe, Mt. Wanda, and his gravesite honor Muir’s contributions.

Authorized Aug. 31, 1964. Boundary changes: Oct. 31, 1988; Oct. 30, 2004.
Acreage—344.73 Federal: 335.99 Nonfederal: 8.74.

Joshua Tree
National Park

74485 National Park Drive
Twentynine Palms, CA 92277

A representative stand of Joshua trees and a great variety of plants and animals exist in this desert region.

Proclaimed a national monument Aug. 10, 1936; redesignated Oct. 31, 1994. Boundary changes: Sept. 25, 1950; June 30, 1961; Oct. 31, 1994. Wilderness designated Oct. 20, 1976. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1984.
Acreage—789,745.47 Federal: 769,175.15 Nonfederal: 20,570.32. Wilderness area: 429,690.

Kings Canyon
National Park

47050 Generals Highway
Three Rivers, CA 93271-9651

Two enormous canyons of the Kings River and the summit peaks of the High Sierra dominate this mountain wilderness.

Established as General Grant National Park Oct. 1, 1890; renamed and enlarged March 4, 1940. Other boundary changes: June 21, 1940; Aug. 14, 1958; Aug. 6, 1965. Wilderness designated Sept. 28, 1984. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1976.
Acreage—461,901.20 Federal: 461,845.42 Nonfederal: 55.78. Wilderness area: 456,552.

Lassen Volcanic
National Park

PO Box 100
Mineral, CA 96063-0100

Lassen Peak erupted intermittently from 1914 to 1921. Active volcanism includes boiling springs, steaming fumaroles, mud pots, and sulfurous vents.

Proclaimed as Lassen Peak and Cinder Cone National Monuments May 6, 1907; made part of Lassen Volcanic National Park when established Aug. 9, 1916. Boundary changes: April 26, 1928; May 21, 1928; Jan. 19, 1929; April 19, 1930; July 3, 1930; Aug. 10, 1961; April 11, 1972. Wilderness designated Oct. 19, 1972.
Acreage—106,372.36 Federal: 106,368.14 Nonfederal: 4.22. Wilderness area: 78,982.

American kestrel . . . Skunk . . . Jackrabbit . . .

Lava Beds
National Monument

1 Indian Wells Headquarters
Tulelake, CA 96134-8216

Volcanic activity spewed forth molten rock and lava here, creating an incredibly rugged landscape—a natural fortress used by American Indians in the Modoc Indian War, 1872–73.

Proclaimed Nov. 21, 1925; transferred from Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary changes: April 27, 1951; Oct. 26, 1974. Wilderness designated Oct. 13, 1972.
Acreage—46,559.87, all federal. Wilderness area: 28,460.

National Historic Site

PO Box 426
Independence, CA 93526-0426

Located in the Owens Valley of eastern California, the site protects and interprets the historical, cultural, and natural resources associated with the relocation and internment of Japanese Americans during World War II.

Authorized March 3, 1992.
Acreage—813.81, all federal.

Mojave National Preserve
2701 Barstow Road
Barstow, CA 92311

The preserve protects the fragile habitat of the desert tortoise, vast open spaces, and historic mining scenes like the Kelso railroad depot.

Authorized Oct. 31, 1994.
Acreage—1,534,819.31 Federal: 1,462,477.46 Nonfederal: 72,341.85.

Muir Woods
National Monument

Mill Valley, CA 94941-2696

This virgin stand of coastal redwoods was named for John Muir, writer and conservationist.

Proclaimed Jan. 9, 1908. Boundary changes: Sept. 22, 1921; April 5, 1935; June 26, 1951; Sept. 8, 1959; April 11, 1972.
Acreage—553.55 Federal: 522.98 Nonfederal: 30.57.

National Monument

5000 Highway 146
Paicines, CA 95043-9770

Spirelike rock formations 500 to 1,200 feet high, with caves and a variety of volcanic features, rise above the smooth contours of the surrounding countryside.

Proclaimed Jan. 16, 1908. Boundary changes: May 7, 1923; July 2, 1924; April 13, 1931; July 11, 1933; Dec. 5, 1941; Oct. 20, 1976; Jan. 11, 2000. Wilderness designated Oct. 20, 1976.
Acreage—24,513.64 Federal: 24,502.82 Nonfederal: 10.82. Wilderness area: 16,048.

Chuckwalla . . . Desert kit fox . . . all residents of Joshua Tree.

Point Reyes
National Seashore

Point Reyes, CA 94956-9799

This peninsula near San Francisco is noted for its long beaches backed by tall cliffs, lagoons and esteros, forested ridges, and offshore bird and sea lion colonies. The park contains a historic ranching area.

Authorized Sept. 13, 1962; established Oct. 20, 1972. Boundary changes: Dec. 26, 1974; Nov. 10, 1978; March 5, 1980. Wilderness designated Oct. 18, 1976. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1988.
Acreage—71,067.78 Federal: 65,089.97 Nonfederal: 5,977.81. Land area: 53,883.98. Wilderness area: 25,370.

Redwood National Park
1111 Second Street
Crescent City, CA 95531-4198

Coastal redwood forests with virgin groves of ancient trees, including the world’s tallest, thrive in the foggy and temperate climate. The park includes 40 miles of scenic Pacific coastline.

Established Oct. 2, 1968. Boundary change: March 27, 1978. Designated a World Heritage Site Sept. 2, 1980. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1983.
Acreage—112,581.95 Federal: 77,779.92 Nonfederal: 34,802.03.

Rosie the Riveter/
World War II Home Front
National Historical Park

1401 Marina Way South
Suite C
Richmond, CA 94804

Commemorates the contributions of those who supported World War II: workers, including women and minorities, in the war industries and those who stayed stateside and recycled and collected and saved and sacrificed. The shipyards, day care centers, first managed-health-care hospital, war worker housing, and a liberty ship built in the shipyards are included in the park. Sites open to the public include the Rosie the Riveter Memorial and additional memorials along the Bay Trail through former shipyards. UNDER DEVELOPMENT.

Authorized Oct. 24, 2000.
Acreage—145.19, all nonfederal.

San Francisco Maritime
National Historical Park

Bldg. E, Fort Mason Center
San Francisco, CA 94123

A fleet of historic vessels at Hyde Street Pier commemorating the achievements of seafaring Americans; small craft collection; research library, document center, and maritime archives complex; maritime museum; and the WPA-built Aquatic Park district are highlights of this waterfront park.

Established June 27, 1988.
Acreage—49.86 Federal: 28.15 Nonfederal: 21.71.

Santa Monica Mountains
National Recreation Area

401 West Hillcrest Drive
Thousand Oaks, CA 91360

This recreation area near Los Angeles offers rugged mountains, a coastline with sandy beaches and rocky shores, canyons covered with chaparral, and abundant wildlife. The area preserves a Mediterranean ecosystem, shelters wildlife habitat, and includes historical areas like Paramount Ranch and Satwiwa American Indian cultural centers.

Established Nov. 10, 1978. Boundary change: Oct. 9, 2002.
Acreage—154,094.78 Federal: 22,891.76 Nonfederal: 131,203.02.

Sequoia National Park
47050 Generals Highway
Three Rivers, CA 93271

Great groves of giant sequoias, the world’s largest living things, Mineral King Valley, and Mount Whitney, the highest mountain in the U.S. outside of Alaska, are spectacular attractions here in the High Sierra.

Established Sept. 25, 1890. Boundary changes: Oct. 1, 1890; July 3, 1926; Dec. 21, 1943; July 21, 1949; Oct. 19, 1951; Aug. 14, 1958; Nov. 10, 1978. Wilderness designated Sept. 28, 1984. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1976.
Acreage—404,051.17 Federal: 403,875.64 Nonfederal: 175.53. Wilderness area: 280,428.

National Recreation Area

PO Box 188
Whiskeytown, CA 96095

Whiskeytown Unit, with its mountainous backcountry and large reservoir, provides a multitude of outdoor recreation opportunities as well as remains of buildings built during the Gold Rush. Shasta and Trinity Units are administered by the Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

Authorized Nov. 8, 1965; established Oct. 21, 1972.
Acreage—42,503.46 Federal: 42,459.30 Nonfederal: 44.16.

World War II
Valor in the Pacific
National Monument

(See Hawaii)

Yosemite National Park
PO Box 577
Yosemite National Park, CA

Granite peaks and domes rise high above broad meadows in the heart of the Sierra Nevada; groves of giant sequoias dwarf other trees and tiny wildflowers; and mountains, lakes, and waterfalls, including the nation’s highest, are found here.

Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Big Tree Grove granted to State of California June 30, 1864; established as a national park Oct. 1, 1890; Federal government accepted lands returned by state June 11, 1906. Boundary changes: Feb. 7, 1905; June 11, 1906; Dec. 19, 1913; May 28, 1928; April 14, 1930; Feb. 14, 1931; Aug. 13, 1932; July 9, 1937. El Portal site authorized Sept. 2, 1958. Wilderness designated Sept. 28, 1984. Designated a World Heritage Site Oct. 31, 1984.
Acreage—761,266.19 (does not include 1,397.99 acres composing El Portal administrative site, adjacent to park)
Federal: 759,530.34 Nonfederal: 1,735.85. Wilderness area: 677,600.

Yosemite National Park


Bent’s Old Fort
National Historic Site

35110 Highway 194 East
La Junta, CO 81050-9523

The fort, now completely reconstructed on its original site north of the Arkansas River, was an important fur trading post between 1833 and 1849, where Indians and trappers exchanged furs for trade goods.

Authorized June 3, 1960. Boundary change: Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—798.80 Federal: 735.60 Nonfederal: 63.20.

Black Canyon of the
National Park

102 Elk Creek
Gunnison, CO 81230

The ancient Gunnison River was wedged here by volcanic deposits and committed to a course from which it could not escape. Monolithic rock walls rise 2,000 feet above the river.

Proclaimed March 2, 1933; redesignated Oct. 21, 1999. Boundary changes: May 16, 1938; Oct. 28, 1939; April 13, 1960; July 13, 1984; Oct. 21, 1999; Nov. 11, 2003. Wilderness designated Oct. 20, 1976; Oct. 21, 1999.
Acreage—32,950.03 Federal: 30,750.03 Nonfederal: 2,200. Wilderness area: 15,599.

National Monument

Fruita, CO 81521-0001

Sheer-walled canyons, towering monoliths, soaring arches, weird formations, dinosaur fossils, and remains of prehistoric Indian cultures reflect the environment and history of this colorful sandstone country.

Proclaimed May 24, 1911. Boundary changes: March 3, 1933; Aug. 7, 1959; Oct. 21, 1976; Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—20,533.93, all federal.

National Recreation Area

102 Elk Creek
Gunnison, CO 81230

Three reservoirs—Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal—extend for 40 miles along the Gunnison River and Black Canyon, with excellent water recreation, hiking, and camping. Blue Mesa Reservoir is the largest lake in Colorado.

Administered under cooperative agreement with Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Feb. 11, 1965.
Acreage—41,972.42, all federal.

National Monument

4545 E. Highway 40
Dinosaur, CO 81610-9724
(Also in Utah)

The quarry here is the single most important Jurassic dinosaur paleontological site found anywhere. The monument also has a nearly complete stratigraphic geologic record.

Proclaimed Oct. 4, 1915. Boundary changes: July 14, 1938; Sept. 8, 1960; Feb. 21, 1963; Oct. 9, 1964; Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—210,277.55 Federal: 205,685.54 Nonfederal: 4,592.01.

Florissant Fossil Beds
National Monument

PO Box 185
Florissant, CO 80816-0185

A wealth of fossil insects, leaves, fish, birds, and small mammals is preserved here. Few areas in the world yield more fossil species. Here too are standing petrified sequoia stumps.

Authorized Aug. 20, 1969.
Acreage—5,998.09 Federal: 5,992.32 Nonfederal: 5.77.

Great Sand Dunes
National Park and
Great Sand Dunes
National Preserve

11500 Highway 150
Mosca, CO 81146-9798

The tallest in North America, these dunes developed as southwesterly winds blew ancient alluvial sediments from the San Luis Valley toward the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. The preserve, containing the entire surface watershed and primary topographic features interacting with the Great Sand Dunes, ranges in elevation from 8,000 to over 13,000 feet and includes life zones from desert to alpine tundra.

Proclaimed March 17, 1932. Boundary changes: March 12, 1946; June 7, 1956; Nov. 10, 1978. Boundary change/redesignation as a national park and national preserve authorized Nov. 22, 2000. Established Sept. 24, 2004. Wilderness designated Oct. 20, 1976; Aug. 13, 1993.
Acreage—National Park: 42,983.74 Federal: 40,430.37  Nonfederal: 2,553.37. National Preserve: 41,686 Federal: 41,676 Nonfederal: 10. Wilderness area: 75,225.

National Monument

(See Utah)

Mesa Verde National Park
PO Box 8
Mesa Verde National
Park, CO 81330-0008

These world-famous cliff dwellings and other works of the Ancestral Puebloan people are the most notable and best preserved in the United States.

Established June 29, 1906. Boundary changes: June 30, 1913; May 27, 1932; Dec. 23, 1963; Dec. 26, 2007. Wilderness designated Oct. 20, 1976. Designated a World Heritage Site Sept. 6, 1978.
Acreage—52,485.17 Federal: 52,215.63 Nonfederal: 269.54. Wilderness area: 8,100.

Rocky Mountain
National Park

1000 Highway 36
Estes Park, CO 80517-8397

The park’s rich scenery, typifying the massive grandeur of the Rocky Mountains, is accessible by Trail Ridge Road, which crosses the Continental Divide. Peaks towering over 14,000 feet shadow wildlife and wildflowers in these 415 square miles of the Rockies.

Established Jan. 26, 1915. Boundary changes: Feb. 14, 1917; Sept. 18, 1922; June 2, 1924; Feb. 24, 1925; June 9, 1926; July 17, 1930; Jan. 11, 1932; March 5, 1936; Aug. 24, 1949; June 27, 1950; April 21, 1959; Sept. 23, 1960; Oct. 26, 1974; Dec. 22, 1980; Nov. 29, 1989. Wilderness transferred Dec. 22, 1980. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1976.
Acreage—265,828.41 Federal: 265,461.34 Nonfederal: 367.07. Wilderness area: 2,917.

Sand Creek Massacre
National Historic Site

PO Box 249
Eads, CO 81036

On November 29, 1864, U.S. soldiers attacked a peaceful encampment of Cheyenne and Arapaho along Sand Creek. Over 150 Indians were killed; most were women, children, or the elderly. The Sand Creek Massacre profoundly influenced U.S.-Indian relations and changed Southern Cheyenne and Southern Arapaho culture. The site preserves the cultural and natural landscape and enhances public understanding of the tragedy.

Authorized Nov. 7, 2000; established Apr. 23, 2007.
Acreage—12,583.34 Federal: 2,385.43 Nonfederal: 10,197.91.

Yucca House
National Monument

c/o Mesa Verde
National Park
PO Box 8
Mesa Verde National
Park, CO 81330-0008

Ruins of these large prehistoric Indian pueblos are as yet unexcavated. NO FEDERAL FACILITIES.

Proclaimed Dec. 19, 1919. Boundary change: Nov. 12, 1996.
Acreage—33.87, all federal.


National Scenic Trail

(See Maine)

Weir Farm
National Historic Site

735 Nod Hill Road
Wilton, CT 06897-1309

Weir farm was home to three generations of American artists. Julian Alden Weir, a leader in American art and the development of American Impressionism, acquired the farm in 1882. Weir’s daughter, painter Dorothy Weir Young, sculptor Mahonri Young, and New England painters and preservationists Sperry and Doris Andrews continued the artistic legacy.

Authorized Oct. 31, 1990. Boundary change: Nov. 10, 1998.
Acreage—74.20 Federal: 68.05 Nonfederal: 6.15.

District of Columbia

Carter G. Woodson Home
National Historic Site

c/o Mary McLeod Bethune
Council House NHS
1318 Vermont Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20005-3607

Dr. Woodson lived in this house at 1538 9th Street, NW, in Washington, D.C., from 1915 until his death in 1950. He directed operations of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History while pursuing his own studies of African American history. After his death, the home served as the association’s national headquarters until the early 1970s. NOT OPEN TO THE PUBLIC.

Authorized Dec. 19, 2003, established Feb. 27, 2006.
Acreage—0.15, all federal.

Chesapeake and Ohio
National Historical Park

(See Maryland)

Constitution Gardens
c/o National Mall and
Memorial Parks
900 Ohio Drive, SW
Washington, DC 20242-0004

This 40-acre park was constructed during the American Revolution Bicentennial in 1976. On an island in a lake is a memorial to the 56 Signers of the Declaration of Independence.

Authorized Aug. 1, 1974; dedicated May 27, 1978.
Acreage—52, all federal.

Ford’s Theatre
National Historic Site

c/o National Mall and
Memorial Parks
900 Ohio Drive, SW
Washington, DC 20242-0004

On April 14, 1865, President Lincoln was shot while attending a play here at 511 Tenth Street, NW. He was carried across the street to the Petersen house, where he died the next morning. The museum beneath the theater contains portions of the Olroyd Collection of Lincolniana.

Act of April 7, 1866, provided for purchase of Ford’s Theatre by federal government; designation changed to Lincoln Museum Feb. 12, 1932; redesignated Ford’s Theatre (Lincoln Museum) April 14, 1965. House Where Lincoln Died authorized June 11, 1896. Both areas transferred from Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks of the National Capital Aug. 10, 1933; combined as Ford’s Theatre National Historic Site June 23, 1970. Boundary change: June 23, 1970.
Acreage—0.29, all federal.

Franklin Delano
Roosevelt Memorial

c/o National Mall and
Memorial Parks
900 Ohio Drive, SW
Washington, DC 20242-0004

Located along the Cherry Tree Walk on the Tidal Basin near the national mall, this memorial designed by Lawrence Halprin is dedicated to FDR and his times. Twelve years of American history are traced through a sequence of four outdoor rooms—each devoted to one of FDR’s four terms in office. Sculptures inspired by photographs depict the 32nd president: A 10-foot statue shows him in his wheeled chair; a bas-relief depicts him riding in a car during his first inaugural.

Authorized Sept. 5, 1959; dedicated May 2, 1997.
Acreage—7.50, all federal.

Frederick Douglass
National Historic Site

1411 W Street, SE
Washington, DC 20020-4813

From 1877 to 1895 this was the home of the nation’s leading African American spokesman. Among other achievements, he was U.S. minister to Haiti in 1889.

Authorized as Frederick Douglass Home Sept. 5, 1962; redesignated Feb. 12, 1988.
Acreage—8.53 Federal: 8.08 Nonfederal: 0.45.

George Washington
Memorial Parkway

(See Virginia)

Korean War Veterans

c/o National Mall and
Memorial Parks
900 Ohio Drive, SW
Washington, DC 20242-0004

Southeast of the Lincoln Memorial on Independence Avenue, a grouping of 19 statues of infantry soldiers by sculptor Frank Gaylord stand before a polished granite wall bearing the images of support personnel.

Authorized October 28, 1986; dedicated July 27, 1995.
Acreage—2.20, all federal.

Lincoln Memorial
c/o National Mall and
Memorial Parks
900 Ohio Drive, SW
Washington, DC 20242-0004

This classical structure of great beauty contains a 19-foot-high marble statue of the Great Emancipator by sculptor Daniel Chester French. Architect of the building was Henry Bacon.

Authorized Feb. 9, 1911; dedicated May 30, 1922; transferred from Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks of the National Capital Aug. 10, 1933.
Acreage—107.43, all federal.

Lyndon Baines Johnson
Memorial Grove on
the Potomac

c/o George Washington
Memorial Parkway
Turkey Run Park
McLean, VA 22101-0001

A living memorial to the 36th president, the park overlooks the Potomac River vista of the Capital. The design features 500 white pines and inscriptions on Texas granite.

Authorized Dec. 28, 1973; dedicated Sept. 27, 1974.
Acreage—17, all federal.

Mary McLeod Bethune
Council House
National Historic Site

1318 Vermont Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20005-3607

This was the headquarters of the National Council of Negro Women, established by Mary McLeod Bethune in 1935. It commemorates Bethune’s leadership in the black women’s rights movement from 1943 to 1949.

Designated Oct. 15, 1982; National Park Service administration authorized Dec. 11, 1991.
Acreage—0.07, all federal.

National Capital Parks
National Capital Region
1100 Ohio Drive, SW
Washington, DC 20242-0001

The park system of the Nation’s Capital comprises parks, parkways, and reservations in the District of Columbia, including such properties as the Battleground National Cemetery, the President’s Parks (Lafayette Park north of the White House and the Ellipse south of the White House), a variety of military fortifications, and green areas.

Transferred from Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks of the National Capital Aug. 10, 1933.
Acreage—6,631.15 Federal: 6,482.69 Nonfederal: 148.46.

National Mall
c/o National Mall and
Memorial Parks
900 Ohio Drive, SW
Washington, DC 20242-0004

This landscaped park extending from the Capitol to the Washington Monument was defined as a principal axis in the L’Enfant Plan for the city of Washington.

Authorized July 16, 1790; transferred from Office of Public Buildings and Parks of the National Capital Aug. 10, 1933.
Acreage—146.35, all federal.

Pennsylvania Avenue
National Historic Site

c/o National Mall and
Memorial Parks
900 Ohio Drive, SW
Washington, DC 20242-0004

Pennsylvania Avenue, linking the Capitol to the White House, serves as America’s Main Street, providing a setting for parades and cultural activities. The site encompasses Ford’s Theatre National Historic Site, several blocks of the Washington commercial district—including the Old Post Office—and a number of federal structures.

Designated Sept. 30, 1965.

Potomac Heritage
National Scenic Trail

(See Maryland)

Rock Creek Park
3545 Williamsburg La., NW
Washington, DC 20008-1207

One of the largest natural urban parks in the United States, this wooded preserve also contains a range of historic and recreational features in the midst of Washington.

Authorized Sept. 27, 1890; transferred from Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks of the National Capital Aug. 10, 1933.
Acreage—1,754.70, all federal.

Theodore Roosevelt

c/o George Washington
Memorial Parkway
Turkey Run Park
McLean, VA 22101-0001

On this wooded island sanctuary in the Potomac River, trails lead to an imposing statue of Roosevelt, the conservation-minded 26th president, by Paul Manship. His tenets on nature, manhood, youth, and the state are inscribed on tablets.

Authorized May 21, 1932; transferred from Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks of the National Capital Aug. 10, 1933; memorial dedicated Oct. 27, 1967.
Acreage—88.50, all federal.

Thomas Jefferson

c/o National Mall and
Memorial Parks
900 Ohio Drive, SW
Washington, DC 20242-0004

This circular, colonnaded structure in the classical style introduced in this country by Jefferson memorializes the author of the Declaration of Independence and president from 1801 to 1809. The interior walls present inscriptions from his writings. The heroic statue was sculpted by Rudolph Evans; architects were John Russell Pope and his associates Otto Eggers and Daniel Higgins.

Authorized June 26, 1934; dedicated April 13, 1943.
Acreage—18.36, all federal.

Vietnam Veterans

c/o National Mall and
Memorial Parks
900 Ohio Drive, SW
Washington, DC 20242-0004

Located near the Lincoln Memorial at the west end of Constitution Gardens, the polished black granite wall is inscribed with the names of over 58,000 persons who gave their lives in the Vietnam war or remain missing. The memorial was designed by Maya Ying Lin. The entrance plaza includes a flagstaff and a bronze statue of three Vietnam war servicemen sculpted by Frederick Hart. In 1993 the Vietnam Women’s Memorial, by Glenna Goodacre, was added to represent the contribution of women Vietnam veterans.

Authorized July 1, 1980; dedicated Nov. 13, 1982.
Acreage—2, all federal.

Washington Monument
c/o National Mall and
Memorial Parks
900 Ohio Drive, SW
Washington, DC 20242-0004

A dominating feature of the Nation’s Capital, this 555-foot obelisk honors the country’s first president, George Washington. The architect-designer was Robert Mills, but Lt. Col. Thomas Casey of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers redesigned and completed the monument.

Authorized Jan. 31, 1848; dedicated Feb. 21, 1885; transferred from Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks of the National Capital Aug. 10, 1933.
Acreage—106.01, all federal.

White House
c/o National Capital Region
1100 Ohio Drive, SW
Washington, DC 20242-0001

The White House has been the residence and office of U.S. presidents since November 1800, and it symbolizes the presidency. The cornerstone was laid Oct. 13, 1792, on the site selected by George Washington and included in the L’Enfant Plan; renovations were made 1949–52.

Transferred Aug. 10, 1933, to National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, the legal successor of three Federal Commissioners appointed by the president under act of July 16, 1790, who directed initial construction. Their authority developed through acts of May 1, 1802; April 29, 1816; March 3, 1849; March 2, 1867; July 1, 1898; Feb. 26, 1925; March 3, 1933; and Executive Order of June 10, 1933. Under act of Sept. 22, 1961, “the White House...shall be administered pursuant to the act of August 25, 1916” and supplementary and amendatory acts.
Acreage—18.07, all federal.

World War II Memorial
c/o National Mall and
Memorial Parks
900 Ohio Drive, SW
Washington, DC 20242-0004

The memorial honors the 16 million Americans who served during World War II, along with the millions who supported them on the home front during a time of unprecedented national unity. A wall contains 4,000 gold stars symbolizing the over 400,000 Americans who died during the war. Architect Friedrich St. Florian designed the memorial.

Authorized May 25, 1993; dedicated May 29, 2004.
Acreage—7.5, all federal.


Big Cypress
National Preserve

HCR 61, Box 110
Ochopee, FL 34141

This large area protects the watershed for the threatened ecosystem of South Florida. Subtropical plant and animal life abounds in a park that is home to endangered species like the Florida panther and the red-cockaded woodpecker.

Authorized Oct. 11, 1974. Boundary change: April 29, 1988.
Acreage—720,567.25 Federal: 648,190.88 Nonfederal: 72,376.37.

Biscayne National Park
9700 SW 328 Street
Homestead, FL 33033-5634

Subtropical islands form a north-south chain, with Biscayne Bay on the west and the Atlantic Ocean on the east. The park protects interrelated marine systems including mangrove shoreline, bay communities, subtropical keys, and the northernmost coral reef in the United States.

Authorized as a national monument Oct. 18, 1968; redesignated and enlarged June 28, 1980. Boundary change: Oct. 26, 1974.
Acreage—172,924.07 Federal: 170,955.77 Nonfederal: 1,968.30. Land area: 4,446.23.

National Seashore

308 Julia Street
Titusville, FL 32796-3521

Twenty-five miles of undeveloped barrier island preserve the natural beach, dune, marsh, and lagoon habitats for many species of birds. The Kennedy Space Center occupies the southern end of the island and temporary closures are possible due to launch-related activities.

Established Jan. 3, 1975.
Acreage—57,661.69 Federal: 57,647.69 Nonfederal: 14.

Castillo de San Marcos
National Monument

1 Castillo Drive South
St. Augustine, FL 32084-3699

Construction of this, the oldest masonry fort in the continental United States, was started in 1672 by the Spanish to protect St. Augustine, first permanent settlement by Europeans in the continental United States, 1565. The floor plan is the result of modernization work done in the 1700s.

Proclaimed Fort Marion National Monument Oct. 15, 1924; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933; renamed June 5, 1942. Boundary changes: June 29, 1936; July 5, 1960; Dec. 23, 2004.
Acreage—20.21 Federal: 20.18 Nonfederal: 0.03.

De Soto National

PO Box 15390
Bradenton, FL 34280-5390

The park commemorates the landing of Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto in Florida in 1539 and the first extensive organized exploration by Europeans of what is now the southern United States.

Authorized March 11, 1948. Boundary change: Sept. 8, 1960.
Acreage—26.84 Federal: 24.78 Nonfederal: 2.06.

Dry Tortugas
National Park

c/o Everglades National Park
40001 State Road 9336
Homestead, FL 33034-6733

Fort Jefferson was built 1846–66 to help control the Florida Straits. It is the largest all-masonry fortification in the Western world. The bird refuge and marine life are notable features.

Proclaimed Fort Jefferson National Monument Jan. 4, 1935; renamed and redesignated Oct. 26, 1992.
Acreage—64,701.22 Federal: 61,481.22 Nonfederal: 3,220.Land area: 39.28.

Everglades National Park
40001 State Road 9336
Homestead, FL 33034-6733

This largest remaining subtropical wilderness in the contiguous United States has extensive fresh water and salt water areas, open sawgrass prairies, and mangrove forests. Abundant wildlife includes rare and colorful birds.

Authorized May 30, 1934; established Dec. 6, 1947. Boundary changes: July 2, 1958; Sept. 14, 1959; Sept. 2, 1960; Sept. 12, 1964; Oct. 17, 1969; Dec. 13, 1989; Dec. 23, 2004. Wilderness designated Nov. 10, 1978. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1976. Designated a World Heritage Site Oct. 24, 1979.
Acreage—1,508,537.9 Federal: 1,505,975.61 Nonfederal: 2,562.29. Wilderness area: 1,296,500. Water area: 625,000.

Fort Caroline
National Memorial

12713 Fort Caroline Road
Jacksonville, FL 32225-1240

Two centuries of French and Spanish colonial rivalry in North America began here with the establishment of a French Huguenot settlement, 1564–65.

Authorized Sept. 21, 1950. Boundary changes: April 11, 1972; Nov. 10, 1978; Nov. 19, 1979.
Acreage—138.39 Federal: 133.15 Nonfederal: 5.24.

Fort Matanzas
National Monument

c/o Castillo de San Marcos
National Monument
1 Castillo Drive South
St. Augustine, FL 32084-3699

This Spanish fort was built, 1740–42, to warn St. Augustine of British or other enemy approach from the south.

Proclaimed Oct. 15, 1924; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary changes: Jan. 9, 1935; March 24, 1948.
Acreage—300.11 Federal: 298.51 Nonfederal: 1.60

Gulf Islands
National Seashore

1801 Gulf Breeze Parkway
Gulf Breeze, FL 32561-5000
(See also Mississippi)

Offshore islands have sparkling white sand beaches, historic fortifications, and nature trails. Mainland features of this unit, which is located near Pensacola, include the Naval Live Oaks Reservation, beaches, and military forts. All areas in Florida are accessible by car.

Authorized Jan. 8, 1971. Boundary change: Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—137,990.97 Federal: 99,616.72 Nonfederal: 38,374.25. Land area: 19,445.46. (Acreage figures are for entire park, Florida and Mississippi units.)

Timucuan Ecological
and Historic Preserve

13165 Mt. Pleasant Road
Jacksonville, FL 32225-1227

Named for the American Indians who lived here for over 3,000 years, the preserve encompasses Atlantic coastal marshes, islands, tidal creeks, and the estuaries of the St. Johns and Nassau rivers. Besides traces of Indian life, remains of Spanish, French, and English colonial ventures can be found, as well as plantation life and military activities in the 1800s.

Authorized Feb. 16, 1988. Boundary change: Oct. 5, 2004.
Acreage—46,286.91 Federal: 8,941.15 Nonfederal: 37,345.76.


National Historic Site

496 Cemetery Road
Andersonville, GA 31711-9707

This Civil War prisoner-of-war camp commemorates the sacrifices by American prisoners in the 1861–65 conflict and in all wars. The prison site is partially reconstructed. Includes National Prisoner of War Museum and Andersonville National Cemetery (16,000 interments, 1,004 unidentified).

Authorized Oct. 16, 1970.
Acreage—514.61 Federal: 480.88 Nonfederal: 33.73.

National Scenic Trail

(See Maine)

Chattahoochee River
National Recreation Area

1978 Island Ford Parkway
Atlanta, GA 30350-3400

A series of sites along a 48-mile stretch of the Chattahoochee River, north of Atlanta, is preserved so the public can enjoy recreation and visit historic spots.

Established Aug. 15, 1978. Boundary change: Oct. 30, 1984.
Acreage—9,270.70 Federal: 4,816.75 Nonfederal: 4,453.95.

Chickamauga and
National Military Park

PO Box 2128
Fort Oglethorpe, GA
(Also in Tennessee)

A major Confederate victory on Chickamauga Creek in Georgia, Sept. 19–20, 1863, was countered by Union victories at Orchard Knob, Lookout Mountain, and Missionary Ridge in Chattanooga, Tenn., Nov. 23–25, 1863. This was the first national military park.

Established Aug. 19, 1890; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary changes: Aug. 9, 1939; March 5, 1942; June 24, 1948; Feb. 24, 2003.
Acreage—9,037.98 Federal: 8,314.35 Nonfederal: 723.63.

Cumberland Island
National Seashore

PO Box 806
St. Marys, GA 31558-0806

Magnificent and unspoiled beaches and dunes, marshes, and freshwater lakes, along with historic sites, make up the largest of Georgia’s Golden Isles. Accessible by tour boat only.

Established Oct. 23, 1972. Boundary changes: Nov. 10, 1978; Dec. 8, 2004. Wilderness designated Sept. 8, 1982. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1986.
Acreage—36,415.13 Federal: 19,472.72 Nonfederal: 16,942.41. Land area: 26,153.10. Wilderness area: 8,840.

Fort Frederica
National Monument

Route 9, Box 286-C
St. Simons Island, GA

Gen. James E. Oglethorpe built this British town and fort in 1736–48 during the Anglo-Spanish struggle for control of what is now the southeastern United States.

Authorized May 26, 1936. Boundary changes: Sept. 20, 1950; May 16, 1958; July 3, 1984; Nov. 30, 2004.
Acreage—241.42 Federal: 239.19 Nonfederal: 2.23.

Fort Pulaski
National Monument

PO Box 30757
Savannah, GA 31410-0757

Fort Pulaski took 18 years and 25 million bricks to build, but in 30 hours, new, experimental rifled cannon tore great, gaping holes in its walls, forcing the Confederate garrison to surrender in 1862. The strategy of warfare and the role of fortifications were changed forever.

Proclaimed Oct. 15, 1924; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary changes: June 26, 1936; May 25, 1959.
Acreage—5,623.10 Federal: 5,365.13 Nonfederal: 257.97.

Jimmy Carter
National Historic Site

300 N. Bond Street
Plains, GA 31780-0392

The rural southern culture of Plains, Ga., had a large influence in molding the character and in shaping the political policies of the 39th president of the United States. The site includes President Carter’s residence and boyhood home. Plains High School serves as the park visitor center. The railroad depot, which served as campaign headquarters during the 1976 election, houses additional exhibits. The area surrounding the residence is under the protection of the Secret Service, and no attempt should be made to enter.

Authorized Dec. 23, 1987.
Acreage—70.54 Federal: 47.54 Nonfederal: 23.00.

Kennesaw Mountain
National Battlefield Park

905 Kennesaw Mountain Drive
Kennesaw, GA 30152

Eleven miles of Union and Confederate earthworks are preserved within the park. These earthworks mark the sites of the battles of Kolb’s Farm, June 22, 1864, and Kennesaw Mountain, June 27, 1864. Gen. William T. Sherman’s southward advance was temporarily halted here by Gen. Joseph T. Johnston and the stalwart defense of his Confederates.

Authorized as a national battlefield site Feb. 8, 1917; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933; redesignated June 26, 1935. Boundary change: Aug. 9, 1939.
Acreage—2,884.14 Federal: 2,879.60 Nonfederal: 4.54.

Martin Luther King, Jr.,
National Historic Site

450 Auburn Avenue, NE
Atlanta, GA 30312-0526

The birthplace, church, and grave of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., civil rights leader, compose this park. The park visitor center has exhibits and films on Dr. King. The surrounding 68.19-acre preservation district includes Sweet Auburn, the economic and cultural center of Atlanta’s African American community during most of the 1900s.

Established Oct. 10, 1980. Boundary change: Oct. 5, 2004.
Acreage—38.66 Federal: 13.53 Nonfederal: 25.13.

National Monument

1207 Emery Highway
Macon, GA 31217-4399

Traces of 12,000 years of Southeastern culture from Ice Age Indians to the historic Creek Confederacy are preserved here. The park includes many artifacts and the massive temple mounds of a Mississippian Indian ceremonial complex that thrived here between 900 and 1100.

Authorized June 14, 1934. Boundary changes: June 13, 1941; July 9, 1991.
Acreage—701.54, all federal.


War in the Pacific
National Historical Park

460 N. Marine Dr.
Piti, GU 96915

The 1944 recapture of Guam by American forces during World World II is interpreted at seven units on this island, from the summit of Mt. Tenjo (1,033 ft.) to the submerged war relics on the offshore coral reefs (132 feet deep).

Authorized Aug. 18, 1978.
Acreage—2,036,98 Federal: 957.52 Nonfederal: 1,079.46.Water area: 1,002.


Haleakala¯ National Park
PO Box 369
Makawao, Maui, HI 96768-0369

A variety of areas, from the summit to the ocean, protect fragile native Hawaiian ecosystems, rare and endangered species, and cultural sites.

Established as a part of Hawaii National Park Aug. 1, 1916; renamed Sept. 13, 1960. Boundary changes: Feb. 12, 1927; Jan. 10, 1969; Oct. 21, 1976. Wilderness designated Oct. 20, 1976. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1980.
Acreage—29,093.67 Federal: 29,093.52 Nonfederal: 0.15. Wilderness area: 19,270.

Hawai‘i Volcanoes
National Park

PO Box 52
Hawai‘i National Park, HI

Erupting volcanoes, rare and endangered plant and animal communities, and prehistoric sites are special features of the park.

Established as part of Hawaii National Park Aug. 1, 1916; renamed Sept. 22, 1961. Boundary changes: May 1, 1922; April 11, 1928; June 20, 1938; Dec. 3, 1940; July 1, 1961; Nov. 10, 1978; Nov. 12, 1998; July 3, 2003. Wilderness designated Nov. 10, 1978. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1980. Designated a World Heritage Site Dec. 10, 1987.
Acreage—333,086, all federal. Wilderness area: 130,950.

National Historical Park

PO Box 2222
Kalaupapa, HI 96742-2222

This park contains the site of the Moloka‘i Hansen’s disease (leprosy) settlement (1886–1969), areas relating to early settlement, and habitats for rare and endangered species.

Authorized Dec. 22, 1980.
Acreage—10,778.88 Federal: 22.88 Nonfederal: 10,756. Water area: 2,000.

National Historical Park

73-4786 Kanalani Street, #14
Kailua Kona, HI 96740-2608

This was the site of important Hawaiian settlements before the arrival of European explorers. It includes coastal areas, three large fishponds, a house site, and other archeological remnants. The park preserves the native culture of Hawaii.

Established Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—1,160.91 Federal: 615.90 Nonfederal: 545.01.

Pu‘uhonua o Ho¯naunau
National Historical Park

PO Box 129
Honaunau, HI 96726-0129

Until 1819, vanquished Hawaiian warriors, noncombatants, and kapu breakers could escape death by reaching this sacred ground. The park includes ancient house sites, royal fishponds, coconut groves, and spectacular shore scenery.

Authorized as City of Refuge National Historical Park July 26, 1955; renamed Nov. 10, 1978. Boundary change: Dec. 16, 2002.
Acreage—419.80 Federal: 181.80 Nonfederal: 238.

Pu‘ukohola¯ Heiau
National Historic Site

PO Box 44340
Kawaihae, HI 96743-4340

Ruins of Pu‘ukohola¯ Heiau (“Temple on the Hill of the Whale”), built by King Kamehameha the Great during his rise to power, are preserved.

Authorized Aug. 17, 1972.
Acreage—86.24 Federal: 60.95 Nonfederal: 25.29.

World War II Valor
in the Pacific
National Monument

Pearl Harbor
1 Arizona Memorial Place
Honolulu, HI 96818-3145
(Also in Alaska and California)

This monument comprises nine historic sites representing various aspects of World War II history in the Pacific. Five sites are in the Pearl Harbor area: the USS Arizona Memorial and visitor center; the USS Utah Memorial; the USS Oklahoma Memorial; the six chief petty officer bungalows on Ford Island; and mooring quays F6, F7, and F8, which constituted part of Battleship Row. Three sites are located in Alaska’s Aleutian Islands: the crash site of a consolidated B-24D liberator bomber on Atka Island, the Kiska Island site of Imperial Japan’s occupation that began in June 1942; and Attu Island, the site of the only land battle fought in North America during World War II. The last of the nine designations is the Tule Lake Segregation Center National Historic Landmark and nearby Camp Tule Lake in California—both of which housed Japanese Americans relocated from the west coast of the United States.

Proclaimed Dec. 5, 2008.
Acreage—6,295, all federal.


City of Rocks
National Reserve

PO Box 169
Almo, ID 83312-0169

Scenic granite spires and sculptured rock formations dominate this landscape. Remnants of the California Trail are still visible in the area. Recreational opportunities include rock climbing and camping. LIMITED FACILITIES.

Authorized Nov. 18, 1988. Administered cooperatively by the National Park Service and the Idaho Department of Parks and Recreation.
Acreage—14,107.19 Federal: 9,226.99 Nonfederal: 4,880.20.

Craters of the Moon
National Monument and
Craters of the Moon
National Preserve

PO Box 29
Arco, ID 83213-0029

Twisted, splattered lava, steep-sided cinder cones, tubelike caves, and lava flows 2,100 years old produce an amazing landscape. Administered cooperatively by the National Park Service and the Bureau of Land Management.

Proclaimed May 2, 1924. Boundary changes: July 23, 1928; July 9, 1930; June 5, 1936; July 18, 1941; Nov. 19, 1962; Nov. 9, 2000. Wilderness designated Oct. 23, 1970. Preserve designated Aug. 21, 2002.
Acreage—304,727.05, all federal. Wilderness area: 43,243.

Hagerman Fossil Beds
National Monument

221 North State Street
PO Box 570
Hagerman, ID 83332-0570

Extraordinary fossils from the Pliocene Epoch, 3.5 million years ago, are covered in sediment from the Snake River Plain. The Hagerman Horse Quarry, a National Natural Landmark, and over 200 fossilized plant and animal species are here. LIMITED FEDERAL FACILITIES.

Authorized Nov. 18, 1988.
Acreage—4,351.15 Federal: 4,334.65 Nonfederal: 16.50.

National Historic Site

221 North State Street
PO Box 570
Hagerman, ID 83332

The history and cultural resources associated with the relocation and internment of Japanese Americans during World War II are interpreted here. UNDER DEVELOPMENT.

Authorized Jan. 17, 2001; redesignated May 8, 2008.
Acreage—292, all federal.

Nez Perce
National Historical Park

36063 U.S. Highway 95
Spalding, ID 83540-9715
(Also in Washington,
Oregon, and Montana)

The park’s 38 sites, spreading across Idaho, Washington, Oregon, and Montana, commemorate the Nez Perce. Six sites are owned and managed by the National Park Service at Spalding, Canoe Camp, Buffalo Eddy, East Kamiah, White Bird Battlefield, and Big Hole National Battlefield.

Authorized May 15, 1965. Boundary change: Oct. 30, 1992.
Acreage—2,494.59 Federal: 2,218.69 Nonfederal: 275.90.

Yellowstone National Park
(See Wyoming)


Lincoln Home
National Historic Site

413 S. Eighth Street
Springfield, IL 62701-1905

Abraham Lincoln resided in this house for 17 years before he became president. The surrounding historic district preserves the 1860s environment in which the Lincoln family lived.

Authorized Aug. 18, 1971.
Acreage—12.24 Federal: 12.03 Nonfederal: 0.21.

Lincoln in 1860, age 51.
(Library of Congress)
The Lincolns’ home in Springfield, Ill., 1844–1861.
(NPS/Richard Schlecht)


George Rogers Clark
National Historical Park

401 S. Second Street
Vincennes, IN 47591-1001

A classical memorial building, located near the site of old Fort Sackville, commemorates the capture of the fort from the British by Lt. Col. George Rogers Clark, Feb. 25, 1779, and the subsequent settlement of the region north of the Ohio River. The statue was sculpted by Hermon MacNeil.

Authorized July 23, 1966.
Acreage—26.17, all federal.

Indiana Dunes
National Lakeshore

1100 N. Mineral Springs Rd.
Porter, IN 46304-1299

Beaches, dunes, bogs, marshes, swamps, and prairie remnants grace the southern shore of Lake Michigan in this park, which encompasses four National Natural Landmarks. An 1822 homestead, 1900s family farm, and houses originally exhibited at the 1933 Chicago World’s Fair accent the historic landscape.

Authorized Nov. 5, 1966. Boundary changes: Oct. 18, 1976; Dec. 28, 1980; Oct. 29, 1986; Oct. 23, 1992.
Acreage—15,096.05 Federal: 10,815.84 Nonfederal: 4,280.21.

Lincoln Boyhood
National Memorial

3027 E. South Street
Lincoln City, IN 47552-1816

Abraham Lincoln lived on this southern Indiana farm from 1816 to 1830. During that time, he grew from a 7-year-old boy to a 21-year-old man. His mother, Nancy Hanks Lincoln, is buried here.

Authorized Feb. 19, 1962.
Acreage—199.65 Federal: 180.81 Nonfederal: 18.84.


Effigy Mounds
National Monument

151 Highway 76
Harpers Ferry, IA 52146-7519

The monument preserves 206 American Indian mound sites built along the Mississippi River between 450 B.C.E. and 1300, including 31 effigy mounds in the shapes of birds and bears. These mounds are examples of a significant phase of mound-building culture, commemorating the passing of loved ones and the sacred beliefs of these ancient peoples.

Proclaimed Oct. 25, 1949. Boundary changes: May 27, 1961; Oct. 31, 1983, Oct. 19, 2000.
Acreage—2,526.39, all federal.

E.H. Daniels’ panel, Lincoln Boyhood NM, depicts Lincoln in the wilderness, 1816–1830.
(NPS/©Laurence Parent)

Herbert Hoover
National Historic Site

110 Parkside Drive
West Branch, IA 52358-0607

The site commemorates the life of the 31st U.S. president. The site includes the cottage where Hoover was born, a blacksmith shop, the first West Branch schoolhouse, the Friends Meetinghouse where the Hoover family worshipped, the Hoover Presidential Library-Museum, and the graves of President and Mrs. Hoover.

Authorized Aug. 12, 1965.
Acreage—186.80 Federal: 181.11 Nonfederal: 5.69


Brown v. Board of
National Historic Site

1515 SE Monroe Street
Topeka, KS 66612-1143

The 1954 landmark Supreme Court decision in Oliver L. Brown, et. al. v. the Topeka Board of Education, et. al. concluded that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal,” effectively ending legal racial segregation in the public schools of this country. That decision is commemorated at the former Monroe Elementary School, one of four segregated schools for African American children in Topeka.

Established Oct. 26, 1992.
Acreage—1.85, all federal.

Fort Larned
National Historic Site

1767 KS Highway 156
Larned, KS 67550-9321

This military outpost was established midway along the Santa Fe Trail in 1859 to protect the mail and travelers. The fort served as a bureau for the Indian Agency during much of the 1860s and was a key military base of operations during the Indian War of 1868–69.

Authorized Aug. 31, 1964.
Acreage—718.39 Federal: 679.66 Nonfederal: 38.73.

Fort Scott
National Historic Site

PO Box 918
Old Fort Boulevard
Fort Scott, KS 66701-0918

Established in 1842 as a base for the U.S. Army’s peacekeeping efforts along the “permanent Indian frontier,” the fort was manned by dragoon and infantry soldiers who served in the U.S.-Mexican War (1846–1848), provided armed escorts for parties on the Santa Fe and Oregon trails, surveyed unmapped country, and maintained contact with Plains Indians. The fort was abandoned in 1853 but reactivated during the Civil War, serving as headquarters for the Post of Southeast Kansas.

Authorized Oct. 19, 1978.
Acreage—16.69, all federal.

National Historic Site

304 Washington Avenue
Nicodemus, KS 67625-9719

Nicodemus, Kans., is the only remaining western town established by African Americans during the reconstruction period following the Civil War. The town is symbolic of the pioneer spirit of African Americans seeking personal freedom and the opportunity to develop their talents and capabilities.

Established Nov. 12, 1996.
Acreage—4.3 Federal: 51 Nonfederal: 3.79.

Tallgrass Prairie
National Preserve

PO Box 585
226 Broadway
Cottonwood Falls, KS

This nationally significant example of the once vast tallgrass prairie ecosystem includes historic buildings and cultural resources of the Spring Hill Ranch in the Flint Hills region of Kansas. The federal government will own up to 180 acres, with The Nature Conservancy—the purchaser of the property in 2005—retaining ownership of the rest of the preserve.

Established November 12, 1996.
Acreage—10,894 Federal: 32.26 Nonfederal: 10,861.74.


Abraham Lincoln
National Historical Park

2995 Lincoln Farm Road
Hodgenville, KY 42748-9707

A cabin, symbolic of the one in which Lincoln was born, is preserved in a memorial building at the site of his birth.

Established as Abraham Lincoln National Park July 17, 1916; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933; redesignated Aug. 11, 1939; renamed and redesignated Sept. 8, 1959; redesignated a national historical park March 30, 2009. Boundary changes: May 27, 1949; April 11, 1972; Nov. 6, 1998.
Acreage—344.50, all federal.

Big South Fork
National River and
Recreation Area

(See Tennessee)

Cumberland Gap
National Historical Park

PO Box 1848
Middlesboro, KY 40965
(Also in Virginia and Tennessee)

This mountain pass on the Wilderness Road, explored by Daniel Boone, developed into a main artery of the great trans-Allegheny migration for settlement of the Old West and was an important military objective in the Civil War.

Authorized June 11, 1940. Boundary changes: July 26, 1961; Oct. 26, 1974; Jan. 23, 2004.
Acreage—20,507.98 Federal: 20,498.22 Nonfederal: 9.76.

Mammoth Cave
National Park

PO Box 7
Mammoth Cave, KY 42259-0007

The park was established to preserve the cave system, including Mammoth Cave, the scenic river valleys of the Green and Nolin rivers, and a section of the hilly country of south central Kentucky. This is the longest recorded cave system in the world, with over 350 miles explored and mapped.

Authorized May 25, 1926; established July 1, 1941. Boundary changes: May 14, 1934; Aug. 28, 1937; Dec. 3, 1940; June 5, 1942. Designated a World Heritage Site Oct. 27, 1981. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1990.
Acreage—52,830.19 Federal: 52,003.24 Nonfederal: 826.95.


Cane River Creole
National Historical Park

400 Rapides Drive
Natchitoches, LA 71457

This park is part of the 40,000-acre Cane River National Heritage Area. It consists of Oakland Plantation and portions of Magnolia Plantation. Both demonstrate the history of colonization, frontier influences, French Creole architecture and culture, cotton agriculture, slavery, and social practices over 200 years.

Authorized Nov. 2, 1994.
Acreage—206.86 Federal: 62.39 Nonfederal: 144.47.

Jean Lafitte
National Historical Park
and Preserve

419 Decatur Street
New Orleans, LA 70130

The park consists of Barataria, Chalmette Battlefield, the French Quarter, and the Acadian units. The Acadian Cultural Center in Lafayette, the Prairie Acadian Cultural Center in Eunice, and the Wetlands Acadian Cultural Center in Thibodaux interpret Cajun culture and history. Barataria, south of New Orleans, has trails and canoe tours through bottomland forests, swamp, and marsh. Chalmette, east of New Orleans, was the scene of the 1815 Battle of New Orleans. The French Quarter unit interprets the ethnic population of the Delta.

Chalmette Unit established as Chalmette Monument and Grounds March 4, 1907; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933; reestablished as Chalmette National Historical Park Aug. 10, 1939; incorporation in new park authorized Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—20,004.90 Federal: 14,475.26 Nonfederal: 5,529.64.

New Orleans Jazz
National Historical Park

419 Decatur Street
New Orleans, LA 70130

The park interprets jazz as it evolved in New Orleans and assists organizations involved with jazz and its history.

Authorized Oct. 31, 1994.
Acreage—5.13, all nonfederal.

Poverty Point
National Monument

c/o Poverty Point State
Commemorative Area
PO Box 248
Epps, LA 71237

This park in northeastern Louisiana commemorates a culture that thrived from 4,000 to 3,000 years ago. The site, which has some of the largest prehistoric earthworks in North America, is managed by the state of Louisiana. State park facilities are open to the public. NO FEDERAL FACILITIES.

Authorized Oct. 31, 1988.
Acreage—910.85, all nonfederal.

National Military Park

(See Mississippi)


Acadia National Park
PO Box 177
Bar Harbor, ME 04609-0177

The sea sets the mood here, uniting the rugged coastal area of Mount Desert Island, picturesque Schoodic Peninsula on the mainland, and the spectacular cliffs of Isle au Haut.

Proclaimed Sieur de Monts National Monument July 8, 1916; established as Lafayette National Park Feb. 26, 1919; renamed Acadia National Park Jan. 19, 1929. Boundary changes: Jan. 19, 1929; May 23, 1930; May 29, 1935; Aug. 24, 1935; June 6, 1942; Dec. 22, 1944; July 30, 1947; Sept. 7, 1949; Aug. 1, 1950; July 24, 1956; Oct. 3, 1966; March 4, 1968; March 12, 1968; Oct. 15, 1982. Permanent boundary established Sept. 25, 1986.
Acreage—47,389.67 Federal: 46,299.25 Nonfederal: 1090.42.

National Scenic Trail

National Park Service
PO Box 50
Harpers Ferry, WV 25425

For public inquiries:
Appalachian Trail
PO Box 807
Harpers Ferry, WV 25425

Approximately 2,150 miles of this scenic trail follow the Appalachian Mountains from Mt. Katahdin, Maine, through New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Tennessee, and North Carolina, to Springer Mountain, Ga. The trail is one of the first two components of the National Trails System.

Established Oct. 2, 1968. Length: 2,175 miles.
Acreage—227,000.55 Federal: 169,473.59 Nonfederal: 57,526.96.

Saint Croix Island
International Historic Site

PO Box 247
Calais, ME 04619-0247

The attempted French settlement of 1604, which led to the founding of New France, is commemorated on Saint Croix Island in the Saint Croix River on the Canadian border. Facilities and an interpretive trail with exhibits are on the mainland. There is no public access to the island.

Authorized as a national monument June 8, 1949; redesignated an international historic site Sept. 25, 1984.
Acreage—44.90 Federal: 36.0 Nonfederal: 8.90.


National Battlefield

PO Box 158
Sharpsburg, MD 21782-0158

Gen. Robert E. Lee’s first invasion of the North was ended on this battlefield in 1862. Antietam (Sharpsburg) National Cemetery—5,032 interments, 1,836 unidentified—adjoins the park; grave space is not available.

Park: Established as a national battlefield site Aug. 30, 1890; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933; redesignated Nov. 10, 1978. Boundary changes: May 14, 1940; April 22, 1960; May 31, 1962; Nov. 10, 1978.
Cemetery: Probable date of Civil War interments: 1866. Placed under War Dept. July 14, 1870; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933.
Park acreage—3,255.89 Federal: 2725.01 Nonfederal: 530.88. Cemetery acreage: 11.36, all federal.

National Scenic Trail

(See Maine)

Assateague Island
National Seashore

7206 National Seashore Lane
Berlin, MD 21811-2540
(Also in Virginia)

This 37-mile barrier island, with sandy beaches, migratory waterfowl, and wild horses, includes the 9,021-acre Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Authorized Sept. 21, 1965. Boundary change: July 10, 1992.
Acreage—39,726.75 Federal: 17,865.50 Nonfederal: 21,861.25. Land area: 15,977.67. Water area: 22,079.

Catoctin Mountain Park
6602 Foxville Road
Thurmont, MD 21788-0158

Part of the forested ridge that forms the eastern rampart of the Appalachian Mountains in Maryland, this mountain park has sparkling streams and panoramic vistas of the Monocacy Valley.

Catoctin Recreation Demonstration Area transferred from Resettlement Administration Nov. 14, 1936; renamed July 12, 1954. Boundary change: July 12, 1954.
Acreage—5,809.87 Federal: 5,808.74 Nonfederal: 1.13.

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
National Historical Park

1850 Dual Highway, Ste. 100
Hagerstown, MD 21740
(Also in the District of
Columbia and West Virginia)

The park follows the route of the 184.5-mile canal along the Potomac River between Washington, D.C., and Cumberland, Md. The canal was built between 1828 and 1850.

Placed under National Park Service Sept. 23, 1938; upper canal proclaimed a national monument Jan. 18, 1961; established as a national historical park Jan. 8, 1971. Boundary change: Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—19,586.49 Federal: 14,463.77 Nonfederal: 5,122.72

Clara Barton
National Historic Site

5801 Oxford Road
Glen Echo, MD 20812-1201

This 38-room home of the founder of the American Red Cross was headquarters of that organization for seven years.

Authorized Oct. 26, 1974.
Acreage—8.59, all federal.

Fort McHenry
National Monument
and Historic Shrine

End of East Fort Avenue
Baltimore, MD 21230-5393

Successful defense of this fort in the War of 1812, Sept. 13–14, 1814, inspired Francis Scott Key to write “The Star Spangled Banner.”

Authorized as a national park March 3, 1925; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933; redesignated Aug. 11, 1939. Boundary change: June 5, 1936.
Acreage—43.26, all federal.

Fort Washington Park
National Capital Parks, East
1900 Anacostia Drive, SE
Washington, DC 20020-6722

This fort across the Potomac River from Mount Vernon was built to protect Washington, D.C. Construction was begun in 1814 to replace an 1809 fort destroyed during the War of 1812. The park also has recreational facilities.

Transfer from War Dept. authorized May 29, 1930, effective Aug. 12, 1940.
Acreage—341, all federal.

George Washington
Memorial Parkway

(See Virginia)

Great Falls Tavern, mid-1800s . . .

Greenbelt Park
6565 Greenbelt Road
Greenbelt, MD 20770-3207

Just 12 miles from Washington, D.C., this woodland park offers urban dwellers access to many forms of outdoor recreation, including camping year-round.

Transferred from Public Housing Authority Aug. 3, 1950.
Acreage—1,175.99 Federal: 1,175.42 Nonfederal: 0.57.

National Historic Site

535 Hampton Lane
Towson, MD 21286-1397

This remnant of a vast landholding includes a Georgian mansion, gardens and grounds, and original stone slave quarters.

Designated June 22, 1948. Boundary changes: Dec. 23, 1953; Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—62.04, all federal.

Harpers Ferry
National Historical Park

(See West Virginia)

National Battlefield

4801 Urbana Pike
Frederick, MD 21704-7307

In a battle here on July 9, 1864, Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early defeated Union forces commanded by Maj. Gen. Lew Wallace. Wallace’s troops delayed Early’s advance on Washington, D.C., however, enabling Union forces to marshal a successful defense of the capital.

Authorized as Monocacy National Military Park, June 21, 1934. Reauthorized and redesignated Oct. 21, 1976. Boundary change: Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—1,647.01 Federal: 1,550.24 Nonfederal: 96.77.

Piscataway Park
National Capital Parks, East
1900 Anacostia Drive, SE
Washington, DC 20020-6722

The tranquil view from Mount Vernon of the Maryland shore of the Potomac River is preserved by this park, a pilot project in the use of easements to protect significant places from obtrusive urban expansion.

Authorized Oct. 4, 1961. Boundary changes: July 19, 1966; Oct. 21, 1976.
Acreage—4,695.18 Federal: 4,580.57 Nonfederal: 114.61.

. . . over 100 years later, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park.

Potomac Heritage
National Scenic Trail

National Park Service
PO Box B
Harpers Ferry, WV 25425
(District of Columbia,
Maryland, Pennsylvania,
and Virginia)

This scenic trail is a partnership to develop and sustain a system of locally-managed trails for non-motorized travel between the mouth of the Potomac River and the Allegheny Highlands. Segments include the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Towpath, Mount Vernon Trail, Potomac Heritage Trail, Laurel Highlands Hiking Trail, and Great Allegheny Passage. Additional segments are being planned and proposed. The trail is also a component of the National Trails System.

Established March 28, 1983. Length: 845 miles.

Thomas Stone
National Historic Site

6655 Rosehill Road
Port Tobacco, MD 20677-3400

Haberdeventure, a Georgian mansion built in 1771 near Port Tobacco, Md., was the home of Thomas Stone (1743–87). A Signer of the Declaration of Independence, Stone was a delegate to the Continental Congress, 1775–78 and 1783–84.

Authorized Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—328.25 Federal: 321.97 Nonfederal: 6.28.

Adams National Historical Park


National Historical Park

135 Adams Street
Quincy, MA 02169

The park includes the home of Presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams, of U.S. Minister to Great Britain Charles Francis Adams, and of the writers and historians Henry Adams and Brooks Adams; and the birthplaces of both presidents and United First Parish Church, location of the Adams Crypt. The library contains over 14,000 historic volumes.

Designated Adams Mansion National Historic Site Dec. 9, 1946; renamed Nov. 26, 1952; redesignated Nov. 2, 1998. Boundary changes: Nov. 26, 1952; April 11, 1972; Nov. 10, 1978; Oct. 10, 1980; Nov. 2, 1998.
Acreage—23.82 Federal: 9.17 Nonfederal: 14.65.

National Scenic Trail

(See Maine)

Boston African American
National Historic Site

46 Joy Street
Boston, MA 02114-4025

The site contains 15 pre-Civil War African American history structures, linked by the 1.6-mile Black Heritage Trail. The meeting house is the oldest standing African American church in the U.S. Augustus Saint-Gaudens’ memorial to Robert Gould Shaw, the white officer who first led African American troops during the Civil War, stands on the trail.

Authorized Oct. 10, 1980.
Acreage—0.59, all nonfederal.

Boston Harbor Islands
National Recreation Area

Boston Harbor Islands
408 Atlantic Avenue, Ste. 228
Boston MA 02110-3349

Thirty islands in Boston Harbor make up this treasure of natural and cultural resources and recreational amenities at the doorstep of a major Northeast urban area. The park is managed by a partnership of federal, state, municipal, and non-profit agencies, including the National Park Service.

Authorized Nov. 12, 1996.
Acreage—1,482.25 Federal: 245.51 Nonfederal: 1,236.74.

National Historical Park

Charlestown Navy Yard
Visitor Center
Boston, MA 02129-4543

The events and ideas associated with the American Revolution and the founding and growth of the United States provide the common thread linking the sites that compose this park, among them Bunker Hill, Old North Church, Paul Revere House, Faneuil Hall, Old State House, and a portion of the Charlestown Navy Yard, including USS Constitution.

Authorized Oct. 1, 1974. Boundary changes: Nov. 10, 1978; Sept. 8, 1980.
Acreage—43.42 Federal: 37.46 Nonfederal: 5.96.

Cape Cod
National Seashore

99 Marconi Site Road
Wellfleet, MA 02667-0250

Ocean beaches, dunes, woodlands, freshwater ponds, and marshes make up this park on outer Cape Cod. It stretches 40 miles from Chatham to Provincetown. Its many cultural remnants include archeological sites, lighthouses, a life-saving station, cultural landscapes, and the Marconi Station Site, where transatlantic wireless communication was achieved in 1903.

Authorized Aug. 7, 1961; established June 1, 1966. Boundary changes: Nov. 10, 1978; Oct. 26, 1998.
Acreage—43,608.48 Federal: 27,482.73 Nonfederal: 16,125.75. Land area: 27,700.

Frederick Law Olmsted
National Historic Site

99 Warren Street
Brookline, MA 02445-5930

This was the first large-scale landscape architecture office in the United States, founded by Frederick Law Olmsted Sr. and continued by his sons. The site includes the Olmsted Archives and the Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation.

Authorized Oct. 12, 1979. Boundary change: Nov. 12, 1998.
Acreage—7.21, all federal.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy
National Historic Site

83 Beals Street
Brookline, MA 02446-6010

This is the birthplace and early home of the 35th president. It represents the social and political beginnings of one of the world’s most prominent families and contains furnishings and memorabilia from the president’s childhood.

Authorized May 26, 1967.
Acreage—0.09, all federal.

National Historic Site

105 Brattle Street
Cambridge, MA 02138-3407

The Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, George Washington’s headquarters during the siege of Boston (1775–1776) was later home to poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and family (1837–1950). Longfellow hosted writers, artists, and statesmen who helped kindle the American Renaissance. There are decorative and fine arts, a library, and a research archive.

Authorized Oct. 9, 1972.
Acreage—1.98, all federal.

National Historical Park

67 Kirk Street
Lowell, MA 01852-1029

The history of America’s Industrial Revolution is commemorated in downtown Lowell. The Boott Cotton Mills Museum with its weave room of 88 operating looms, “mill girl” boarding houses, the Suffolk Mill turbine, and guided tours tell the story of the transition from farm to factory, chronicle immigrant and labor history, and trace industrial technology.

Authorized June 5, 1978. Boundary changes: June 4, 1980; March 27, 1987; May 8, 2008.
Acreage—141.29  Federal: 31.49 Nonfederal: 109.80.

Minute Man
National Historical Park

174 Liberty Street
Concord, MA 01742

Scene of the “shot heard round the world” that began the Revolutionary War on April 19, 1775, the park includes restored sections of Battle Road between Lexington and Concord; North Bridge; Minute Man Statue; historic monuments and structures; and the Wayside, home of American authors.

Designated a national historic site April 14, 1959; redesignated Sept. 21, 1959. Boundary change: Oct. 24, 1992.
Acreage—970.83 Federal: 794.37 Nonfederal: 176.46.

New Bedford Whaling
National Historical Park

33 William Street
New Bedford, MA 02740

This is the only National Park Service site to commemorate whaling and its contribution to American history. The park includes a 34-acre National Historic Landmark District, the schooner Ernestina, and many cultural institutions, including the New Bedford Whaling Museum.

Authorized Nov. 12, 1996.
Acreage—34 Federal: .34 Nonfederal: 33.66.

Salem Maritime
National Historic Site

Custom House
174 Derby Street
Salem, MA 01970-5186

Recalling the time when Salem traded in the East Indies and throughout the world, the site includes wharves from the 1700s and 1800s, the Custom House, the bonded warehouse, the West India Goods Store, the Narbonne house from the 1600s, and the home of merchant E.H. Derby of the 1700s.

Designated March 17, 1938. Boundary changes: Dec. 12, 1963; Nov. 10, 1978; June 27, 1988.
Acreage—9.02 Federal: 8.93 Nonfederal: 0.09.

Saugus Iron Works
National Historic Site

244 Central Street
Saugus, MA 01906-2107

The site of the first integrated ironworks in North America (1646–68) includes the reconstructed blast furnace, forge, and rolling and slitting mill, and a restored house from the 1600s.

Authorized April 5, 1968.
Acreage—8.51, all federal.

Springfield Armory
National Historic Site

1 Armory Square
Springfield, MA 01105-1299

From 1794 to 1968 Springfield Armory was a center for the manufacture of U.S. military small arms and the scene of important technological advances. The Armory Museum protects one of the world’s most extensive firearms collections.

Authorized Oct. 26, 1974; established March 21, 1978.
Acreage—54.93 Federal: 20.60 Nonfederal: 34.33.


Isle Royale National Park
800 East Lakeshore Drive
Houghton, MI 49931-1895

This forested island, the largest in Lake Superior, is distinguished by its wilderness character, timber wolves, moose herd, and pre-Columbian copper mines.

Authorized March 3, 1931. Boundary changes: May 28, 1934; June 20, 1938; March 6, 1942; Aug. 14, 1958; April 11, 1972; Oct. 20, 1976. Wilderness designated Oct. 20, 1976. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1980.
Acreage—571,790.11 Federal: 539,281.87 Nonfederal: 32,508.24. Land area: 133,781.87. Wilderness area: 132,018.

National Historical Park

25970 Red Jacket Road
Calumet, MI 49913-0471

The park preserves and interprets the history of the Keweenaw Peninsula beginning with prehistoric activity nearly 7,000 years ago through large-scale industrial mining in the 1800s and 1900s. The park’s Keweenaw Heritage Sites partners operate most visitor facilities, providing diverse experiences and views of the industry and its participants. LIMITED FEDERAL FACILITIES.

Established Oct. 27, 1992.
Acreage— 1,870.32 Federal: 135.35 Nonfederal: 1,734.97.

Pictured Rocks
National Lakeshore

PO Box 40
Munising, MI 49862-0040

Multicolored sandstone cliffs, long beach strands, towering sand dunes, waterfalls, inland lakes, wetlands, hardwood and coniferous forests, and a variety of wildlife compose this scenic area on Lake Superior.

Authorized Oct. 15, 1966; established Oct. 5, 1972. Boundary changes: Nov. 12, 1996; Nov. 25, 2002.
Acreage—73,235.83 Federal: 35,728.86 Nonfederal: 37,506.97. Land area: 63,122.08.

Sleeping Bear Dunes
National Lakeshore

9922 Front Street
Empire, MI 49630-9797

This is a diverse landscape with quiet rivers, sandy beaches, beech-maple forests, clear lakes, and massive “perched” sand dunes towering up to 460 feet above Lake Michigan. Two offshore wilderness islands offer tranquility and seclusion. The many historic sites include a lighthouse, life-saving service stations, and agricultural landscapes.

Established Oct. 21, 1970. Boundary change: May 28, 2004.
Acreage—71,291.37 Federal: 57,344.47 Nonfederal: 13,946.90. Land area: 59,471.


Grand Portage
National Monument

PO Box 426
170 Mile Creek Road
Portage, MN 55605

This nine-mile portage was a vital link on one of the principal routes for Indians, explorers, missionaries, and fur traders heading for the Northwest. The Grand Portage post of the North West Company has been reconstructed at the eastern terminus of the Grand Portage on Lake Superior.

Designated a national historic site Sept. 15, 1951; redesignated Sept. 2, 1958.
Acreage—709.97, all federal.

Mississippi National River
and Recreation Area

111 E. Kellogg Boulevard
Suite 105
St. Paul, MN 55101-1256

Encompassing 72 miles of the Mississippi River corridor through the Twin Cities metropolitan region, the area features a wealth of nationally significant natural, cultural, historic, scenic, economic, and scientific resources, complemented by diverse recreational activities.

Established Nov. 18, 1988.
Acreage—53,775 Federal: 62.42 Nonfederal: 53,712.58.

National Monument

36 Reservation Avenue
Pipestone, MN 56164-1269

For centuries American Indians have quarried pipestone from these ancient quarries. Pipes made from this stone are considered sacred and are important spiritual objects for American Indians. Recognizing this cultural activity, the monument’s enabling legislation allows quarrying to continue today.

Established Aug. 25, 1937. Boundary change: June 18, 1956.
Acreage—297.08, all federal.

Saint Croix
National Scenic Riverway

(See Wisconsin)

Voyageurs National Park
3131 Highway 53
International Falls, MN

This waterway of four large lakes connected by narrows was once the route of the French-Canadian voyageurs. With over 500 islands, the lakes surround a peninsula of boreal forest.

Authorized Jan. 8, 1971; established April 8, 1975. Boundary change: Jan. 3, 1983.
Acreage—218,200.17 Federal: 133,121.24 Nonfederal: 85,078.93. Land area: 134,246. Water area: 83,808.


Brices Cross Roads
National Battlefield Site

c/o Natchez Trace Parkway
2680 Natchez Trace Parkway
Tupelo, MS 38804-9718

The Confederate army opposed Union forces here on June 10, 1864, to ultimately secure supply lines between Nashville and Chattanooga, Tenn.

Established Feb. 21, 1929; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933.
Acreage—1, all federal.

Gulf Islands
National Seashore

3500 Park Road
Ocean Springs, MS 39564-9709
(See also Florida)

Sparkling beaches, historic sites, wildlife sanctuaries, islands accessible only by boat, bayous, nature trails, picnic areas, and campgrounds make up this park.

Authorized Jan. 8, 1971. Boundary change: Nov. 10, 1978. Wilderness designated Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—137,990.97 Federal: 99,616.72 Nonfederal: 38,374.25. Land area: 19,445.46. Wilderness area: 1,800. (Acreage figures are for entire park, Mississippi and Florida units.)

National Historical Park

PO Box 1208
Natchez, MS 39121-1208

Before the Civil War, Natchez became a commercial, cultural, and social center of the South’s cotton belt. The city today represents one of the best preserved concentrations of significant antebellum properties in the United States. Within the park are Melrose, an excellent example of a planter’s home, and the home of William Johnson, a prominent free black.

Authorized Oct. 7, 1988.
Acreage—105.31 Federal: 82.36 Nonfederal: 22.95.

Natchez Trace
National Scenic Trail

c/o Natchez Trace Parkway
2680 Natchez Trace Parkway
Tupelo, MS 38804-9718
(Also in Alabama and

Completed sections of this trail are found alongside the Natchez Trace Parkway near Rocky Springs, Jackson, and Tupelo, Miss., and Leipers Fork, Tenn.

Established March 28, 1983. Length: 64 miles.
Acreage—10,995, all nonfederal.

Natchez Trace Parkway
2680 Natchez Trace Parkway
Tupelo, MS 38804-9718
(Also in Alabama and

The 444-mile parkway generally follows the Old Trace, or trail, used by American Indians and early settlers between Nashville, Tenn., and Natchez, Miss., from about 1790 to 1830.

Emergency Appropriation Act of June 19, 1934, allocated initial construction funds; established as parkway under National Park Service by act of May 18, 1938. Ackia Battleground (authorized as a national monument Aug. 27, 1935, and now called Chickasaw Village) and Meriwether Lewis Park (proclaimed as a national monument Feb. 6, 1925, and transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933) were added to the Natchez Trace Parkway by act of Aug. 10, 1961.
Acreage—51,981.57 Federal: 51,680.97 Nonfederal: 300.60.

National Military Park

(See Tennessee)

National Battlefield

c/o Natchez Trace Parkway
2680 Natchez Trace Parkway
Tupelo, MS 38804-9718

Here, July 13–14, 1864, Lt. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest tried to cut the railroad supplying the Union’s march on Atlanta.

Established as a national battlefield site Feb. 21, 1929; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933; redesignated and boundary changed Aug. 10, 1961.
Acreage—1, all federal.

National Military Park

3201 Clay Street
Vicksburg, MS 39183
(Also in Louisiana)

Reconstructed forts and trenches evoke memories of the 47-day siege that ended in the surrender of the city on July 4, 1863. Victory gave the North control of the Mississippi River. The Civil War ironclad gunboat USS Cairo is on display. Vicksburg National Cemetery—18,244 interments, 12,954 unidentified—is within the park; grave space is not available.

Park: Established Feb. 21, 1899; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary changes: June 4, 1963; Oct. 18, 1990.
Cemetery: Date of Civil War interments, 1866–1874. Transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary change: March 2, 1955.
Park acreage—1,795.05 Federal: 1,739.60 Nonfederal: 55.45. Cemetery acreage—116.28, all federal.


George Washington Carver
National Monument

5646 Carver Road
Diamond, MO 64840

Birthplace and childhood home of George Washington Carver, African American agronomist, educator, and humanitarian. The visitor center has a museum, interactive exhibits, theater, and store. A 3⁄4-mile trail passes the birthplace site, Boy Carver statue, restored 1881 Moses Carver House, and cemetery.

Authorized July 14, 1943.
Acreage—240, all federal.

Harry S Truman
National Historic Site

223 North Main Street
Independence, MO 64050-2804

The site preserves the homes of Harry S Truman, 33rd president. The Truman Home, his residence from 1919 to 1972, was called the Summer White House during his administration. The site has four other homes that were part of the family compound: his Uncle and Aunt Noland’s home, the Wallace homes owned by Bess Truman’s brothers, and the Truman Farm Home in Grandview, Mo., at one time a 600-acre farm.

Designated Dec. 8, 1982; National Park Service administration authorized May 23, 1983. Boundary changes: Oct. 2, 1989, Dec. 14, 1993; Oct. 30, 2004.
Acreage—11.63, all federal.

National Expansion

11 North 4th Street
St. Louis, MO 63102-1882

Eero Saarinen’s soaring stainless steel Gateway Arch on St. Louis’ riverfront memorializes the city’s role in westward expansion. Visitors can ascend the 630-foot arch and see exhibits on American Indians, Thomas Jefferson, Lewis and Clark, and others in the underground Museum of Westward Expansion. In the nearby Old Courthouse enslaved Dred Scott sued for his freedom in 1846.

Designated Dec. 21, 1935; Gateway Arch authorized May 17, 1954. Boundary changes: Aug. 29, 1969; Aug. 26, 1992.
Acreage—192.83 Federal: 90.96 Nonfederal: 101.87.

National Scenic

404 Watercress Drive
Van Buren, MO 63965-0490

The 134 miles of the Current and Jacks Fork rivers provide canoeing, tubing, fishing, and swimming opportunities. Over 300 springs pour thousands of gallons of clear, cold water into the streams. Ozark culture is preserved throughout the area. This is the first national scenic river.

Authorized Aug. 27, 1964; established June 10, 1972.
Acreage—80,785.04 Federal: 61,368.42 Nonfederal: 19,416.62.

Ulysses S. Grant
National Historic Site

7400 Grant Road
St. Louis, MO 63123-1801

Ulysses S. Grant’s association with historic White Haven farm spanned the decades from his graduation from West Point in 1843 to his death in 1885. Throughout the turbulence of the Civil War and Grant’s presidency, White Haven was home.

Authorized Oct. 2, 1989.
Acreage—9.60, all federal.

Wilson’s Creek
National Battlefield

6424 W. Farm Road 182
Republic, MO 65738-9514

The battle here on Aug. 10, 1861, was the first major engagement west of the Mississippi. The Confederate failure here resulted in keeping Missouri in the Union. Major features include a five-mile automobile tour loop, the restored 1852 Ray House, and Bloody Hill, the scene of the major battle.

Authorized as a national battlefield park April 22, 1960; redesignated Dec. 16, 1970. Boundary change: Oct. 30, 2004.
Acreage—1,920, all federal.


Big Hole
National Battlefield

PO Box 273
Wisdom, MT 59761

The site pays tribute to the battle between the Nez Perce Indians and the 7th U.S. Infantry forces with civilian volunteers on August 9–10, 1877. Ninety Nez Perce men, women, and children and 31 soldiers lost their lives.

Established as a Military Preserve in 1883, designated as a National Monument on June 23, 1910; redesignated a National Battlefield May 17, 1963.
Acreage—1,010.61 Federal: 655.61 Nonfederal: 355.

Bighorn Canyon
National Recreation Area

PO Box 7458
Fort Smith, MT 59035-7458
(Also in Wyoming)

Bighorn Lake extends 71 miles behind Yellowtail Dam on the Bighorn River. Archeological and historical resources complement the natural scene. About one third of the area is within the Crow Indian Reservation.

Established Oct. 15, 1966.
Acreage—120,296.22 Federal: 68,490.87 Nonfederal: 51,805.35.

Fort Union Trading Post
National Historic Site

(See North Dakota)

Glacier National Park
PO Box 128
West Glacier, MT 59936-0128

Known as the Backbone of the World to the Blackfeet Nation, Glacier is known for its precipitous, jagged peaks ranging above 10,000 feet. This ruggedly beautiful land includes 25 remaining glaciers, hundreds of glacier-fed lakes and streams, an unparalleled variety of wildflowers, and abundant wildlife including grizzly bears, wolverines, and gray wolves.

Established May 11, 1910. Boundary changes: Feb. 10, 1912; Feb. 27, 1915; July 31, 1939; Dec. 13, 1944; April 11, 1972; Jan. 26, 1978. Authorized as part of Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park May 2, 1932; proclaimed June 30, 1932. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1976; designated Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park World Heritage Site Dec. 9, 1995.
Acreage—1,013,572.41 Federal: 1,013,154.64 Nonfederal: 417.77.

Grant-Kohrs Ranch
National Historic Site

266 Warren Lane
Deer Lodge, MT 59722-0790

This is the headquarters of a once wide-ranging cattle empire of the 1800s. The site preserves the structures and artifacts associated with its operation and represents over 125 years of ranching heritage. It is still a working cattle ranch.

Authorized Aug. 25, 1972. Boundary changes: Aug. 31, 1981; Nov. 10, 1998.
Acreage—1,618.38 Federal: 1,491.46 Nonfederal: 126.92.

Little Bighorn Battlefield
National Monument

PO Box 39
Crow Agency, MT 59022-0039

This area memorializes one of the last armed efforts of the Northern Plains Indians to preserve their way of life. Here in 1876, 263 soldiers and attached personnel of the U.S. Army, including Lt. Col. George A. Custer, met death at the hands of several thousand Lakota, Arapaho, and Cheyenne warriors.

Established as a national cemetery by the Secretary of War Jan. 29, 1879, to protect graves of 7th Cavalry troopers buried there; proclaimed National Cemetery of Custer’s Battlefield Reservation to include burials of other campaigns and wars Dec. 7, 1886; Reno-Benteen Battlefield added April 14, 1926; transferred from War Dept. July 1, 1940; redesignated Custer Battlefield National Monument March 22, 1946; renamed Dec. 10, 1991.
Acreage—765.34, all federal.

Nez Perce
National Historical Park

(See Idaho)

Yellowstone National Park
(See Wyoming)


Agate Fossil Beds
National Monument

301 River Road
PO Box 27
Harrison, NE 69346-2734

This park was originally a working cattle ranch owned by Capt. James Cook and known as Agate Springs Ranch. The park features renowned quarries that contain many well-preserved mammal fossils from the Miocene Epoch; these represent an important chapter in the evolution of mammals. The park’s museum collection also contains over 500 artifacts from the Cook Collection of Plains Indian artifacts.

Authorized June 5, 1965; established June 14, 1997.
Acreage—3,055.22 Federal: 2,737.52 Nonfederal: 317.70.

National Monument of

8523 West State Highway 4
Beatrice, NE 68310

This park, which includes the 160-acre claim filed by Daniel Freeman under The Homestead Act of 1862, is a memorial to the pioneers who settled the west. Among the features are the National Museum on Homesteading, historic buildings, hiking trails through 100 acres of restored tallgrass prairie, and a bur oak forest.

Authorized March 19, 1936. Boundary changes: Sept. 25, 1970; Dec. 16, 2002.
Acreage—211.09 Federal: 205.18 Nonfederal: 5.91.

National Recreational River

508 East Second Street
Yankton, SD 57078

Two reaches of the Missouri River are protected here. The portion originally set aside, from Gavins Point Dam near Yankton, S.D., to Ponca, Neb., still exhibits the river’s dynamic character in its islands, bars, chutes, and snags. An upper reach between Lewis and Clark Lake and Fort Randall Dam has native floodplain forest, tallgrass and mixed-grass prairies, and habitats for several endangered species.

Authorized Nov. 10, 1978; expanded May 24, 1991. Length: 59 miles (original segment); 67 miles (1991 addition).
Acreage—37,997 Federal: 250 Nonfederal: 37,747.

National Scenic River

146 S. Hall Street
PO Box 319
Valentine, NE 69201-2104

This segment of the Niobrara River preserves a unique mix of boreal, eastern woodland, and Rocky Mountain forest types, and tallgrass, Sandhills, and mixed-grass prairie. This Great Plains river is rated as one of America’s top canoeing adventures. Public and private facilities are available.

Authorized May 24, 1991. Length: 76 miles.
Acreage—21,035.79 Federal: 790 Nonfederal: 20,245.79.

Scotts Bluff
National Monument

190276 Old Oregon Trail
PO Box 27
Gering, NE 69341-9700

Rising 800 feet above the valley floor, this massive promontory was a landmark on the Oregon and California trails, associated with overland migration across the Great Plains between 1843 and 1869.

Proclaimed Dec. 12, 1919. Boundary changes: May 9, 1924; June 1, 1932; March 29, 1940; June 30, 1961.
Acreage—3,003.03 Federal: 2,935.95 Nonfederal: 67.08.


Death Valley
National Park

(See California)

Great Basin
National Park

100 Great Basin
National Park
Baker, NV 89311-9700

A remnant icefield on 13,063-foot Wheeler Peak, an ancient bristlecone pine forest, 75-foot limestone Lexington Arch, and the tunnels and decorated galleries of Lehman Caves are major features.

Proclaimed as Lehman Caves National Monument Jan. 24, 1922; transferred from the Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Aug. 10, 1933; made part of Great Basin National Park when established Oct. 27, 1986.
Acreage—77,180, all federal.

Lake Mead
National Recreation Area

601 Nevada Highway
Boulder City, NV 89005-2426
(Also in Arizona)

Lake Mead, formed by Hoover Dam, and Lake Mohave, by Davis Dam on the Colorado River, and over one million acres of surrounding desert and mountains compose this first national recreation area established by an act of Congress.

Administered under cooperative agreements with Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Oct. 13, 1936, and July 18, 1947. Name changed from Boulder Dam Recreation Area Aug. 11, 1947. Established Oct. 8, 1964. Boundary change: Jan. 3, 1975.
Acreage—1,495,664 Federal: 1,470,327.84 (of which 4,488.47 are administered by Bureau of Reclamation) Nonfederal: 25,336.16. Land area: 1,314,516.39 Water area: 186,700.

New Hampshire

National Scenic Trail

(See Maine)

National Historic Site

139 Saint-Gaudens Road
Cornish, NH 03745-9704

The park includes the home, studios, and gardens of Augustus Saint-Gaudens (1848–1907), America’s foremost sculptor of the late 1800s and early 1900s. Six historic buildings are open to the public with over 120 original sculptures on exhibit.

Authorized Aug. 31, 1964; established May 30, 1977. Boundary changes: Oct. 31, 1976, Nov. 9, 2000.
Acreage—148.15, all federal.

New Jersey

National Scenic Trail

(See Maine)

Middle Delaware
National Scenic River

(See Pennsylvania)

Delaware Water Gap
National Recreation Area

(See Pennsylvania)

National Recreation Area

(See New York)

Great Egg Harbor
Scenic and
Recreational River

c/o National Park Service
Northeast Region
200 Chestnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2818

Running through or along the famous Pinelands National Reserve (Pine Barrens) of southern New Jersey, this river includes many of the Great Egg Harbor River’s tributaries. The river is the largest canoeing river in the Pinelands and is near Philadelphia, Trenton, Camden, and Wilmington.

Authorized Oct. 27, 1992. Length: 129 miles.
Acreage—43,311.42, all nonfederal.

National Historical Park

30 Washington Place
Morristown, NJ 07960-4242

Morristown was quarters for the Continental Army during two critical winters—January 1777 and 1779–80. The park includes the Ford Mansion, Jockey Hollow, and Fort Nonsense.

Authorized March 2, 1933. Boundary changes: June 6, 1953; Sept. 18, 1964; Oct. 26, 1974; Oct. 21, 1976; Oct. 4, 1991; Nov. 6, 1998.
Acreage—1,710.72 Federal: 1,705.69 Nonfederal: 5.03.

Thomas Edison
National Historical Park

Main Street and
Lakeside Avenue
West Orange, NJ 07052-5515

Thomas Edison’s laboratory and his residence were home to the inventor from 1887 until 1931. At his Invention Factory he developed the phonograph and invented the movie camera and nickel-iron-alkaline storage battery. He was awarded 1,093 patents. The site includes his chemistry lab, machine shop, library, and the world’s first motion picture studio.

Designated as Edison Home National Historic Site Dec. 6, 1955; Edison Laboratory National Monument proclaimed July 14, 1956; areas combined as Edison National Historic Site Sept. 5, 1962; renamed and redesignated March 30, 2009. Boundary changes: Sept. 5, 1962; Oct. 21, 1976.
Acreage—21.25, all federal.

Statue of Liberty
National Monument

(See New York)

New Mexico

Aztec Ruins
National Monument

84 County Road 2900
Aztec, NM 87410-9715

Building remains of this large Pueblo Indian community from the 1100s have been partially excavated and stabilized.

Proclaimed Aztec Ruin National Monument Jan. 24, 1923; renamed July 2, 1928. Boundary changes: July 2, 1928; Dec. 19, 1930; May 27, 1948; Oct. 28, 1988. Designated a World Heritage Site Dec. 8, 1987.
Acreage—317.80 Federal: 257.33 Nonfederal: 60.47.

National Monument

HCR 1, Box 1
Suite 15
Los Alamos, NM 87544-9701

On the mesa tops and canyon walls of the Pajarito Plateau are the remains of Pueblo Indians’ cliff houses and villages dating from the 1200s.

Proclaimed Feb. 11, 1916; transferred from Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Feb. 25, 1932. Boundary changes: Feb. 25, 1932; Jan. 9, 1961; May 27, 1963; Oct. 21, 1976; Feb. 8, 1977; Nov. 18, 1997; Nov. 12, 1998. Wilderness designated Oct. 20, 1976.
Acreage—33,676.67 Federal: 32,831.44 Nonfederal: 845.23. Wilderness area: 23,267.

Capulin Volcano
National Monument

PO Box 40
Capulin, NM 88414-0040

This symmetrical cinder cone is an example of a geologically recent, inactive volcano.

Proclaimed Capulin Mountain National Monument Aug. 9, 1916; renamed Dec. 31, 1987. Boundary change: Sept. 3, 1962.
Acreage—792.84, all federal.

Carlsbad Caverns
National Park

3225 National Parks Highway
Carlsbad, NM 88220-5354

Proclaimed Carlsbad Cave National Monument Oct. 25, 1923; established as Carlsbad Caverns National Park May 14, 1930. Boundary changes: Feb. 21, 1933; May 4, 1934; Feb. 3, 1939; Dec. 30, 1963. Wilderness designated Nov. 10, 1978. Designated a World Heritage Site Dec. 9, 1995.

Acreage—46,766.45 Federal: 46,427.26 Nonfederal: 339.19. Wilderness area: 33,125.

Chaco Culture
National Historical Park

PO Box 220
Nageezi, NM 87037

The canyon contains 13 major prehistoric sites and hundreds of smaller ones, built by the Ancestral Puebloan people.

Proclaimed Chaco Canyon National Monument March 11, 1907; renamed and redesignated Dec. 19, 1980. Boundary changes: Jan. 10, 1928; Dec. 19, 1980. Designated a World Heritage Site Dec. 8, 1987.
Acreage—33,960.19 Federal: 32,840.14 Nonfederal: 1,120.05.

El Malpais
National Monument

123 East Roosevelt Avenue
Grants, NM 87020

El Malpais is a spectacular volcanic area, featuring cinder cones, a 17-mile-long lava tube system, and ice caves. The area is rich in ancient Pueblo and Navajo history.

Established Dec. 31, 1987.
Acreage—114,276.95 Federal: 109,611.62 Nonfederal: 4,665.33.

El Morro
National Monument

Route 2, Box 43
Ramah, NM 87321-9603

Inscription Rock is a 200-foot sandstone monolith on which are carved thousands of inscriptions from early travelers. The monument includes pre-Columbian petroglyphs and the remains of Pueblo Indian dwellings.

Proclaimed Dec. 8, 1906. Boundary changes: June 18, 1917; June 14, 1950.
Acreage—1,278.72 Federal: 1,039.92 Nonfederal: 238.80.

Fort Union
National Monument

PO Box 127
Watrous, NM 87753-0127

Remnants of the Southwest’s largest frontier fort, which played a key role in the Indian Wars and the Confederate defeat at Glorieta Pass, are preserved here. A large network of Santa Fe Trail ruts is still visible on the prairie.

Established June 28, 1954.
Acreage—720.60, all federal.

Gila Cliff Dwellings
National Monument

HC 68, Box 100
Silver City, NM 88061-9352

These well-preserved cliff dwellings were inhabited from about 1280 to the early 1300s.

Proclaimed Nov. 16, 1907; transferred from Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary change: April 17, 1962.
Acreage—533.13, all federal.

National Historical Park

PO Box 418
Pecos, NM 87552-0418

The park preserves 12,000 years of human history, including the remains of Pecos Pueblo and many other American Indian structures, Spanish colonial missions, homesteads of the Mexican era, a section of the Santa Fe Trail, sites related to the Civil War Battle of Glorieta Pass, and a 1900s ranch.

Authorized as a national monument June 28, 1965; redesignated June 27, 1990. Boundary changes: Oct. 21, 1976; June 27, 1990; Nov. 8, 1990.
Acreage—6,669.59 Federal: 6,355.36 Nonfederal: 314.23.

National Monument

6001 Unser Blvd., NW
Albuquerque, NM 87120-2033

Over 15,000 prehistoric and historic American Indian and Hispanic petroglyphs (images carved into rock) stretch 17 miles along Albuquerque’s West Mesa escarpment.

Authorized June 27, 1990. Owned and managed jointly by the National Park Service, City of Albuquerque, and State of New Mexico.
Acreage—7,231.63 Federal: 2,927.86 Nonfederal: 4,303.77.

Salinas Pueblo Missions
National Monument

PO Box 517
Mountainair, NM 87036-0496

This park preserves and interprets the best examples of Spanish Franciscan mission churches and conventos of the 1600s remaining in the United States and three large Pueblo Indian villages.

Proclaimed Gran Quivira National Monument Nov. 1, 1909; renamed Salinas National Monument and area enlarged Dec. 19, 1980; two state monuments absorbed Nov. 2, 1981; renamed Oct. 28, 1988. Boundary changes: Nov. 25, 1919; Dec. 19, 1980.
Acreage—1,071.42 Federal: 985.13 Nonfederal: 86.29.

White Sands
National Monument

PO Box 1086
Holloman AFB, NM 88330-1086

The park contains a significant portion of the world’s largest gypsum dunefield. Glistening white dunes rise 60 feet and cover 275 square miles. Small animals and plants have adapted to this harsh environment.

Proclaimed Jan. 18, 1933. Boundary changes: Nov. 28, 1934; Aug. 29, 1938; June 6, 1942; June 24, 1953; Nov. 10, 1978; Sept. 23, 1996.
Acreage—143,733.25, all federal.

Springwood . . .

New York

African Burial Ground
National Monument

290 Broadway, First Floor
New York, NY 10007-1823

From the 1690s until the 1790s, both free and enslaved Africans were buried in 6.6 acres in Lower Manhattan. Lost to history due to landfill and development, the grounds were rediscovered in 1991 because of the planned construction of a federal office building. An outdoor memorial in the form of an Ancestral Libation Chamber provides a place to honor this sacred area.

Proclaimed Feb. 27, 2006.
Acreage—0.34, all federal.

National Scenic Trail

(See Maine)

Castle Clinton
National Monument

c/o Federal Hall National
26 Wall Street
New York, NY 10005-1907

Built 1808–11, this structure served as a defense for New York harbor, an entertainment center, and an immigration depot through which over 8 million people entered the United States from 1855 to 1890. It is located in Battery Park.

Authorized Aug. 12, 1946.
Acreage—1, all federal.

Eleanor Roosevelt
National Historic Site

4097 Albany Post Road
Hyde Park, NY 12538-1997

Eleanor Roosevelt used Val-Kill as a personal retreat from her busy life. Val-Kill Cottage is the focal point of the historic site. It was originally built as a factory building for Val-Kill Industries and was converted to a home in 1937.

Authorized May 26, 1977.
Acreage—180.50, all federal.

Federal Hall
National Memorial

26 Wall Street
New York, NY 10005-1907

This building is on the site of the original Federal Hall where the 1735 trial of John Peter Zenger, involving freedom of the press, was held. Here the Stamp Act Congress convened, 1765; Congress under the Articles of Confederation met, 1785–1789; the first U.S. Congress met, 1789; Washington took the oath as first U.S. president and the Bill of Rights was adopted, 1789. Present building was completed in 1842.

Designated as Federal Hall Memorial National Historic Site May 26, 1939; redesignated Aug. 11, 1955.
Acreage—0.45, all federal.

Fire Island
National Seashore

120 Laurel Street
Patchogue, NY 11772-3596

Ocean beaches, dunes, Fire Island Light, and the nearby estate of William Floyd, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, make this park a blend of recreation, preservation, and conservation.

Authorized Sept. 11, 1964. Boundary changes: Oct. 9, 1965; Nov. 10, 1978. Established Sept. 11, 1984. Wilderness designated Dec. 23, 1980.
Acreage—19,579.47 Federal: 6,241.13 Nonfederal: 13,338.34. Land area: 16,486.43. Wilderness area: 1,363.

Fort Stanwix
National Monument

112 E. Park Street
Rome, NY 13440-5816

The American stand here in August 1777 was a major factor in repulsing the British invasion from Canada. The fort was also the site of the treaties with the Iroquois, Nov. 5, 1768. The current fort is a reconstruction.

Authorized Aug. 21, 1935; acquisition completed 1973.
Acreage—15.52, all federal.

National Recreation Area

Public Affairs Office
210 New York Avenue
Staten Island, NY 10305
(Also in New Jersey)

With over 26,000 acres of marshes, wildlife sanctuaries, and recreational and athletic facilities; miles of sandy beaches; indoor and outdoor classrooms; picnicking and camping; historic structures, old military installations, airfields, a lighthouse, and waters around New York Harbor, this park offers urban residents in two states a wide range of recreational opportunities and educational perspectives year-round.

Established Oct. 27, 1972.
Acreage—26,606.63 Federal: 20,444.40 Nonfederal: 6,162.23.

Lindenwald . . . Sagamore Hill . . . Presidential homes in New York.

General Grant
National Memorial

122nd Street and
Riverside Drive
New York, NY 10027-3703

This memorial to Ulysses S. Grant, the Union commander who brought the Civil War to an end, includes the tombs of General and Mrs. Grant. As President of the United States (1869–77), Grant signed the act establishing the first national park, Yellowstone, March 1, 1872.

Dedicated April 27, 1897. National Park Service administration authorized Aug. 14, 1958.
Acreage—0.76, all federal.

Governors Island
National Monument

Battery Maritime Building,
Slip 7
10 South Street
New York, NY 10004-1900

Governors Island is one-half mile off the southern tip of Manhattan, between the confluence of the Hudson and East rivers. The national monument is within a National Historic Landmark District and includes two early 1800s fortifications—Fort Jay and Castle Williams—which played strategic roles in defending New York City and were key parts of a larger harbor defense system. OPEN SEASONALLY.

Proclaimed Jan. 19, 2001; established Feb. 7, 2003.
Acreage—22.78 Federal: 22.28 Nonfederal: 0.50.

Hamilton Grange
National Memorial

414 West 141st Street
New York, NY 10031

The Grange, named after his grandfather’s estate in Scotland, was the home of Alexander Hamilton, American statesman and first Secretary of the Treasury.

Authorized April 27, 1962. Boundary changes: Nov. 9, 2000; moved to St. Nicholas Park June, 7, 2008.
Acreage—.93, all nonfederal.

Home of Franklin D.
National Historic Site

4097 Albany Post Road
Hyde Park, NY 12538-1997

Springwood was the birthplace and lifetime residence of the 32nd president. Gravesites of President and Mrs. Roosevelt are in the Rose Garden.

Designated Jan. 15, 1944. Boundary changes: Oct. 23, 1952; Nov. 2, 1964; Jan. 23, 1974; March 3, 1975; May 31, 1984; March 29, 1989; Nov. 10, 1998.
Acreage—799.98 Federal: 384.27 Nonfederal: 415.71.

Martin Van Buren
National Historic Site

1013 Old Post Road
Kinderhook, NY 12106-3605

Lindenwald was the home and farm of the eighth U.S. president, Martin Van Buren (1837–1841), from 1841 until his death in 1862. As president he faced the nation’s worst economic depression to date (Panic of 1837) and opposed extending slavery into Texas. His bids for reelection in 1840 and for the presidency in 1848 were unsuccessful. The grounds and 36-room mansion allow exploration of the nation’s turbulent antebellum period.

Authorized Oct. 26, 1974.
Acreage—39.55 Federal: 39.31 Nonfederal: 0.24.

Sagamore Hill
National Historic Site

20 Sagamore Hill Road
Oyster Bay, NY 11771-1899

Sagamore Hill was Theodore Roosevelt’s home from 1886 until his death in 1919. As a boy he spent summers in Oyster Bay with his family. The shingle-style, Queen Anne home was built in 1885 from a plan he sketched. Twenty-five rooms are open to the public, and almost all the furnishings are original. Roosevelt is buried nearby.

Authorized July 25, 1962.
Acreage—83.02, all federal.

Saint Paul’s Church
National Historic Site

897 South Columbus Avenue
Mount Vernon, NY 10550-5018

This 1700s church is one of New York’s oldest parishes (1665–1980). It was used as a hospital following the Revolutionary War battle at Pell’s Point in 1776. The church stood at the edge of the Eastchester village green, the site of the Great Election (1733), which raised the issues of Freedom of Religion and Press. The adjoining cemetery contains burials dating from 1665.

Designated July 5, 1943; National Park Service administration authorized Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—6.13, all federal.

National Historical Park

648 Route 32
Stillwater, NY 12170-1604

The American victory here over the British in 1777 was a turning point of the American Revolution and one of the decisive battles in world history. Maj. Gen. Philip Schuyler’s country home and the 154-foot Saratoga monument are nearby.

Authorized June 1, 1938. Boundary change: Jan. 12, 1983.
Acreage—3,392.42 Federal: 2,884.88 Nonfederal: 507.54.

Statue of Liberty
National Monument

Liberty Island
New York, NY 10004-1467
(Also in New Jersey)

The 152-foot copper statue bearing the torch of freedom was a gift of the French people in 1886 to commemorate the alliance of the two nations in the American Revolution. Designed by Frederic Bartholdi, the statue came to symbolize freedom for immigrants. Nearby Ellis Island, through which nearly 12 million immigrants passed, was reopened to the public in 1990 as the country’s main museum devoted entirely to immigration.

Proclaimed Oct. 15, 1924; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary change: Sept. 7, 1937. Ellis Island proclaimed May 11, 1965. Designated a World Heritage Site Oct. 31, 1984.
Acreage—58.38, all federal.

Theodore Roosevelt
National Historic Site

28 E. 20th Street
New York, NY 10003-1399

The 26th president was born in a brownstone house here on Oct. 27, 1858. Demolished in 1916, it was reconstructed and rededicated in 1923 and furnished by the president’s widow and sisters.

Authorized July 25, 1962.
Acreage—0.11, all federal.

Theodore Roosevelt
National Historic Site

641 Delaware Avenue
Buffalo, NY 14202-1079

Theodore Roosevelt took the oath of office as President of the United States on Sept. 14, 1901, here in the Ansley Wilcox House after the assassination of President William McKinley.

Authorized Nov. 2, 1966.
Acreage—1.03, all federal.

Upper Delaware Scenic
and Recreational River

(See Pennsylvania)

Vanderbilt Mansion
National Historic Site

4097 Albany Post Road
Hyde Park, NY 12538-1997

This palatial mansion is a fine example of homes built by millionaires in the 1800s. It was constructed by Frederick W. Vanderbilt, a grandson of Cornelius Vanderbilt.

Designated Dec. 18, 1940.
Acreage—211.65, all federal.

Women’s Rights
National Historical Park

136 Fall Street
Seneca Falls, NY 13148-1517

Located in Seneca Falls and Waterloo, this park commemorates women’s struggle for equal rights and includes the Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, the site of the first Women’s Rights Convention in 1848; the Elizabeth Cady Stanton home; the M’Clintock House where the Declaration of Sentiments was written; and other sites related to notable early women’s rights activists.

Authorized Dec. 28, 1980. Boundary change: Nov. 12, 1996.
Acreage—7.44 Federal: 7.12 Nonfederal: 0.32.

North Carolina

National Scenic Trail

(See Maine)

Blue Ridge Parkway
199 Hemphill Knob Road
Asheville, NC 28803
(Also in Virginia)

Following the crest of the Blue Ridge Mountains, this scenic 470-mile parkway averages 3,000 feet above sea level and embraces large recreational and natural history areas and Appalachian cultural sites.

Initial construction funds allocated under authority of National Industrial Recovery Act June 16, 1933; National Park Service administration authorized June 30, 1936. Boundary changes: June 30, 1961; Oct. 9, 1968.
Acreage—93,390.30 Federal: 83,205.71 Nonfederal: 10,184.59.

Cape Hatteras
National Seashore

1401 National Park Drive
Manteo, NC 27954-2708

Beaches, migratory waterfowl, fishing, and points of historical interest are features of the first national seashore. Its lands include 5,915-acre Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge, administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Authorized Aug. 17, 1937; established Jan. 12, 1953.
Acreage—30,350.65 Federal: 30,343.41 Nonfederal: 7.24. Land area: 26,326.24.

Cape Lookout
National Seashore

131 Charles Street
Harkers Island, NC 28531-9702

These undeveloped barrier islands extend 56 miles along the lower Outer Banks embracing beaches, dunes, two historic villages, and Cape Lookout Lighthouse.

Authorized March 10, 1966. Boundary change: Oct. 26, 1974. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1986.
Acreage—28,243.36 Federal: 25,173.62 Nonfederal: 3,069.74. Land area: 8,741.

Carl Sandburg Home
National Historic Site

1928 Little River Road
Flat Rock, NC 28731-9766

Connemara was the farm home of the noted poet, Lincoln biographer, and social advocate for the last 22 years of his life.

Authorized Oct. 17, 1968; established Oct. 27, 1972. Boundary change: May 8, 2008.
Acreage—263.65 Federal: 263.52 Nonfederal: 0.13.

Fort Raleigh
National Historic Site

c/o Cape Hatteras National
1401 National Park Drive
Manteo, NC 27954-2708

The first English settlement in North America was attempted here (1585–87). The fate of Sir Walter Raleigh’s Lost Colony remains a mystery.

Designated April 5, 1941. Boundary changes: Aug. 17, 1961; Nov. 16, 1990.
Acreage—512.93 Federal: 355.45 Nonfederal: 157.48.

Great Smoky Mountains
National Park

(See Tennessee)

Guilford Courthouse
National Military Park

2331 New Garden Road
Greensboro, NC 27410-2355

The battle fought here on March 15, 1781, opened the campaign that led to American victory in the Revolutionary War. The British lost a substantial number of troops at the battle, a factor in their surrender at Yorktown seven months later.

Established March 2, 1917; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933.
Acreage—228.59, all federal.

Moores Creek
National Battlefield

40 Patriots Hall Drive
Currie, NC 28435-0069

The battle on Feb. 27, 1776, between North Carolina Patriots and Loyalists is commemorated here. The patriot victory notably advanced the revolutionary cause in the South.

Established as a national military park June 2, 1926; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933; redesignated Sept. 8, 1980. Boundary changes: Sept. 27, 1944; Oct. 26, 1974.
Acreage—87.75, all federal.

Wright Brothers
National Memorial

c/o Cape Hatteras National
1401 National Park Drive
Manteo, NC 27954-2708

The first sustained flight in a heavier-than-air machine was made here by Wilbur and Orville Wright on Dec. 17, 1903.

Authorized as Kill Devil Hill Monument March 2, 1927; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933; renamed and redesignated Dec. 4, 1953. Boundary change: June 23, 1959.
Acreage—428.44 Federal: 421.81 Nonfederal: 6.63.

North Dakota

Fort Union Trading Post
National Historic Site

15550 Highway 1804
Williston, ND 58801-8680
(Also in Montana)

The principal fur-trading post of the American Fur Company on the Upper Missouri River, Fort Union served the Assiniboine, Crow, Cree, Ojibway, and Blackfeet tribes.

Authorized June 20, 1966. Boundary change: Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—443.81 Federal: 417.22 Nonfederal: 26.59.

Knife River Indian Villages
National Historic Site

PO Box 9
Stanton, ND 58571-0009

The park contains archeological and historic remnants of the Plains Indian culture and agricultural way of life. The site features the remains of earthlodge villages of the Hidatsa and Mandan.

Authorized Oct. 26, 1974. Boundary change: Oct. 15, 1990.
Acreage—1,758.35 Federal: 1,593.65 Nonfederal: 164.70.

Theodore Roosevelt
National Park

PO Box 7
Medora, ND 58645-0007

The park includes scenic badlands along the Little Missouri River and part of Theodore Roosevelt’s Elkhorn Ranch.

Established as Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park April 25, 1947; redesignated Nov. 10, 1978. Boundary changes: June 10, 1948; June 12, 1948; March 24, 1956; Nov. 6, 1963; Nov. 10, 1978. Wilderness designated Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—70,446.89 Federal: 69,702.12 Nonfederal: 744.77. Wilderness area: 29,920.


Cuyahoga Valley
National Park

15610 Vaughn Road
Brecksville, OH 44141-3018

This area preserves rural landscapes along the Cuyahoga River between Cleveland and Akron, Ohio. The 20-mile Ohio & Erie Canal Towpath Trail follows the historic route of the canal. Historic structures and natural features can be seen as the trail continues along the Ohio & Erie National Heritage Canalway.

Authorized Dec. 27, 1974; established June 26, 1975; redesignated Oct. 11, 2000. Boundary changes: Oct. 21, 1976; Nov. 10, 1978; Nov. 6, 1986; Jan. 25, 1999.
Acreage—32,855.51 Federal: 19,761.08 Nonfederal: 13,094.43.

Dayton Aviation Heritage
National Historical Park

PO Box 9280
Wright Brothers Station
Dayton, OH 45409-9280

This park preserves sites associated with Wilbur and Orville Wright and the early development of aviation. It also honors the life and work of African American poet Paul Laurence Dunbar, a business associate and friend of Orville. The park includes a bicycle and printing shop, the 1905 Wright Flyer, the flying field where the brothers perfected their airplane, and the Paul Laurence Dunbar State Memorial.

Authorized Oct. 16, 1992.
Acreage—86.46 Federal: 85.10 Nonfederal: 1.36.

First Ladies
National Historic Site

331 S. Market Avenue
Canton, OH 44702

This site, which includes the former home of Ida Saxton McKinley, preserves and interprets the role, impact, and history of First Ladies and other notable women in American history. There is an electronic virtual library and a complete annotated bibliography of First Ladies—from Martha Washington to Michelle Obama—that is updated each year. Costumed docents conduct tours. The National First Ladies’ Library and the National Park Service cooperatively manage the site.

Established Oct. 11, 2000.
Acreage—0.33, all federal.

Hopewell Culture
National Historical Park

16062 State Route 104
Chillicothe, OH 45601-8694

Finely crafted artifacts of the Hopewell Culture (200 B.C.E. to 500) show that skilled artisans used an extensive trade network east of the Rocky Mountains. The 23 burial mounds at Mound City Group and large geometric earthworks provide an insight into the social, ceremonial, political, and economic life of the Hopewell people.

Proclaimed Mound City Group National Monument March 2, 1923; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933; renamed and redesignated May 27, 1992. Boundary changes: April 3, 1952; Dec. 28, 1980; June 21, 1983; Jan. 8, 1990; Oct. 31, 1990; May 27, 1992.
Acreage—1,170.30 Federal: 955.22 Nonfederal: 215.08.

James A. Garfield
National Historic Site

8095 Mentor Avenue
Mentor, OH 44060-5753

This site preserves the family home and artifacts of the 20th president. Exhibits and tours introduce Garfield’s humble upbringing and family life. Garfield launched his “Front Porch” campaign after his selection as the 1879 Republican nominee.

Authorized Dec. 28, 1980; established July 15, 1996.
Acreage—7.82, all federal.

Perry’s Victory
and International Peace

PO Box 549
93 Delaware Avenue
Put-in-Bay, OH 43456-0549

Commodore Oliver H. Perry won the greatest naval battle of the War of 1812 on Lake Erie. The memorial—the world’s most massive Doric column—was built in 1912–15 “to inculcate the lessons of international peace by arbitration and disarmament.”

Established as a national monument June 2, 1936; redesignated Oct. 26, 1972. Boundary changes: Oct. 26, 1972; Aug. 16, 1978.
Acreage—25.39 Federal: 24.86 Nonfederal: 0.53.

William Howard Taft
National Historic Site

2038 Auburn Avenue
Cincinnati, OH 45219-3025

Taft, the only person to serve as both president (1909–13) and Chief Justice of the United States (1921–30), was born and raised in this home. The Taft education center offers an orientation video and interactive exhibits on the Taft family.

Authorized Dec. 2, 1969. Boundary change: Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—3.10 Federal: 1.70 Nonfederal: 1.40.


National Recreation Area

1008 West Second Street
Sulphur, OK 73086-0201

The park is named to honor the Chickasaw Indian Nation, original occupants of this land. The partially forested hills of south-central Oklahoma and its springs, streams, and lakes offer swimming, boating, fishing, camping, and hiking.

Sulphur Springs Reservation authorized July 1, 1902; renamed and redesignated Platt National Park June 29, 1906; combined with Arbuckle National Recreation Area and additional lands and renamed and redesignated March 17, 1976. Boundary changes: April 21, 1904; June 18, 1940; March 17, 1976; Dec. 9, 1991; Oct. 30, 2004.
Acreage—9,888.83 Federal: 9,884.33 Nonfederal: 4.50. Water area: 2,409.

Fort Smith
National Historic Site

(See Arkansas)

Washita Battlefield
National Historic Site

RR1, Box 55A
Cheyenne, OK 73628-9725

The park commemorates the November 27, 1868, attack where the 7th U.S. Cavalry under Lt. Col. George A. Custer destroyed Peace Chief Black Kettle’s Cheyenne village. Black Kettle and over 100 Cheyenne were captured or killed. The controversial attack has been described as both a battle and a massacre.

Authorized Nov. 12, 1996.
Acreage—315.20 Federal: 312.20 Nonfederal: 3.00.


Crater Lake
National Park

PO Box 7
Crater Lake, OR 97604-0007

Crater Lake lies within the caldera of Mt. Mazama, a volcano of the Cascade Range that erupted about 7,700 years ago. The mountain collapsed, forming a caldera. Its greatest depth of 1,932 feet makes it the deepest lake in the United States.

Established May 22, 1902. Boundary changes: June 7, 1924; May 14, 1932; Dec. 19, 1980; Sept. 8, 1982.
Acreage—183,224.05 Federal: 183,223.77 Nonfederal: 0.28.

John Day Fossil Beds
National Monument

32651 Highway 19
Kimberly, OR 97848-9701

Within the scenic John Day River valley is a well-preserved fossil record of plants and animals. This remarkably complete record, spanning over 40 of the 65 million years of the Age of Mammals, is world-renowned.

Authorized Oct. 26, 1974. Boundary change: Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—13,944.42 Federal: 13,454.87 Nonfederal: 489.55.

Lewis and Clark
National Historical Park

92343 Fort Clatsop Road
Astoria, OR 97103-9803

The natural setting of the lower Columbia River, with its cliffs, evergreens, beaches, and waterways, brings to life the story of the Lewis and Clark expedition’s western terminus. The park commemorates the expedition’s arrival at the Pacific Ocean, winter encampment, exploration of the area, encounters with American Indians, and preparations for the expedition’s return to the United States.

Fort Clatsop National Memorial established May 29, 1958;
redesignated Oct. 30, 2004. Boundary changes: Nov. 10, 1978; Aug. 21, 2002.
Acreage—1,414.84 Federal: 157.20 Nonfederal: 1,257.64.

Nez Perce
National Historical Park

(See Idaho)

Oregon Caves
National Monument

19000 Caves Highway
Cave Junction, OR 97523-9716

Violent geologic events spanning millions of years and the dissolving action of acidic water created a marble cave nestled within an unusually diverse array of rock types. The area preserves a remnant of old-growth Douglas fir forest and Northwest rustic architecture within a National Historic District.

Proclaimed July 12, 1909; transferred from Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary change: Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—487.98 Federal: 484.03 Nonfederal: 3.95.


Allegheny Portage Railroad
National Historic Site

110 Federal Park Road
Gallitzen, PA 16641

Traces of the first railroad crossing of the Allegheny Mountains can still be seen here. An inclined-plane railroad, built between 1831 and 1834, permitted transportation of passengers and freight over the mountains, providing a critical link between the Pennsylvania Mainline Canal system and the west.

Authorized Aug. 31, 1964. Boundary changes: Nov. 10, 1978; Dec. 19, 2002.
Acreage—1,296.27 Federal: 1,267.02 Nonfederal: 29.25.

National Scenic Trail

(See Maine)

Delaware Water Gap
National Recreation Area

Bushkill, PA 18324-9410
(Also in New Jersey)

This scenic and historic area preserves relatively unspoiled land on both the New Jersey and Pennsylvania sides of the Middle Delaware River. The river segment flows through the famous gap in the Appalachian Mountains.

Authorized Sept. 1, 1965. Boundary changes: Nov. 10, 1978; April 15, 1981; May 15, 1985; July 16, 1987; July 10, 1991.
Acreage—66,740.46 Federal: 56,187.80 Nonfederal: 10,552.66.

Edgar Allan Poe
National Historic Site

532 North Seventh Street
Philadelphia, PA 19123-3502

The life and work of this gifted American author are portrayed in the three-building complex at North Seventh Street where Poe lived 1843–44.

Authorized Nov. 10, 1978; established Aug. 14, 1980.
Acreage—0.52, all federal.

National Historic Site

1195 Baltimore Pike, Suite 100
Gettysburg, PA 17325-7034

This was the only home ever owned by Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower and his wife, Mamie. It served as a refuge when he was president and as a retirement home after he left office.

Designated Nov. 27, 1967; authorized by act of Congress Dec. 2, 1969. Boundary change: Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—690.46, all federal.

Flight 93
National Memorial

109 West Main Street
Suite 104
Somerset, PA 15501

On the morning of Sept. 11, 2001, Flight 93 departed Newark, N.J. for San Francisco, Calif. At 9:36 am the plane abruptly turned southeast towards Washington, D.C. It was seen flying low and erratically before crashing just after 10 am in Somerset County, Pa.—less than 20 minutes from Washington. All 33 passengers, seven crew members, and the four hijackers were killed. A planned memorial will honor the courageous actions of passengers and crew to thwart an attack on the nation’s capital.

Authorized Sept. 24, 2002.
Acreage—2,231.0 Federal: 1,013.0  Nonfederal: 1,218.0

Fort Necessity
National Battlefield

One Washington Parkway
Farmington, PA 15437-9514

Colonial troops commanded by Col. George Washington, then 22 years old, were defeated here in the opening battle of the French and Indian War on July 3, 1754.

Established as a national battlefield site March 4, 1931; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933; redesignated Aug. 10, 1961. Boundary change: Oct. 26, 1974.
Acreage—902.80 Federal: 894.47 Nonfederal: 8.33.

Friendship Hill
National Historic Site

c/o Fort Necessity
National Battlefield
One Washington Parkway
Farmington, PA 15437-9514

This home on the Monongahela River near Point Marion, Pa., belonged to Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury from 1801 to 1813 under Presidents Jefferson and Madison.

Authorized Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—674.56 Federal: 661.44 Nonfederal: 13.12.

National Military Park

1195 Baltimore Pike, Suite 100
Gettysburg, PA 17325-1080

The Civil War battle fought here July 1–3, 1863, repulsed the second Confederate invasion of the North. Soldiers’ National Cemetery—over 7,000 interments, 1,668 unidentified—adjoins the park. At the dedication of the cemetery, Nov. 19, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln delivered his timeless Gettysburg Address.

Park: Established Feb. 11, 1895; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary changes: Jan. 31, 1948; July 31, 1953; Cemetery: Beginning of Civil War interments, Oct. 1863. Placed under War Dept. July 14, 1870. Transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary changes: June 19, 1948; Aug. 17, 1990.
Park acreage—5,989.09 Federal: 4,179.33 Nonfederal: 1,809.76. Cemetery acreage—20.58, all federal.

Hopewell Furnace
National Historic Site

2 Mark Bird Lane
Elverson, PA 19520-9505

This is one of the finest examples of a rural American iron plantation of the 1800s. The buildings include a blast furnace, the ironmaster’s mansion, and auxiliary structures. Hopewell Furnace was founded in 1771 by Mark Bird, the first ironmaster. The furnace operated until 1883.

Designated Hopewell Village National Historic Site Aug. 3, 1938; renamed Sept. 19, 1985. Boundary changes: June 6, 1942; July 24, 1946.
Acreage—848.06, all federal.

National Historical Park

143 S. Third Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2778

The park includes structures and sites in central Philadelphia associated with the American Revolution and the founding of the United States: Independence Hall, Congress Hall, Old City Hall, the Liberty Bell, the First and Second Banks of the United States, Franklin Court, and others.

Authorized June 28, 1948; established July 4, 1956. On March 16, 1959, incorporated Old Philadelphia Custom House (Second Bank of the United States), which had been designated a national historic site May 26, 1939. Other boundary changes: Aug. 21, 1958; Aug. 27, 1958; March 7, 1959; June 23, 1959; Sept. 14, 1959; Aug. 21, 1964; Oct. 26, 1974; Nov. 12, 1996. Independence Hall designated a World Heritage Site Oct. 24, 1979.
Acreage—55 Federal: 44.56  Nonfederal: 10.44.

Johnstown Flood
National Memorial

733 Lake Road
South Fork, PA 15956

A total of 2,209 people died in the Johnstown Flood of 1889, caused by a break in the South Fork Dam. Clara Barton successfully led the Red Cross in its first disaster relief effort.

Authorized Aug. 31, 1964. Boundary changes: April 11, 1972; Nov. 10, 1978; Oct. 5, 2004.
Acreage—164.12 Federal: 155.37 Nonfederal: 8.75.

Middle Delaware
National Scenic River

c/o Delaware Water Gap
National Recreation Area
Bushkill, PA 18324-9410
(Also in New Jersey)

This river flows 40 miles through the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Swimming, boating, and fishing opportunities are available.

Established Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—1,973.33, all nonfederal.

Potomac Heritage
National Scenic Trail

(See Maryland)

National Historic Site

150 South Washington Avenue
Scranton, PA 18503-2018

The former Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad yard—including remains of the roundhouse, switchyard, and other buildings—and a collection of steam locomotives and railroad cars tell the story of steam railroading in America in the 1900s.

Authorized Oct. 30, 1986.
Acreage—62.48 Federal: 51.29 Nonfederal: 11.19.

Thaddeus Kosciuszko
National Memorial

c/o Independence
National Historical Park
143 S. Third Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2818

The life and work of this Polish patriot and hero of the American Revolution are commemorated at 301 Pine Street, Philadelphia.

Authorized Oct. 21, 1972.
Acreage—0.02, all federal.

Upper Delaware Scenic
and Recreational River

274 River Road
Beach Lake, PA 18405-9737
(Also in New York)

This is a 73.4-mile stretch of river between Hancock and Sparrowbush, N.Y., along the Pennsylvania-New York border. The area includes the Roebling Bridge, believed to be the oldest existing wire-cable suspension bridge, and the Zane Grey home.

Authorized Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—74,999.56 Federal: 27.80 Nonfederal: 74,971.76.

Valley Forge
National Historical Park

1400 N. Outer Line Drive
King of Prussia, PA 19406-1009

Site of Continental Army winter encampment, 1777–78. The park preserves historic landscapes, earthworks, archeological sites, historic structures including Washington’s Headquarters, and a collection of objects illustrating the life of the continental soldier. Park also protects significant natural resources.

Authorized July 4, 1976. Boundary change: June 28, 1980.
Acreage—3,465.54 Federal: 3,067.29 Nonfederal: 398.25.

Puerto Rico

San Juan
National Historic Site

Fort San Cristobal
501 Calle Norzagaray
San Juan, PR 00901

These massive masonry fortifications, oldest in the territorial limits of the United States, were begun by Spaniards in the 1500s to protect a strategic harbor guarding the sea lanes to the Americas.

Designated Feb. 14, 1949. Boundary change: Sept. 29, 1976. Designated a World Heritage Site Dec. 9, 1983.
Acreage—75.13 Federal: 53.20 Nonfederal: 21.93.

Rhode Island

Roger Williams
National Memorial

282 North Main Street
Providence, RI 02903-1240

This memorial is a landscaped urban park on the site of the founding of Providence by Roger Williams in 1636. Williams guaranteed religious freedom to all faiths.

Authorized Oct. 22, 1965.
Acreage—4.56, all federal.

South Carolina

Charles Pinckney
National Historic Site

c/o Fort Sumter
National Monument
1214 Middle Street
Sullivans Island, SC 29482-9748

Charles Pinckney, 1757–1824, fought in the American Revolution and became one of the principal framers of the Constitution. He served as governor of South Carolina and as a member of the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives, and was President Thomas Jefferson’s minister to Spain. Part of his Snee Farm is preserved here. UNDERGOING RESTORATION.

Authorized Sept. 8, 1988.
Acreage—28.45, all federal.

National Park

100 National Park Road
Hopkins, SC 29061-9118

This park protects the last significant tract of southern bottomland hardwood forest in the United States. It is home to a rich diversity of plant and animal species associated with an alluvial floodplain. Several national and state record trees are in the park.

Authorized Oct. 18, 1976 as Congaree Swamp National Monument; redesignated Nov. 10, 2003. Boundary changes: Oct. 24, 1988; Nov. 10, 2003. Wilderness designated Oct. 24, 1988. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1983.
Acreage—26,545.86 Federal: 21,768.79 Nonfederal: 4,777.07. Wilderness area: 15,000.

National Battlefield

PO Box 308
Chesnee, SC 29323-0308

Brig. Gen. Daniel Morgan won a decisive Revolutionary War victory here over British Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton on Jan. 17, 1781.

Established as a national battlefield site March 4, 1929; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933; redesignated April 11, 1972. Boundary changes: July 18, 1958; April 11, 1972.
Acreage—841.56 Federal: 790.90 Nonfederal: 50.66.

Fort Sumter
National Monument

1214 Middle Street
Sullivans Island, SC 29482-9748

The first engagement of the Civil War took place here on April 12, 1861. The park includes Fort Moultrie, scene of the patriot victory of June 28, 1776—one of the early defeats of the British in the American Revolution. Together the forts reflect 171 years of seacoast defense.

Authorized April 28, 1948.
Acreage—199.57, all federal.

Kings Mountain
National Military Park

2625 Park Road
Blacksburg, SC 29702

American frontiersmen defeated the British here on Oct. 7, 1780, at a critical point during the American Revolution.

Established March 3, 1931; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary change: June 23, 1959.
Acreage—3,945.29, all federal.

Ninety Six
National Historic Site

PO Box 496
Ninety Six, SC 29666-0496

This important colonial backcountry trading village was the scene of Nathanael Greene’s siege in 1781. The site contains earthwork embankments of a 1781 fortification, remains of two historic villages, a colonial plantation complex, and many prehistoric sites.

Authorized Aug. 19, 1976.
Acreage—1,021.94 Federal: 989.14 Nonfederal: 32.80.

South Dakota

Badlands National Park
PO Box 6
Interior, SD 57750-0006

Carved by erosion, this scenic landscape contains animal fossils from 26 to 37 million years ago. Prairie grasslands support bison, bighorn sheep, deer, pronghorn antelope, swift fox, and black-footed ferrets.

Authorized as a national monument March 4, 1929; established Jan. 24, 1939; redesignated Nov. 10, 1978. Boundary changes: June 26, 1936; May 7, 1952; March 22, 1957; Aug. 8, 1968. Wilderness designated Oct. 20, 1976.
Acreage—242,755.94 Federal: 232,822.24 Nonfederal: 9,933.70. Wilderness area: 64,250.

Jewel Cave
National Monument

R.R. 1, Box 60AA
Custer, SD 57730-9608

Limestone caverns consist of a series of chambers connected by narrow passages, with fine calcite crystal encrustations.

Proclaimed Feb. 7, 1908; transferred from Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary change: Oct. 9, 1965.
Acreage—1,273.51, all federal.

Minuteman Missile
National Historic Site

21280 SD Highway 240
Philip, SD 57567

Preserving one of the last remaining Minuteman II intercontinental ballistic missile systems in the upper Great Plains, the site interprets the deterrent value of the land-based portion of America’s nuclear defense during the Cold War era and commemorates the people and events during this key period of American history. Built in 1963, the launch facility, Delta 9, displays a Minuteman missile in its underground silo. Eleven miles away the launch control facility, Delta 1, appears as it did when President George H. Bush ordered the stand-down of these nuclear forces following the signing of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in the fall of 1992.

Authorized Nov. 29, 1999.
Acreage—15.00, all federal.

National Recreational River

(See Nebraska)

Mount Rushmore
National Memorial

Highway 244
Bldg. 31, Suite 1
Keystone, SD 57751

Colossal heads of Presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt were sculpted by Gutzon Borglum on the face of a granite mountain.

Authorized March 3, 1925; transferred from Mount Rushmore National Memorial Commission July 1, 1939. Boundary changes: May 22, 1940; Oct. 6, 1949.
Acreage—1,278.45 Federal: 1,238.45 Nonfederal: 40.

Wind Cave National Park
R.R. 1, Box 190, Hwy. 385
Hot Springs, SD 57747-9430

This limestone cave in the scenic Black Hills is decorated by beautiful boxwork and calcite crystal formations. The park’s mixed grass prairie displays an impressive array of wildlife.

Established Jan. 9, 1903. Boundary changes: March 4, 1931; Aug. 9, 1946; Nov. 10, 1978; Sept. 21, 2005. Wind Cave National Game Preserve, established Aug. 10, 1912, added to park June 15, 1935.
Acreage—28,295.03, all federal.


Andrew Johnson
National Historic Site

12 Monument Avenue
Greeneville, TN 37744-1088

The site includes two homes, a tailor shop, and the burial place of the 17th president.

Authorized as a national monument Aug. 29, 1935; redesignated Dec. 11, 1963. Boundary change: Dec. 11, 1963.
Acreage—16.68, all federal.

National Scenic Trail

(See Maine)

Big South Fork
National River and
Recreation Area

4564 Leatherwood Road
Oneida, TN 37841-9544
(Also in Kentucky)

The free-flowing Big South Fork of the Cumberland River is protected here. This was the first park designated as both a national river and a national recreation area, reflecting the decision to preserve the area and offer recreational opportunities.

Planning and development by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers authorized May 7, 1974; interim management by National Park Service authorized Oct. 22, 1976; complete transfer of jurisdiction from Secretary of the Army to Secretary of the Interior, including responsibility for completion and planning, acquisition, and development, settled Oct. 1, 1990.
Acreage—125,310.34 Federal: 114,492.13 Nonfederal: 10,818.21.

Chickamauga and
National Military Park

(See Georgia)

Cumberland Gap
National Historical Park

(See Kentucky)

Fort Donelson
National Battlefield

PO Box 434
Dover, TN 37058-0434

General U.S. Grant captured three forts, opened two rivers, and received national recognition for victories here in February 1862.

Park: Established as a national military park March 26, 1928; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary changes: Sept. 8, 1960; Oct. 25, 2004.
Cemetery: Union dead 670, reinterred in 1867; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933.
Park acreage—551.69 Federal: 539.89 Nonfederal: 11.80. Cemetery acreage—15.34, all federal.

Great Smoky Mountains
National Park

107 Park Headquarters Road
Gatlinburg, TN 37738-4102
(Also in North Carolina)

The Smokies preserve exquisite plants and animals and structures representing southern Appalachian mountain culture.

Authorized May 22, 1926; established for administration and protection only Feb. 6, 1930; established for full development June 15, 1934. Boundary changes: April 19, 1930; July 19, 1932; June 15, 1934; June 11, 1940; Feb. 22, 1944; July 26, 1950; May 16, 1958; Sept. 9, 1963; Aug. 10, 1964; Aug. 9, 1969; Nov. 4, 1969; Nov. 10, 2003; Oct. 18, 2004. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1976. Designated a World Heritage Site Dec. 6, 1983.
Acreage—521,490.13 Federal: 521,224.47 Nonfederal: 265.66.

Natchez Trace
National Scenic Trail

(See Mississippi)

Natchez Trace Parkway
(See Mississippi)

Wild and Scenic River

PO Box 429
Wartburg, TN 37887-0429

The park preserves and protects 45 miles of free-flowing streams, the varied wildlife and plant resources, and the rugged character of this area on the Cumberland Plateau.

Authorized Oct. 12, 1976.
Acreage—5,173.69 Federal: 3,449.83 Nonfederal: 1,723.86.

National Military Park

1055 Pittsburg Landing Road
Shiloh, TN 38376-9704
(Also in Mississippi)

On April 6, 1862, the battle of Shiloh began a six-month struggle for the key railroad junction at Corinth, Miss. Afterwards, Union forces marched from Pittsburg Landing to take Corinth in a May siege, then withstood an October Confederate counter-attack.

Park: Established Dec. 27, 1894; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary changes: June 25, 1947; Aug. 22, 1957; May 16, 1958; Dec. 26, 2007.
Cemetery: Union dead—3,584, of whom 2,357 are unknown—reinterred in 1866. Transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933.
Park acreage—6,181.34 Federal: 4,134.41 Nonfederal: 2,046.93. Cemetery acreage—10.05, all federal.

Stones River
National Battlefield

3501 Old Nashville Highway
Murfreesboro, TN 37129-3095

A fierce midwinter battle took place here, Dec. 31, 1862–Jan. 2, 1863. The Confederates withdrew after the battle and allowed the Union to control middle Tennessee. Stones River National Cemetery—6,850 interments, 2,562 unidentified—is within the park; no grave space available.

Park: Established as a national military park March 3, 1927; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933; redesignated April 22, 1960. Boundary changes: April 22, 1960; Dec. 23, 1987; Dec. 11, 1991.
Cemetery: Probable date of Civil War interments, 1865. Transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933.
Park acreage—709.33 Federal: 637.85 Nonfederal: 71.48. Cemetery acreage—20.09, all federal.


Alibates Flint Quarries
National Monument

c/o Lake Meredith
National Recreation Area
PO Box 1460
Fritch, TX 79036-1460

For thousands of years, people came to the red bluffs above the Canadian River to dig the colorful agatized dolomite from quarries to make projectile points, knives, and other tools.

Authorized as Alibates Flint Quarries and Texas Panhandle Pueblo Culture National Monument Aug. 21, 1965; renamed Nov. 10, 1978. Boundary change: Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—1,370.97 Federal: 1,079.23 Nonfederal: 291.74.

National Recreation Area

HCR-3, Box 5-J
Del Rio, TX 78840-9350

Boating, watersports, and camping highlight activities at the Amistad Reservoir on the Rio Grande.

Administered under cooperative agreement with the International Boundary and Water Commission as Amistad Recreation Area, Nov. 11, 1965; authorized as a national recreation area Nov. 28, 1990.
Acreage—58,500 Federal: 57,292.44 Nonfederal: 1,207.56.

Big Bend
National Park

PO Box 129
Big Bend National Park, TX

Mountains contrast with desert within the great bend of the Rio Grande, as the river waters rush through deep-cut canyons and the open desert for 118 miles.

Authorized June 20, 1935; established June 12, 1944. Boundary changes: Aug. 30, 1949; Nov. 5, 1957; May 27, 1989. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1976.
Acreage—801,163.21 Federal: 775,279.14 Nonfederal: 25,884.07.

Big Thicket
National Preserve

3785 Milam Street
Beaumont, TX 77701-4724

A great variety of plant and animal species coexist in this biological crossroads of North America.

Authorized Oct. 11, 1974. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1981. Boundary change: Nov. 12, 1996.
Acreage—97,205.51 Federal: 86,182.32 Nonfederal: 11,023.19.

National Memorial

800 S. San Marcial Street
El Paso, TX 79905-4123

The memorial commemorates the peaceful settlement of a century-old boundary dispute between the United States and Mexico. This commemoration and multi-cultural understanding are enhanced through the arts in the memorial’s 500-seat theater, outdoor stage, and three art galleries.

Authorized June 30, 1966; established Feb. 4, 1974.
Acreage—54.90, all federal.

Fort Davis
National Historic Site

PO Box 1379
101 Lt. Henry Flipper Drive
Fort Davis, TX 79734-1456

Soldiers from Fort Davis, a key West Texas post, helped open the area to settlement and protected travelers along the San Antonio-El Paso Road from 1854 to 1891.

Authorized Sept. 8, 1961; established July 4, 1963. Boundary change: Nov. 6, 1998.
Acreage—473.87, all federal.

Guadalupe Mountains
National Park

HC 60, Box 400
Salt Flat, TX 79847-9400

This lofty mountain mass rising out of the Chihuahuan desert is part of the world’s most significant Permian limestone fossil reef. The park includes spectacular canyons and unusual plants and animals.

Authorized Oct. 15, 1966; established Sept. 30, 1972. Wilderness designated Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—86,415.97 Federal: 86,189.97 Nonfederal: 226. Wilderness area: 46,850.

Lake Meredith
National Recreation Area

PO Box 1460
Fritch, TX 79036-1460

Lake Meredith, created by Sanford Dam on the Canadian River in the Texas Panhandle, is the setting for boating, fishing, and watersports. The area’s canyons, foothills, and meadows provide opportunities for hiking and other activities.

Administered in cooperation with Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, March 15, 1965. Name changed from Sanford National Recreation Area to Lake Meredith Recreation Area Oct. 16, 1972; redesignated Nov. 28, 1990.
Acreage—44,977.63, all federal.

Lyndon B. Johnson
National Historical Park

PO Box 329
Johnson City, TX 78636-0329

The park contains the reconstructed birthplace, boyhood home, and ranch of the 36th president; his grandparents’ log cabin; and the Johnson family cemetery.

Authorized as a national historic site Dec. 2, 1969; redesignated Dec. 28, 1980.
Acreage—1,570.15 Federal: 674.20 Nonfederal: 895.95.

Padre Island
National Seashore

PO Box 181300
Corpus Christi, TX

Noted for its wide sand beaches, excellent fishing, and abundant bird and marine life, the park stretches along the Gulf Coast for 70 miles.

Authorized Sept. 28, 1962; established April 6, 1968.
Acreage—130,434.27 Federal: 130,355.46 Nonfederal: 78.81.

Palo Alto Battlefield
National Historical Park

1623 Central Blvd. #213
Brownsville, TX 78520-8326

The park preserves the large battlefield on which the first battle of the U.S.-Mexican War (1846–48) took place. It portrays the battle and the war, and its causes and consequences, from the perspectives of both the U.S. and Mexico.

Authorized Nov. 10, 1978; redesignated a national historical park March 30, 2009. Boundary change: June 23, 1992.
Acreage—3,407.46 Federal: 1,314.77 Nonfederal: 2,092.69.

Rio Grande
Wild and Scenic River

c/o Big Bend National Park
PO Box 129
Big Bend National Park, TX

A 196-mile strip on the American shore of the Rio Grande in the Chihuahuan Desert protects the river. It begins in Big Bend National Park and continues downstream to the Terrell-Val Verde county line. NO FEDERAL FACILITIES outside Big Bend National Park.

Authorized Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—9,600, all nonfederal.

San Antonio Missions
National Historical Park

2202 Roosevelt Avenue
San Antonio, TX 78210-4919

Four Spanish frontier missions, part of a colonization system that stretched across the Spanish Southwest in the 1600s, 1700s, and 1800s, are preserved here.

Authorized Nov. 10, 1978; established April 1, 1983.
Acreage—825.92 Federal: 460.45 Nonfederal: 365.47.


Arches National Park
PO Box 907
Moab, UT 84532-0907

The park has extraordinary products of erosion in the form of some 2,000 arches, windows, pinnacles, and pedestals.

Proclaimed a national monument April 12, 1929; redesignated Nov. 12, 1971. Boundary changes: Nov. 25, 1938; July 22, 1960; Jan. 20, 1969; Oct. 30, 1998.
Acreage—76,518.98 Federal: 76,353.01 Nonfederal: 165.97.

Bryce Canyon
National Park

PO Box 170001
Bryce Canyon, UT 84717-0001

Highly colored and picturesque pinnacles, walls, and spires stand in horseshoe-shaped amphitheaters along the edge of the high plateau country in southern Utah.

Proclaimed a national monument June 8, 1923; renamed and redesignated Utah National Park June 7, 1924; renamed Bryce Canyon National Park Feb. 25, 1928. Boundary changes: May 12, 1928; June 13, 1930; Jan. 5, 1931; Feb. 17, 1931; May 4, 1931; March 7, 1942.
Acreage—35,835.08 Federal: 35,832.58 Nonfederal: 2.50.

National Park

2282 S. West Resource Blvd.
Moab, UT 84532

In this geological wonderland, rocks, spires, and mesas dominate the heart of the Colorado Plateau, cut by canyons of the Green and Colorado rivers. Prehistoric American Indian rock art and structures dot the redrock landscape.

Established Sept. 12, 1964. Boundary change: Nov. 12, 1971.
Acreage—337,597.83 Federal: 337,570.43 Nonfederal: 27.40.

Capitol Reef
National Park

HC 70, Box 15
Torrey, UT 84775-9602

Capitol Reef preserves the 100-mile-long Waterpocket Fold, an uplift of sandstone cliffs with highly colored sedimentary layers. Dome-shaped white-cap rock accounts for the name. Preserved is rock art of the Fremont Culture and a historic Mormon settlement.

Proclaimed a national monument Aug. 2, 1937; redesignated Dec. 18, 1971. Boundary changes: July 2, 1958; Jan. 20, 1969; Dec. 18, 1971.
Acreage—241,904.26 Federal: 241,234.29 Nonfederal: 669.97.

Cedar Breaks
National Monument

2390 W. Highway 56 #11
Cedar City, UT 84720-4151

Multicolored rock formations fill a vast geologic amphitheater, creating a spectacular scenic landscape. Situated at over 10,000 feet in elevation, the park’s rim and backcountry trails offer stunning views across the Great Basin.

Proclaimed Aug. 22, 1933. Boundary changes: March 7, 1942; June 30, 1961.
Acreage—6,154.60, all federal.

National Monument

(See Colorado)

Glen Canyon
National Recreation Area

PO Box 1507
Page, AZ 86040-1507
(Also in Arizona)

The area encompasses over a million acres of the most rugged canyon country on the Colorado Plateau. Lake Powell stretches 186 miles behind Glen Canyon Dam; its 1,960 miles of shoreline provide water-recreation activities.

Administered under cooperative agreements with Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, April 18, 1958, and Sept. 17, 1965. Established Oct. 27, 1972. Boundary changes: Jan. 3, 1975; July 1, 2003.
Acreage—1,254,429.12 Federal: 1,239,953.41 Nonfederal: 14,475.71.

Golden Spike
National Historic Site

PO Box 897
Brigham City, UT 84302-0897

The first transcontinental railroad in the United States was completed here on May 10, 1869, after the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads built 1,776 miles of hand-made line.

Designated April 2, 1957; National Park Service administration authorized July 30, 1965. Boundary changes: July 30, 1965; Sept. 8, 1980.
Acreage—2,735.28 Federal: 2,203.20 Nonfederal: 532.08.

National Monument

McElmo Route
Cortez, CO 81321-8901
(Also in Colorado)

The park protects Ancestral Puebloan towers, pueblos, and cliff dwellings spread over 26 miles on the Utah-Colorado border.

Proclaimed March 2, 1923. Boundary changes: April 26, 1951; Nov. 20, 1952; April 6, 1956.
Acreage—784.93, all federal.

Natural Bridges
National Monument

HC 60, PO Box 1
Lake Powell, UT 84533-0101

Three natural bridges carved out of sandstone, including the second and third largest in the world, are protected here. Also present are Ancestral Puebloan rock art and remains of ancient structures.

Proclaimed April 16, 1908. Boundary changes: April 16, 1908; Sept. 25, 1909; Feb. 11, 1916; Aug. 14, 1962.
Acreage—7,636.49, all federal.

Rainbow Bridge
National Monument

c/o Glen Canyon
National Recreation Area
PO Box 1507
Page, AZ 86040-1507

Greatest of the world’s known natural bridges, this symmetrical, salmon-pink sandstone span rises 290 feet above the floor of Bridge Canyon, accessible by boat from Lake Powell. Rainbow Bridge is a sacred site for American Indians.

Proclaimed May 30, 1910.
Acreage—160, all federal.

Timpanogos Cave
National Monument

R.R. 3, Box 200
American Fork, UT 84003

Three limestone caves are noted for colorful formations, fault-formed caves, and helictites—water-created formations that grow in all directions and shapes, regardless of gravity.

Proclaimed Oct. 14, 1922; transferred from Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Aug. 10, 1933. Authorized joint visitor center with U.S. Forest Service Dec. 6, 2002.
Acreage—250, all federal.

Zion National Park
Springdale, UT 84767-1099

Colorful canyon and mesa scenery includes erosion and rock-fault patterns that create phenomenal shapes and landscapes. The elevation differences at Zion provide habitat for extremely diverse plant communities.

Mukuntuweap National Monument proclaimed July 31, 1909, incorporated in Zion National Monument by proclamation March 18, 1918. Established as a national park Nov. 19, 1919. Separate Zion National Monument proclaimed Jan. 22, 1937, incorporated in park July 11, 1956. Other boundary changes: June 13, 1930; June 3, 1941; Feb. 20, 1960; Oct. 21, 1976; Nov. 12, 1996.
Acreage—146,597.60 Federal: 143,073.36 Nonfederal: 3,524.24.


National Scenic Trail

(See Maine)

National Historical Park

54 Elm Street
Woodstock, VT 05091

Home to pioneer conservationist George Perkins Marsh, the park includes a model farm and forest developed by Frederick Billings and continued by granddaughter Mary French Rockefeller and her husband, Laurance S. Rockefeller. In partnership with the Billings Farm and Museum, the park focuses on conservation themes and the stewardship of working landscapes and agricultural countryside. The park is headquarters for the Conservation Study Institute designed to enhance leadership in the field of conservation.

Established as Marsh-Billings National Historical Park Aug. 26, 1992; renamed Oct. 21, 1998.
Acreage—643.07 Federal: 555.07 Nonfederal: 88.


National Scenic Trail

(See Maine)

Appomattox Court House
National Historical Park

PO Box 218
Appomattox, VA 24522-0218

Here on April 9, 1865, Gen. Robert E. Lee surrendered the Confederacy’s Army of Northern Virginia to Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, leading to the end of the American Civil War.

Authorized as Appomattox Battlefield Site June 18, 1930; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933; authorized as a national historical monument Aug. 13, 1935; redesignated April 15, 1954. Boundary changes: Feb. 23, 1939; Oct. 21, 1976; Dec. 3, 1980; Oct. 27, 1992.
Acreage—1,774.11 Federal: 1,694.98 Nonfederal: 79.13.

Arlington House,
The Robert E. Lee

c/o George Washington
Memorial Parkway
Turkey Run Park
McLean, VA 22101-0001

This antebellum home of the Custis and Lee families overlooks the Potomac River and Washington, D.C.

Lee Mansion restoration authorized March 4, 1925; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933; designated Custis-Lee Mansion by Congress June 29, 1955; renamed June 30, 1972. Boundary change: Nov. 3, 1959.
Acreage—28.08, all federal.

Assateague Island
National Seashore

(See Maryland)

Blue Ridge Parkway
(See North Carolina)

Booker T. Washington
National Monument

12130 B.T. Washington Hwy.
Hardy, VA 24101-9688

On April 5, 1856, Booker T. Washington was born enslaved on this 1800s plantation. When he returned to visit in 1908, he was a noted educator and orator. He founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama in 1881.

Authorized April 2, 1956. Boundary change: Aug. 21, 2002.
Acreage—239.01, all federal.

Cedar Creek and
Belle Grove
National Historical Park

7718½ Main Street
PO Box 700
Middletown, VA 22645

Site of the Battle of Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864, this park contains Belle Grove Plantation, home of an early Shenandoah Valley settler. Shenandoah Valley is famous for historical landscapes and views of Massanutten Mountain and the Blue Ridge and Allegheny ranges. The park is in development, although many sites are operated by park partners. The park will be managed by the National Park Service, in partnership with several nonprofit and municipal entities. The park is within the Shenandoah Valley Battlefields National Historical District. NO FEDERAL FACILITIES.

Authorized Dec. 19, 2002.
Acreage—3,713.28  Federal: 8 Nonfederal: 3705.28.

National Historical Park

PO Box 210
Yorktown, VA 23690-0210

This park includes Jamestown, site of America’s first permanent English settlement; Yorktown, scene of the culminating battle of the American Revolution in 1781; the 23-mile Colonial Parkway; and Cape Henry Memorial, which marks the approximate site of the first landing of Jamestown’s colonists in 1607. Yorktown National Cemetery, containing Civil War gravesites—2,183 interments, 1,434 unidentified—adjoins the park; grave space is not available.

Park: Colonial National Monument authorized July 3, 1930; established Dec. 30, 1930; redesignated June 5, 1936. Boundary changes: Aug. 22, 1933; June 5, 1936; June 15, 1938; Dec. 24, 1942; April 22, 1944; Dec. 23, 1944; May 12, 1948; Sept. 23, 1950; May 13, 1953; March 29, 1956; Aug. 29, 1967; Nov. 12, 1996.
Cemetery: probable date of Civil War interments, 1866. Transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933.
Park acreage—8,676.91 Federal: 8,609.22 Nonfederal: 67.69. Cemetery acreage—2.91, all federal.

Cumberland Gap
National Historical Park

(See Kentucky)

and Spotsylvania County
Battlefields Memorial
National Military Park

120 Chatham Lane
Fredericksburg, VA 22405-2508
or 540-786-2880

This park encompasses four major Civil War battlefields— Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Wilderness, and Spotsylvania Court House—and four historic buildings associated with them—Chatham, Salem Church, Ellwood, and the house where Stonewall Jackson died.

Park: Established Feb. 14, 1927; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933. Boundary changes: Dec. 11, 1989; Oct. 27, 1992; Dec. 9, 1999.
Cemetery: Probable date of unidentified Civil War interments, 1867. Transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933.
Park acreage—8,373.90 Federal: 7,272.89 Nonfederal: 1,101.01. Cemetery acreage—12, all federal.

George Washington
National Monument

1732 Popes Creek Road
Washington’s Birthplace, VA

Birthplace of the preeminent leader of the American Revolutionary War era and the first U.S. president. The park includes the foundation of the house where Washington was born, the archeological remains of outbuildings, a commemorative colonial revival plantation, and the family burial ground.

Established Jan. 23, 1930. Boundary changes: March 30, 1931; April 11, 1972; Nov. 10, 1978; May 3, 1993; Dec. 17, 2002.
Acreage—661.73 Federal: 550.23 Nonfederal: 111.50.

George Washington
Memorial Parkway

Turkey Run Park
McLean, VA 22101-0001
(Also in Maryland and the
District of Columbia)

The parkway, developed as a memorial to the first U.S. president, preserves the natural scenery along the Potomac River. It connects historic sites from Mount Vernon, where George Washington lived, past the Nation’s Capital, which he founded, to the Great Falls of the Potomac, where he demonstrated his skill as an engineer.

Authorized May 29, 1930; transferred from Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks of the National Capital Aug. 10, 1933. On Nov. 28, 1989, the road in Maryland was renamed the Clara Barton Parkway. Boundary changes: May 13, 1947; Oct. 10, 1965; Oct. 21, 1976.
Acreage—7,192.73 Federal: 7,174.06 Nonfederal: 18.67.

Harpers Ferry
National Historical Park

(See West Virginia)

Maggie L. Walker
National Historic Site

c/o Richmond National
Battlefield Park
3215 East Broad Street
Richmond, VA 23223-7517

This house at 110½ E. Leigh Street, Richmond, Va., was the home of Maggie L. Walker, a leader in the national African American community in the early 1900s and the first woman to charter and be president of a bank.

Authorized Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—1.29 Federal: 0.36 Nonfederal: 0.93.

National Battlefield Park

12521 Lee Highway
Manassas, VA 20109-2005

The First and Second Battles of Manassas were fought here July 21, 1861, and Aug. 28–30, 1862. Here Confederate Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson acquired his nickname “Stonewall.”

Designated May 10, 1940. Boundary changes: April 17, 1954; Oct. 30, 1980; Nov. 10, 1988.
Acreage—5,073.17 Federal: 4,412.14 Nonfederal: 661.03.

National Battlefield

1539 Hickory Hill Road
Petersburg, VA 23803-4721

The Union Army waged a 10-month campaign here 1864–65 to seize Petersburg. The park includes Grant’s Headquarters at City Point in Hopewell, Va. The Five Forks Battlefield, in Dinwiddie County, is where the Confederate collapse led to the fall of the city and ultimately of Richmond. Poplar Grove (Petersburg) National Cemetery—6,315 interments, 4,110 unidentified—is near the park; grave space is not available.

Park: Established as a national military park July 3, 1926; transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933; redesignated Aug. 24, 1962. Boundary changes: June 5, 1942; Sept. 7, 1949; Aug. 24, 1962; April 11, 1972; Nov. 10, 1978; December 26, 1990.
Cemetery: Probable date of Civil War interments 1866. Transferred from War Dept. Aug. 10, 1933.
Park acreage—2,738.68 Federal: 2,656.39 Nonfederal: 82.29. Cemetery acreage—8.72, all federal.

Potomac Heritage
National Scenic Trail

(See Maryland)

Prince William Forest

18100 Park Headquarters Rd.
Triangle, VA 22172-1644

The Piedmont forests of the Quantico Creek watershed shelter hiking trails and five camps built by the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) for group and family camping. The camps were built primarily during the 1930s.

Chopawamsic Recreation Demonstration Area transferred from Resettlement Administration Nov. 14, 1936; renamed June 22, 1948.
Acreage—19,376.73 Federal: 17,886.11 Nonfederal: 1,490.62.

National Battlefield Park

3215 East Broad Street
Richmond, VA 23223-7517

The park commemorates major Civil War battles around Richmond, including Cold Harbor, Beaver Dam Creek, Totopotomoy Creek, Glendale, Fort Harrison, Drewry’s Bluff, Malvern Hill, and Gaines’ Mill, where 15,000 soldiers fell— killed, wounded, missing, or captured—in one day.

Authorized March 2, 1936. Boundary changes: March 3, 1956; Nov. 13, 2000.
Acreage—7,307 Federal: 1,991.43 Nonfederal: 5,315.57.

National Park

3655 US Highway 211 East
Luray, VA 22835-9051

Skyline Drive winds along the crest of the Blue Ridge Mountains for 105 miles. The park, which includes 300 square miles of the southern Appalachians, offers the area’s most famous scenic roadway and hiking trails (including the Appalachian Trail), wildlife viewing points, and an ever-changing hardwood forest.

Authorized May 22, 1926; fully established Dec. 26, 1935; dedicated July 3, 1936. Boundary changes: Feb. 16, 1928; Feb. 4, 1932; June 13, 1939; June 6, 1942; Sept. 13, 1960; June 30, 1961. Wilderness designated Oct. 20, 1976, and Sept. 1, 1978.
Acreage—199,045.23 Federal: 198,250.40 Nonfederal: 794.83. Wilderness area: 79,579.

Wolf Trap National Park
for the Performing Arts

1551 Trap Road
Vienna, VA 22182-1643

The Filene Center, an open-air performing arts pavilion, can accommodate an audience of 7,000, including 3,000 on the sloping lawn in a setting of rolling hills and woods.

Authorized Oct. 15, 1966; redesignated Aug. 21, 2002.
Acreage—130.28, all federal.

Virgin Islands

Buck Island Reef
National Monument

Danish Customs House
Kings Wharf
2100 Church Street, #100
Christiansted, VI 00820-4611

The park, featuring the finest coral reef gardens in the Caribbean, includes coral grottoes, sea fans, and tropical fish. Its interpretive snorkel trail provides a wonderful opportunity to discover the underwater world. The island’s beaches and tropical forests are nesting areas for brown pelicans and endangered sea turtles.

Proclaimed Dec. 28, 1961. Boundary change: Feb. 1, 1975.
Acreage—19,015.47, all federal. Land area: 143.

National Historic Site

Danish Customs House
Kings Wharf
2100 Church Street, #100
Christiansted, VI 00820-4611

Urban colonial development of the Virgin Islands is commemorated by structures from the 1700s and 1800s in the heart of the capital of the former Danish West Indies on St. Croix Island.

Designated Virgin Islands National Historic Site March 4, 1952; renamed Jan. 16, 1961. Boundary change: June 27, 1962.
Acreage—27.15 Federal: 26.24 Nonfederal: 0.91.

Salt River Bay
National Historical Park
and Ecological Preserve

Danish Customs House
Kings Wharf
2100 Church Street, #100
Christiansted, VI 00820-4611

The park contains the only known site where members of the Columbus expedition set foot on what is now U.S. territory. It preserves upland watersheds, mangrove forests, and estuarine and marine environments. The site is marked by Fort Sale, a remaining earthworks fortification from the period of Dutch occupation.

Authorized Feb. 24, 1992.
Acreage—978.07 Federal: 217.62 Nonfederal: 760.45.

Virgin Islands Coral Reef
National Monument

PO Box 710
Cruz Bay, St. John, VI 00831

The park is next to submerged lands that are part of Virgin Islands National Park. This tropical marine ecosystem includes mangroves, sea grass beds, coral reefs, octocoral hardbottom, sand communities, and algal plains. These extraordinary blue-green waters and submerged lands are habitat for threatened and endangered species like humpback whales, pilot whales, dolphins, green and leatherback sea turtles, reef fish, and 25 species of sea birds.

Authorized Jan. 17, 2001.
Acreage—13,892.78, all nonfederal.

Virgin Islands
National Park

PO Box 710
Cruz Bay, St. John, VI 00831

The park covers much of the island of St. John. Features include coral reefs, quiet coves, blue-green waters, and white sandy beaches fringed by green hills. There are also early Indian sites and the remains of Danish colonial sugar plantations.

Authorized Aug. 2, 1956. Boundary changes: June 29, 1960; Oct. 5, 1962; Aug. 18, 1978. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1976.
Acreage—14,688.87 Federal: 12,916.86 Nonfederal: 1,772.01. Water area: 5,650.


Ebey’s Landing
National Historical Reserve

PO Box 774
Coupeville, WA 98239-0774

This rural historic district preserves and protects an unbroken historical record of Puget Sound exploration and settlement from the 1800s to the present. Historic farms, still under cultivation on the prairies of Whidbey Island, reveal land-use patterns unchanged since settlers claimed the land in the 1850s under the Donation Land Claim Act. The Victorian seaport community of Coupeville is also in the Reserve. This partnership park is managed by a local Trust Board. LIMITED FEDERAL FACILITIES.

Authorized Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—19,323.99 Federal: 2,708.73 Nonfederal: 16,615.26.

Fort Vancouver
National Historic Site

612 E. Reserve Street
Vancouver, WA 98661-3811

From 1825 to 1849, Fort Vancouver was the western headquarters of the Hudson’s Bay Company’s fur trading operations. Led by John McLoughlin, the fort became the center of political, cultural, commercial, and manufacturing activities in the Pacific Northwest. McLoughlin’s home in nearby Oregon City, Ore., is part of the park.

Authorized as a national monument June 19, 1948; redesignated June 30, 1961. Boundary changes: Jan. 15, 1958; June 30, 1961; April 4, 1972; July 29, 2003.
Acreage—209.52 Federal: 202.36 Nonfederal: 7.16.

Klondike Gold Rush
National Historical Park

319 Second Avenue S.
Seattle, WA 98104
(See also Alaska)

News of the gold strike in Canada’s Yukon Territory spread from Seattle across the country; from here most prospectors left for the gold fields. The park’s visitor center is in the Pioneer Square Historic District, the center of Gold Rush activity.

Authorized June 30, 1976.
Acreage—13,191.35 Federal: 2,418.93 Nonfederal: 10,772.42.

Lake Chelan
National Recreation Area

810 State Route 20
Sedro-Woolley, WA 98284

Here the beautiful Stehekin Valley, with a portion of fjordlike Lake Chelan, adjoins North Cascades National Park.

Established Oct. 2, 1968.
Acreage—61,946.72 Federal: 59,342.51 Nonfederal: 2,604.21.

Lake Roosevelt
National Recreation Area

1008 Crest Drive
Coulee Dam, WA 99116-0037

Formed by Grand Coulee Dam (part of the Columbia River Basin project), 130-mile-long Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake and historic sites are the principal features here.

Coulee Dam Recreation Area administered under cooperative agreement between Bureau of Reclamation and Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Dec. 18, 1946; agreement revised and renegotiated among Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, National Park Service, Colville Confederated Tribes, and the Spokane Tribe of Indians April 20, 1990; area renamed Jan. 1, 1997.
Acreage—100,390.31, all federal.

Lewis and Clark
National Historical Park

(See Oregon)

Mount Rainier
National Park

Tahoma Woods, Star Route
Ashford, WA 98304-9751

This greatest single-peak glacial system in the United States radiates from the summit and slopes of an ancient volcano, with dense forests and subalpine flowered meadows below.

Established March 2, 1899. Boundary changes: May 28, 1926; Jan. 31, 1931; June 27, 1960; Nov. 16, 1988; Oct. 5, 2004. Wilderness designated Nov. 16, 1988.
Acreage—235,625, all federal. Wilderness area: 228,480.

Nez Perce
National Historical Park

(See Idaho)

North Cascades
National Park

810 State Route 20
Sedro-Woolley, WA 98284

In this wilderness park, high jagged peaks intercept moisture-laden winds, producing glaciers, waterfalls, rivers, lakes, lush forests, and a great diversity of plants and animals.

Established Oct. 2, 1968. Wilderness designated Nov. 16, 1988. The Stephen Mather Wilderness Area extends into Lake Chelan National Recreation Area and Ross Lake National Recreation Area.
Acreage—504,780.94 Federal: 504,633.52 Nonfederal: 147.42. Wilderness area: 634,614.

Olympic National Park
600 East Park Avenue
Port Angeles, WA 98362-6757

This park is a large wilderness area featuring glacier-capped mountains, deep valleys, meadows, lakes, giant trees, 57 miles of unspoiled beaches, wildlife like Roosevelt elk and Olympic marmot, and a spectacular temperate rain forest.

Proclaimed Mount Olympus National Monument March 2, 1909; transferred from Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Aug. 10, 1933; renamed and redesignated June 29, 1938. Boundary changes: Jan. 2, 1940; May 29, 1943; Jan. 6, 1953; Oct. 21, 1976; Oct. 10, 1986; Nov. 16, 1988. Wilderness designated Nov. 16, 1988. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1976. Designated a World Heritage Site Oct. 27, 1981.
Acreage—922,650.86 Federal: 913,530.97 Nonfederal: 9,119.89. Wilderness area: 876,669.

Ross Lake
National Recreation Area

810 State Route 20
Sedro-Woolley, WA 98284

Ringed by mountains, this national recreation area offers outdoor activities along the upper Skagit River, between the north and south units of North Cascades National Park.

Established Oct. 2, 1968.
Acreage—117,574.59 Federal: 115,959.59 Nonfederal: 1,615.

San Juan Island
National Historical Park

PO Box 429
Friday Harbor, WA 98250-0429

With over six miles of shoreline, trails, prairies, and military camps, this park commemorates the peaceful settlement of the San Juan Boundary Dispute between Great Britain and the United States from 1853 to 1872, including the Pig War crisis of 1854.

Authorized Sept. 9, 1966.
Acreage—1,751.99 Federal: 1,725.45 Nonfederal: 26.54.

Whitman Mission
National Historic Site

328 Whitman Mission Road
Walla Walla, WA 99362

The mission of Marcus and Narcissa Whitman at Waiilatpu was an important way station on the Oregon Trail. The Whitmans labored to bring Christianity to the Cayuse Indians, but cultural differences and a measles epidemic led to violence in which the Cayuse killed the Whitmans and 11 others.

Authorized as Whitman National Monument June 29, 1936; renamed and redesignated Jan. 1, 1963. Boundary changes: Feb. 7, 1961; Feb. 8, 1963.
Acreage—138.53, all federal.

West Virginia

National Scenic Trail

(See Maine)

National Scenic River

c/o New River Gorge
National River
PO Box 246
Glen Jean, WV 25846-0246

This river in southwest West Virginia contains natural and historic features of the Appalachian plateau. In its 10.5 miles the lower Bluestone River offers fishing, hiking, boating, and scenery. Pipestem and Bluestone state parks and Bluestone Wildlife Management Area are located along this segment of the river. NO FEDERAL FACILITIES.

Authorized Oct. 26, 1988. Boundary change: Nov. 12, 1996.
Acreage—4,309.51 Federal: 3,032 Nonfederal: 1,277.51.

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
National Historical Park

(See Maryland)

Gauley River
National Recreation Area

c/o New River Gorge
National River
PO Box 246
Glen Jean, WV 25846-0246

The 25.5 miles of the Gauley River and the 5.5 miles of the Meadow River pass through scenic gorges and valleys containing a wide variety of natural and cultural features. The Gauley River contains several Class V+ rapids, making it one of the most adventurous whitewater boating rivers in the East. Both rivers also provide excellent fishing opportunities. LIMITED FEDERAL FACILITIES.

Authorized Oct. 26, 1988.
Acreage—11,506.95 Federal: 4,283.12 Nonfederal: 7,223.83.

Harpers Ferry
National Historical Park

PO Box 65
Harpers Ferry, WV 25425-0065
(Also in Maryland and

The town witnessed the arrival of the first successful American railroad, the first successful application of interchangeable parts, John Brown’s attack on slavery, the largest surrender of federal troops during the Civil War, education of former slaves, and the beginning of the modern civil rights movement.

Authorized as a national monument June 30, 1944; redesignated May 29, 1963. Boundary changes: July 14, 1960; Oct. 24, 1974; March 5, 1980; Sept. 24, 2004.
Acreage—2,503.64 Federal: 2,407.87 Nonfederal: 95.77.

New River Gorge
National River

PO Box 246
Glen Jean, WV 25846-0246

A rugged, whitewater river flowing northward through deep canyons, the New is among the oldest rivers on the continent. The free-flowing, 53-mile section from Hinton to Hawks Nest State Park is abundant in natural, scenic, historic, and recreational features.

Authorized Nov. 10, 1978. Boundary changes: Oct. 26, 1988; Nov. 12, 1996; Dec. 17, 2002.
Acreage—72,189.49 Federal: 52,197.16 Nonfederal: 19,992.33.


Apostle Islands
National Lakeshore

415 Washington Avenue
Bayfield, WI 54814-4809

Twenty-one picturesque islands and a 12-mile strip of mainland shoreline along the south shore of Lake Superior feature sandstone cliffs, sea caves, pristine beaches, old-growth forest, commercial fish camps, and six historic light stations.

Established Sept. 26, 1970. Boundary change: Oct. 17, 1986. Wilderness designated Dec. 8, 2004.
Acreage—69,371.89 Federal: 42,160.65 Nonfederal: 27,211.24. Land area: 42,265.13. Wilderness area: 33,500.

Saint Croix
National Scenic Riverway

401 N. Hamilton Street
St. Croix Falls, WI 54024-0708
(Also in Minnesota)

For 252 miles, the St. Croix and Namekagon rivers flow through some of the most undeveloped country in the upper midwest. Visitors canoe, boat, camp, fish, hike, and view wildlife in the area, renowned for spectacular scenery. The states of Minnesota and Wisconsin manage the lower 25 miles of the St. Croix River to its confluence with the Mississippi River.

Authorized Oct. 2, 1968. Boundary changes: Oct. 25, 1972; Dec. 23, 1980.
Acreage—92,749.14 Federal: 40,486.89 Nonfederal: 52,262.25.


Bighorn Canyon
National Recreation Area

(See Montana)

Devils Tower
National Monument

PO Box 10
Devils Tower, WY 82714

Devils Tower, the nation’s first national monument, is a high, isolated monolith of igneous rock, set upon a pine-clad pedestal within a bend of the Belle Fourche River.

Proclaimed Sept. 24, 1906. Boundary change: Aug. 9, 1955.
Acreage—1,346.91, all federal.

Fort Laramie
National Historic Site

965 Gray Rocks Road
Fort Laramie, WY 82212-0086

Fort Laramie, on the eastern Wyoming prairie, was a fur trading post from 1834 to 1849 and a major military post from 1849 to 1890. It figured prominently in the covered wagon migrations to Oregon and California.

Proclaimed a national monument July 16, 1938; redesignated April 29, 1960. Boundary changes: April 29, 1960; Nov. 10, 1978.
Acreage—832.85 Federal: 831.52 Nonfederal: 1.33.

Fossil Butte
National Monument

PO Box 592
Kemmerer, WY 83101-0592

The monument is noted for its well-preserved Eocene fish. Fossil insects, snails, turtles, birds, bats, and plant remains are also found in the 50-million-year-old rock layers.

Established Oct. 23, 1972.
Acreage—8,198, all federal.

Grand Teton
National Park

P.O. Drawer 170
Moose, WY 83012-0170

Grand Teton features a rugged, awe-inspiring mountain range with numerous piedmont lakes nestled along its flanks, and the wide, sagebrush-covered valley of Jackson Hole.

Established Feb. 26, 1929. Boundary change: Sept. 14, 1950—incorporation of part of former Jackson Hole National Monument proclaimed March 15, 1943. Portions of the monument were absorbed by National Elk Refuge, administered by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Teton National Forest, administered by Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.
Acreage—310,044.36  Federal: 307,744.73 Nonfederal: 2,299.63.

John D. Rockefeller, Jr.
Memorial Parkway

c/o Grand Teton National
Park, P.O. Drawer 170
Moose, WY 83012-0170

Linking Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks, this scenic 82-mile corridor commemorates Rockefeller’s role in aiding the establishment of many parks, including Grand Teton.

Authorized Aug. 25, 1972.
Acreage—23,777.22, all federal.

Yellowstone National Park
PO Box 168
Yellowstone National Park,
WY 82190-0168
(Also in Montana and Idaho)

Old Faithful and some 10,000 other thermal features make this the Earth’s greatest geyser area. Here, too, are lakes, waterfalls, high mountain meadows, wildlife, and the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone—all set apart in 1872 as the world’s first national park.

Established March 1, 1872. Boundary changes: May 26, 1926; March 1, 1929; April 19, 1930; Oct. 20, 1932. Designated a Biosphere Reserve 1976. Designated a World Heritage Site Sept. 6, 1978.
Acreage—2,219,790.71 Federal: 2,219,789.13 Nonfederal: 1.58.

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Last Updated: 30-July-2009