Nature Notes

Mount Rainier National Park

Vol. XVI March - June - 1938 Nos. 1 & 2

Issued quarterly by the Naturalist Department of Mount Rainier National Park. Material contained herein may be used freely provided that credit is given to this pamphlet and the author.
C. Frank Brockman
Park Naturalist
O. A. Tomlinson

Flora of Mt. Rainier National Park

C. Frank Brockman.



Of the many regions famous for floral beauty few, of like area, excel Mount Rainier National Park in abundance of flowers or in the number of individual species. One can best appreciate the reasons for this condition when the topography, geographic location, climatic factors, altitudinal range, and other allied features characteristic of the park area, are understood. Each has a bearing upon the abundance and distribution of the plants found in this national park.

Size and Topography.

Mount Rainier National Park is 377.78 square miles (241,782 acres) in size and is thus, approximately, one-third as large as the State of Rhode Island. The lowest elevation, 1600 ft., is found in the south eastern corner of the area where the Ohanapecosh River crosses the southern boundary. Columbia Crest, 14,408, at the summit of Mount Rainier, is the highest point. The entire park is characterized by extreme ruggedness. The mountain itself is the main topographical feature. It lies just to the west of the center of the park, its huge base occupying approximately 100 square miles of territory or about one-third of the total area of the park. Surrounding this old volcanic cone is a mass of smaller peaks and minor mountain ranges whose summits average from 5000 to 7000 feet in height. With the exception of a portion of the Cascade Range, the crest line of which forms a part of the eastern boundary of the park, the principal ridges of prominance lie parallel to the glacial troughs which radiate from the mountain. Consequently in encircling Mount Rainier, via the 95 mile Wonderland Trail, one alternately climbs to open sub-alpine meadows known as "parks" and descends to heavily forested valleys. The differences in elevation between these points are often over 3000 feet.

(*) See page 13 for an explanation of the scope and limitations of this publication.

Geographic Location and Climatic Factors. (1)

As Mount Rainier National Park lies entirely west of the crest line of the Cascade Range, which is a north-south climatic boundary in the State of Washington its geographic position is largely responsible for its climate and, likewise, for the character of its vegetation. The prevailing winds are from the west and are heavily laden with moisture from the Pacific Ocean. As they rise in passing inland over the Cascades rapid condensation of this moisture is brought about with consequent heavy precipitation, since air cools upon rising and thus loses its capacity for holding moisture. Topographic features account for variation in precipitation and, in general, windward slopes receive a greater amount of moisture than do leeward exposures. This accounts for the fact that, although it is 900 feet higher, the Yakima Park (Sunrise) section of Mount Rainier National Park receives considerably less snowfall than does the Paradise Valley area, for the former is on the leeward side of Mount Rainier.

In general however, the park, in common with other areas of like altitude west of the Cascades, is characterized by heavy precipitation. Over 75% of the total annual precipitation falls from October to May. Based upon records of the U. S. Weather Bureau the average annual precipitation for Paradise Park (5557') is roughly 100 inches. (2) This may be contrasted with the record for Longmire (2760') where the average annual rate is about 78 inches.

In spite of its latitude, which is comparable to northern Maine, and its excessive snowfall, Mount Rainier National Park is characterized by comparatively mild winters. This is largely due to the proximity of the Pacific and the prevailing westerly winds. The summers in this region are, in turn, rarely characterized by hot weather for any extended period.

The average maximum temperature at Longmire is about 55 degrees; at Paradise, 47 degrees. The average minimum temperature at Longmire is about 35 degrees; at Paradise, 29 degrees. The highest temperature recorded at Longmire was 105 degrees; at Paradise, 92 degrees. The lowest temperature recorded at Longmire was 9 degrees below zero; at Paradise, 20 degrees below zero. (3)

Effects of Altitude on Plant Life.

Just as differences in latitude are responsible for variations in climate and, thus, bring about changes in plant and animal life from the temperate to the arctic regions, so the changes in climate, which are the result of differences in elevation, cause certain characteristic variations in the flora and fauna of mountainous areas. This is readily apparent in a trip from Puget Sound, which lies within the Humid Transition zone, to the upper slopes of Mount Rainier which are included in the Arctic-alpine zone. In general a difference of 1000 feet in altitude brings about changes in plant and animal life that are quite similar to the changes caused by a difference of 300 miles in latitude. Consequently the changes in the flora from the lower park boundaries to the upper slopes of Mount Rainier will be, in general, similar to those observed in traveling northward from Puget Sound to within the Arctic circle. This is one reason for the diversity of plant forms within the borders of this comparatively small area.

There are four life zones within Mount Rainier National Park - the Humid Transition, Canadian, Hudsonian and Arctic-alpine. The first one mentioned is of comparatively limited occurrence but the last three are quite well defined and encompass large areas. Differences in temperature and moisture in each of these altitudinal divisions bring about the development of certain plant associations by which each may be recognized. There is, on the other hand, considerable variation in the altitudinal distribution of many plants. The line of demarkation between the various zones is not sharply defined and many plants are characteristic of two or more life zones.

Humid Transition Zone: This zone "occupies the smallest area and is the least important of the zones of the park. Although Transition elements occur occasionally to 3500 or even 4000 feet (on the west side of the mountain) and were noted on the Carbon, Puyallup, Mowich, Nisqually, and other river systems, the zone can be clearly recognized in the southeastern part of the park only, where it is found in a limited area (4 to 6 square miles) on Stevens Creek and the Muddy Fork of the Cowlitz River below an altitude of 3000 feet." (4)

Thus there is no finely drawn distinction between the Humid Transition and Canadian zones in Mount Rainier National Park. The upper limits of the former are merged with the lower limits of the latter and so in many localities at the lower elevations of the park, many of the characteristics of both zones may be observed. Few plant species found in the Humid Transition zone here are confined to it and the overlapping of plants from one zone to another is more characteristic in the case of the Humid Transition-Canadian than in any other. The modifying influence of the heavy forest cover, which in turn is largely due to the equable climate of this region, is no doubt responsible for the diffusion of zonal types in this instance.

Among the plants that may be found in the Humid Transition elements in Mount Rainier National Park, though they are by no means confined to such associations, are the following: bleeding heart (Dicentra formosa), stink currant (Ribes bracteosum), red-flowering currant (Ribes sanguineum), Indian plum (Osmoronia cerasiformis), wild cherry (Prunus emarginata var. mollis), red osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), single-flowered Indian pipe (Monotropa uniflora), grand fir (Abies grandis), black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), big-leaved maple (Acer macrophyllum), Pacific tree dogwood (Cornus nuttallii), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), western red cedar (Thuja plicata), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) trillium (Trillium ovatum), salal (Gaultheria shallon), Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa), sword fern (Polystichum munitum) and the bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum var. lanuginosum).

Canadian Zone: With the exception of the small Transition area already mentioned, this zone extends from the lower park boundaries to about 5000 feet. This is the zone of deep, sombre forests which serves as the visitor's introduction to Mount Rainier National Park, unless he enters via the Chinook Pass gateway from Yakima. As already stated there is a considerable mixture of Humid Transition and Canadian elements at the lower elevations of the park. In fact the Canadian zone here does not really become well defined until above the 3000 ft. elevation. At this point the forest is composed of trees that are noticeably smaller than those at the lower elevations. Likewise the forest is not so dense or so shaded, whereas the ground cover is also more open in character. Although western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia) are common members of the forest in this zone the most typical tree species are amabilis fir (Abies amabilis), Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), noble fir (Abies nobilis), and western white pine (Pinus monticola).

Insofar as the characteristic plants of the Canadian zone are concerned Piper (5) states: "The zone can, in fact, be recognized in. Washington not so much by any purely characteristic species as by the great abundance of species relatively rare in the contiguous zones." In general this statement holds true in Mount Rainier National Park.

In addition to the species of trees already given, the following plants are among those most often encountered in the Canadian zone in this area: western yew (Taxus brevifolia), queen's cup (Clintonia uniflora), wild lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemun dilatatum), star-flowered solomon's seal (Smilacina stellata), twisted stalk (Streptopus amplexifolius), forest anemone (Anemone deltoidea), sweet-after-death (Achlys triphylla), wood sorrel (Oxalis oregana), Canadian dogwood (Cornus canadensis), prince's pine (Chimaphila menziesii), upland salal (Gaultheria ovatifolia), fool's huckleberry (Menziesia ferruginea), white rhododendron (Rhododendron albiflorum) and many-flowered Indian pipe (Monotropa hypopitys).

Hudsonian Zone: Characterized by sub-alpine. meadows in which are found groups of alpine fir and mountain hemlock, this zone, with an altitudinal range of from approximately 5000 to 6500 ft., is the region of greatest public interest in Mount Rainier National Park. It is a region of extensive panoramas, of rugged mountain grandeur softened by the verdant beauty of an open sub-alpine forest and an abundance of flowers of many vivid hues. For these reasons the Hudsonian zone contrasts sharply to the cathedral-like quiet and sombre beauty of the heavily wooded Canadian zone.

The entire Hudsonian zone is covered with snowdrifts during the greater portion of the year. As a rule the first permanent winter snow falls about November 1 and the earth is only partly free of its ermine blanket by July 4. Extensive areas may remain covered with snow until past midsummer. In consequence the growing season is short and intense. Many of the early plants of this zone such as the avalanche lily (Erythronium montanum), glacier lily (Erythronium grandiflorum var. pallidum), and western anemone (Anemone occidentalis) begin their occupation of these meadows as fast as the snow melts. The avalanche lily actually pushes through the edges of the retreating snowbanks and blooms close by. The massed effect of the flowers here which makes these meadows so attractive and colorful is largely due to the short growing season, the abundant moisture from the melting snowbanks, and the warm summer sun which is characteristic at this elevation during that period. Many of the species found here are the same or quite similar to those found in The Hudsonian regions of Canada and Alaska.

The flora of the Hudsonian zone is generally constant in composition, except for that area in the vicinity of Yakima Park (Sunrise). Here, no doubt due to the differences in precipitation and to the character of the soil, the plants are not as abundant as in other sections and, in addition, there is some difference in species content. The difference in species is most noticeable in the case of the trees for white-barked pine replaces the mountain hemlock as the most common associate of the alpine fir in this area. Also, as there is considerably less snow in the Yakima Park area than on the south and west sides of the park, the plants are generally earlier, in so far as their maximum abundance is concerned, and of course disappear at an earlier date also.

The following are among the most characteristic plants of this zone - alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), white-barked pine (Pinus albicaulis), avalanche lily (Erythronium montanum), glacier lily (Erythronium grandiflorum var. pallidum), giant hellebore (Veratrum eschscholtzii), mountain dock (Polygonum bistortoides), western anemone (Anemone occidentalis), white marsh marigold (Caltha leptosepala), mountain currant (Ribes howellii), Alaska spirea (Lutkea pectinata), cinquefoil (Potentilla flabellifolia), rosy spirea (Spirea densiflora), blue lupine (Lupinus latifolius var. canadensis), white heather (Cassiope mertensiana), red heather (Phyllodoce empetriformis), yellow heather (Phyllodoce glandulifera), low-bush huckleberry (Vaccinium deliciosum), shooting star (Dodecatheon jeffreyi), blue gentian (Gentiana calycosa), mountain phlox (Phlox diffusa), Jacob's ladder (Polemonium pulcherrinum), orange paintbrush (Castilleja miniata), Indian paintbrush (Castilleja oreopola), Lewis' mimulus (Mimulus lewisii), alpine yellow mimulus (Mimulus tilingi), common lousewort (Pedicularis racemosa), Indian warrior lousewort (Pedicularis bracteosa), red pentstemon (Pentstemon rupicola), Cusick's speedwell (Veronica cusickii), valerian (Valeriana sitchensis), bluebell (Campanula rotundifolia), arnica (Arnica latifolia) and mountain daisy (Erigeron salsuginosus).

Arctic-alpine Zone: This zone includes all of that area above the upper limit of tree growth, which may be generally considered to mark the upper limit of the Hudsonian zone. Thus its altitudinal range is from about 6500 ft. to the summit of Mount Rainier itself at 14,408 ft. Only the lower portions of this zone, of course, are inhabited by plant life for a great part of the area is characterized by barren, rocky soils, perpetual snowfields, or glacial ice. The majority of plants in this zone occur between the elevations of 6500 and 7500 feet, though a few species may be found, under proper conditions, up to 10,000 feet. However several species of mosses and lichens inhabit the rocks of the crater rim which are warmed by vapors that escape from fissures at that point.

This is a region of rugged mountain grandeur and, while it lacks the verdure of the Hudsonian meadows, its pioneer floral types are of considerable interest. The soil is shallow and rocky. The growing season is short with frequent nightly frosts, and even light snowfalls, during this period. The temperature varies considerably between night and day and also between sun and shade. These and other similar factors restrict the plants of this rigorous zone to perennials.

No distinct line can be drawn between the Hudsonian and Arctic-alpine zones. The change is one of gradual transition with altitude. Among the most characteristic plants of this zone are the following - mountain buckwheat (Eriogonum pyrolaefolium var. coryphaeum), pussy paws (Spraguea multiceps), moss campion (Silene acaulis), willow grass (Draba aureola), smelowskia (Smelowskia ovalis), Tolmie's saxifrage (Saxifraga tolmiei), Lyall's lupine (Lupinus lyallii), alpine jacob's ladder (Polemonium pilosum), Indian pink (Castilleja angustifolia var. hispida), and golden aster (Erigeron aureus).

In passing it may be of interest to note that in the Yakima Park area, near Frozen Lake and along the Burroughs Mountain loop trail, may be found one of the most colorful of the mountain's Arctic-alpine rock gardens. Here one finds a considerable quantity of Indian pink, Lyall's lupine, and several other plants of this zone growing upon the dry rocky or pumice soils. This is one of the most colorful and interesting floral associations in the park and may be generally seen at its best about the first week in August.

Habitats Affecting Plant Life In Mount Rainier National Park.

Throughout the park localized conditions, largely determined by soil and moisture, account for the development of certain plant associations within the various life zones. The term habitat refers to the natural environment of plants. For instance, certain plants will establish themselves in boggy soils, others prefer dry pumice soil; while some are found most often in the shaded depths of the deep forest. Thus plants have certain characteristics by which they are adapted to certain environments and which enable them to establish themselves, maintain their position with respect to their associates, grow, and reproduce under those conditions. Certain features possessed by a plant may be of particular advantage in one environment but of disadvantage in another.

Taylor and Shaw in their discussion of life zones of Mt. Rainier (6) classify these various habitats on the basis of available moisture. Using their classification as a base, the following diagrammatic table has been prepared:


Of course, although moisture is probably the major factor, other factors, such as the character of the soil, exposure (whether north, south, east or west slope), and sunlight, must be taken into consideration. While these are not definitely brought out in the above diagram they may be readily inferred. For instance, a pumice slope is usually characterized by abundant sunlight whereas a forest habitat, especially in the Transition and Canadian zones, is shaded. The borders of the large glacier fed streams such as the Nisqually, White River, and others may be characterized by any one of these conditions of moisture noted in the foregoing diagram. In such cases the stream borders are generally rocky river bars which, while there may be places that are characterized by extreme moisture or moderate moisture, are generally composed of very dry sandy or rocky soil. This is not true of most of the smaller streams, however. The borders of these are characterized by extreme moisture and generally support plants that prefer such a habitat. Burned areas are most often characterized by dry soil. The glacier habitat, though classed as one of moderate moisture, is more properly considered as deficient in moisture as the water present is generally unavailable to plants. Several species of snow algae inhabit the snowfields and certain portions of the glacier habitat. The best known and most conspicuous of these is the Red Snow (Chlamydomonas nivalis).

Although one or two of the habitats listed may be more common in some particular life zone, none are strictly confined to the limits of one zone. Most of them will be noted in all four zones and wherever found they will generally support a plant community consistent with the limitations of the particular zone in question. For instance the plants of boggy situations in the Transition zone elements include the upland star flower (Trientalis arctica), skunk cabbage (Lysichiton camtschatcense), white hellebore (Veratrum caudatum), sundew (Drosera rotundifolia), hardhack (Spiraea menziesii), water hemlock (Cicuta vagans), and honeysuckle (Lonicera involucrata). On the ether hand boggy soils in the Hudsonian region support such plants as the white marsh marigold (Caltha leptosepala), shooting star (Dodecatheon jefferyii), and swamp laurel (Kalmia polifolia var. microphylla). Similar differences in the plant population will be found in other habitats that occur in two or more-life zones.

>Interesting Features of Mt. Rainier's Flora.

Generally speaking the flora of Mount Rainier National Park is similar to that of other areas at similar elevations in western Washington. There are, however, several plants that are found only in Mount Rainier National Park while others, common elsewhere, are not members of the local plant population.

The earliest plants to bloom are usually noted at the lower elevations of the park in the latter part of April and first portion of May. From that period we have a continual succession of floral interest until early fall. As the seasons advance, spring and summer conditions progress upward to the higher elevations and so it is possible to find many of the early spring plants in bud or in full bloom at 4000 or 4500 feet in mid-summer when the same species have long since disappeared at the lower. The distinction of being the first to bloom in Mount Rainier National Park is shared by two species - the coltsfoot (Petasites speciosa) and the skunk cabbage (Lysichiton camtschatcense). Most often the coltsfoot is first but occasionally the skunk cabbage leads the floral parade, this being dependent upon the climatic conditions of the season in question. Thus the coltsfoot, which is neither an attractive nor a well known plant, gains considerable prominence.

As a rule the flowers characteristic of the deep forests are at their best during July although many interesting early plants may be seen in the woods from the latter part of May. These plants of the heavily wooded Humid Transition and Canadian zones embody many features of interest, though they are not so generally known or appreciated as the flowers of the Hudsonian and Arctic-alpine zones, largely because of the fact that the latter offer a more striking effect en masse. In consequence, the Hudsonian meadows and their colorful flowers have been so widely publicized that many people know very little about the beauty or interest of the flowers of the forest. Nevertheless, the plants typical of the deep woods outnumber those characteristic of the upper elevations. Many have a striking individual beauty while others embody certain features that make them of particular interest.

With the exception of the low-bush huckleberry (Vaccinium deliciosum), which has a fruiting period that is well known and appreciated, the plants of the sub-alpine meadows claim attention solely because of the glory of massed color during the mid-summer period. Many of the plants of the deep woods, on the ether hand, are as attractive in fruit as they are in flower. It is during the latter part of August that we are attracted by the brilliant red berries of the red older (Sambucus callicarpa), devil's club (Oplopanax horridum) and the Canadian dogwood (Cornus canadensis). The beautiful turquoise fruit of the queen's cup (Clintonia uniflora) found at that time is as interesting as its single white blossom of early spring and the green fruit of the star-flowered solomon's seal (Smilacina stellata) with the characteristic dark brown stripes, is another of the many examples of botanical interest in the deep wooded regions in the late summer.

In the Hudsonian meadows mid-June usually ushers in the flower sea son. At that time the first patches of earth are beginning to show through the snow drifts. Often one will find avalanche lilies blooming about the edges of receding snowbanks. Others of the early plants common at this elevation include the glacier lily (Erythronium grandiflorum var. pallidum), western anemone (Anemone occidentalis) and the white marsh marigold (Caltha leptosepala). The growing season here is so brief that plants must bloom and bear fruit within a comparatively few weeks. As the season advances and the snow continues to disappear these "islands" of flowers enlarge until great masses of these early plants have taken over the meadows. These early flowers give way to later varieties which are, generally speaking, more colorful. It is generally the last week in July and the first week in August before one finds these meadows at the height of color and variety. So there are, in reality, two periods during the summer when the floral display of the hudsonian meadows is most striking. The first is early in July as the early plants take over the meadows from the rapidly receding snowbanks; the second is in early August when later plants tint these meadows in a riot of color. Often in late summer, where the shade of a clump of trees has retarded the melting of a snowbank, one may find groups of "early" flowers entirely surrounded by those characteristic of the later season. The reverse may be true where some knoll has been freed of snow earlier than the area immediately surrounding it. Thus the flora of Mount Rainier National Park continues to exhibit interest and variety from the time the humble coltsfoot makes its appearance at the lower elevations in Apr. or early May until early September. The last of our flowers to come into bloom is the blue gentian (Gentiana calycosa), which generally makes its appearance about mid-August.

Number of Flowering Plants Native To Mt. Rainier National Park.

The check list that follows indicates the existence of 677 species of flowering plants in Mount Rainier National Park. This number includes representatives of 64 families. The family having the greatest number of local representatives is the Composite or sunflower family (Compositae) for which 87 species are listed. Second comes the grass family (Gramineae) with 66 species. Others of importance include the rose family (Rosaceae)-39; heath family (Ericaceae)-38; the saxifrage family (Saxifragaceae) and figwort or snapdragon family (Scrophulariaceae) are represented by 37 species each; sedge family (Cyperaceae)-36; mustard family (Cruciferae)-29; pink family (Caryophyllaceae)-28; lily family (Liliaceae)-21; and the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), pea family (Leguminosae), parsley family (Umbelliferae) and pine family (Pinaceae) each have 16 representatives.

Early And Most Noted Botanical Explorations.

Inasmuch as a discussion of the progress of field research in Mount Rainier National Park has been included in a previous issue of Nature Notes (7), it is unnecessary to make more than a brief mention of this feature here.

It is interesting to note that the visit of the first white man to the area now included in the park was prompted by a desire to make botanical collections. Dr. Wm. Fraser Tolmie, a surgeon of the Hudson's Bay. Co., made a "botanizing expedition" into this area in 1833 and, on Sept. 2nd. of that year, "collected a vasculum of plants" upon a mountain in the northwest corner of the park which, in his honor, has been called Tolmie Peak. (8)

Early in the 90's Professor O. D. Allen, who had been on the faculty of Yale University, came west on account of his health and settled in the Nisqually valley a few miles below the present Nisqually Entrance to the park. He made extensive collections in the upper Nisqually valley from 1895-1905. Dr. Charles V. Piper collected in the park area in 1888, 1889 and 1895. His article on the flora of Mount Rainier published in two issues of The Mazama was the first published work on the botany of this region (9). Other early botanists who collected in Mt. Rainier National Park were Rev. E. C. Smith (1889 and 1890), Dr. E. L. Greene (1889), M. W. German (1897) and J. B. Flett (1895 and 1896).

Mr. Flett, in addition to being one of the early botanists of this area is also one of the best known of the recent botanical collectors. His interest in the botany of this area, which took form in 1895, continued and, from 1913 to 1921 when he was employed as a park ranger, Mr. Flett made extensive collections in the park. The result of his activity in this line resulted in the government pamphlet on the flora of Mount Rainier National Park (10). Mr. Fred Warren, while employed as a temporary park ranger, made botanical collections from 1926-1933. Dr. G. N. Jones, recently of the University of Washington, has also collected in this area in recent years and plans to publish a book on the flora of Mount Rainier National Park. Mr. J. W. Thompson of Cleveland High School, Seattle, Washington, has also botanized in sections of the park while, in connection with the preparation of a forest type map of the park by the Division of Forestry, National Park Service, H. E. Bailey collected in 1934 and 1935.

Since 1929 the naturalist department, Mount Rainier National Park, has been engaged in the collection of plant specimens and the development of a park herbarium. All members of the naturalist staff in past years have had some part in this project. However, particular mention should be made of the collections of Mr. Charles Landes, Dr. A. A. Lindsey, Dr. E. T. Bodenberg, Mr. Julius Hoverson, Mr. E. Y. Danner, Mr. Wayne Durston, and the writer.

* * * * * * * * * *

(1) Reprinted, in part, from "Glacier Recession in Mount Rainier National Park", Mount Rainier National Park "Nature Notes", Vol. XV, No. 4; December, 1937. C. Frank Brockman.

(2) This includes the annual snowfall for this region. At Longmire the average annual snowfall is about 15', the maximum depth at any one time varying from 2-7'. At Paradise Park approximately 50' of snow falls annually; the maximum depth at any one time varying from 15-25'. On April 2, 1917 a maximum depth of 27' 2" was noted, being the greatest so far recorded. While no records are available for Yakima Park, casual observations over the past five or six years indicate that, although this point is 900' higher than Paradise, the snowfall is considerably less. Ten to fifteen feet is the usual maximum depth at any one time at this latter location.

(3) See "Glacier Recession in Mount Rainier National Park". Mount Rainier National Park "Nature Notes", Vol. XV, No. 4; December, 1937. C. Frank Brockman.

(4) Taylor and Shaw. Mammals and Birds of Mount Rainier National Park. 1927.

(5) Piper, C. V. Flora of the State of Washington. Cont. from the National Herbarium, Vol. XI, 1906.

(6) Taylor and Shaw. Mammals and Birds of Mount Rainier National Park. 1927.

(7) Mt. Rainier National Park "Nature Notes". Vol. XV, No. 2. A History of Mt. Rainier National Park. C. Frank Brockman.

(8) Meany, E. S. Mount Rainier - A Record of Exploration. 1916.

(9) The Mazama. Vol. 2, No. 2, April 1901; Vol. 2, No. 4, December 1905.

(10) Flett, J. B. Features of the Flora of Mount Rainier National Park. (National Park Service) 1922.


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