A Cultural History of Three Traditional Hawaiian Sites
on the West Coast of Hawai'i Island
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Overview of Hawaiian Prehistory

CHAPTER I. Before the Written Record

A. Formation and Description of the Hawaiian Archipelago
B. Origins of Hawaiian Population
C. Origins of Hawaiian Culture
D. Development of Hawaiian Culture
     1. Early Environment of the Hawaiian Islands
     2. Settlement Patterns and House Styles
     3. Material Culture
     4. Subsistence
     5. Social, Political, and Religious Organization
E. Major Aspects of Traditional Hawaiian Culture
     1. Social Organization
          a) Stratification
          b) Rights and Duties of Each Class
          c) Role of the Kapu System
     2. Settlement Patterns
          a) Location of Houses
          b) Construction Techniques
          c) Size of Residences
          d) Shelters
     3. Subsistence
          a) Marine Activities
               (1) Inshore and Offshore Fishing
                    (a) Techniques
                    (b) Religious Aspects
               (2) Aquaculture
                    (a) Fishponds
                         i) Origin
                         ii) Types and Construction
                         iii) Products and Maintenance
                         iv) Religious Aspects
                         v) Role in Hawaiian Society
                    (b) Fishtraps
          b) Agricultural Activities
               (1) Crops
               (2) Animal Husbandry
     4. Political Organization
          a) High Chiefs and their Advisors
          b) Lower Levels of Government
          c) Political Unrest
     5. Economic System
          a) Summary of Change in the Economic Structure
          b) Competition for Resources Increases
          c) Land Divisions
          d) Sharing
          e) Tribute
     6. Religion
          a) Gods
          b) Priests
          c) kapu
               (1) Purpose of System
               (2) Origins and Enforcement
               (3) Foreign Perceptions
               (4) Categories
               (5) Effects on the Population
               (6) Sanctioned Violations of System
          d) Heiau
               (1) Types and Construction
               (2) Early Descriptions
               (3) Luakini
                    (a) Origin and Use
                    (b) Design and Construction
                    (c) Features
                    (d) Placement of Features
                    (e) Rituals
                    (f) Relationship to the People
          e) Images
               (1) Function
               (2) Appearance
               (3) Types
               (4) Arrangement in Heiau
               (5) Associated Rituals
               (6) Treatment by the Hawaiians
               (7) Destruction at Overthrow of Kapu System
          f) Mortuary Practices
               (1) Burial Customs and Places of Interment
               (2) Mourning Rituals and Burial Practices
          g) Places of Refuge
     7. Recreation and Art
          a) Games and Sports
          b) Song and Dance
          c) Fine Arts
G. Hawai'i at the Time of European Contact

Overview of Hawaiian History
by Diane Lee Rhodes
(with some additions by Linda Wedel Greene)

CHAPTER II. Early European Contact with the Hawaiian Islands

A. Captain James Cook Brings the Islands to Europe's Attention
     1. Cook Discovers the Sandwich Islands
     2. Cook Winters at Kealakekua Bay
     3. Cook's Death
B. Hawai'i Becomes an Important Pacific Port
     1. Provision Stop
     2. Northwest Coast-Canton, China, Fur Trade
     3. Military and Scientific Value
     4. Commercial Exchange Initiated

CHAPTER III. Foreign Population Grows

A. First White Residents of Hawai'i
     1. Kamehameha Detains Two Foreigners
     2. Young and Davis Adjust to Their New Life
     3. Young and Davis Aid Kamehameha's Wars of Conquest
     4. Young and Davis Conduct Business with Foreign Traders
     5. Young and Davis Settle Permanently into Hawaiian Life
     6. Young and Davis are Active in Kamehameha's Government
B. Foreigners Become Residents
C. The Impact of Foreign Influences on the Native Hawaiians
     1. James Cook, George Vancouver, and Others
     2. Diseases and Liquor
     3. New Economic System, Trade, and Technology
     4. Kapu System Weakened
     5. Population Shift and Growth of Towns
     6. New Class of Foreigners — Part-Hawaiians
     7. Facilitation of Kamehameha's Rise to Power

CHAPTER IV. Founding of the Hawaiian Kingdom

A. Reign of King Kamehameha
     1. Political Warfare in Ancient Hawai'i
     2. Kamehameha's Rise to Power, 1758-1819
     3. Changes in Land Tenure, Government, and Hierarchal Structure
          (a) Land Tenure
          (b) Government Structure
     4. Foreign Relations
     5. New Era in Hawaiian Commerce
          a) Honolulu Becomes a Major Port
          b) Sandalwood Trade

CHAPTER V. Changes After the Death of Kamehameha

A. Liholiho (Kamehameha II) Ascends the Throne
B. Overthrow of the Kapu System
     1. Traditional Religious System Kept Intact During Kamehameha's Reign
     2. Kamehameha's Death Provides Opportunity for Religious Reform
     3. Liholiho Abolishes the Kapu System
     4. Some Vestiges of Old Practices Remain
     5. Discussion on the Overthrow of the Kapu System
     6. Effects of the Overthrow of the Kapu System
     7. Death of Kamehameha II C. Arrival of New Religion
     1. Missionaries Come to Hawai'i
     2. Establishment of Mission Stations
D. Literacy Increases
E. Changes in Government
F. Development of a Hawaiian Constitution
G. Changes in Food Production
H. Changes in Trade Patterns
     1. Sandalwood Trade
     2. Effects on Society
     3. Whaling Industry
     4. Honolulu Becomes Major Distribution Center
I. Conflicting Values and Foreign Relations
J. Great Mahele
K. Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

West Coast of the Island of Hawai'i

CHAPTER VI. Development and Human Activity on the West Coast of the Island of Hawai'i

A. Population
B. Water Resources
C. Volcanic Activity
D. Political History
E. Settlement Patterns
F. Subsistence Patterns
G. Kona District
     1. Pre-European Contact Period
     2. European Contact Period
     3. North and South Kona
          a) Historical Descriptions
          b) Settlement Patterns
          c) Towns and Sites
H. Kohala District
     1. Pre-European Contact Period
     2. European Contact Period
     3. Historical Descriptions
     4. Settlement Patterns and Subsistence Activities
          a) South Kohala
          b) North Kohala
          c) Interior

Site Histories, Resource Descriptions, and Management Recommendations
Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site
Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park
Pu'uhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park

CHAPTER VII. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site

A. Setting of the Park
     1. Village of Kawaiha
     2. Historical Accounts of Kawaihae Bay Area
     3. Historical Appearance and Activities of Kawaihae
          a) Fishponds
          b) Salt Pans
          c) Sandalwood Trade
     4. Missionary Activities at Kawaihae
     5. Cattle Industry in the Kawaihae-Waimea Area
     6. Agricultural Activity in the Kawaihae-Waimea Area
     7. Decline of Kawaihae
     8. "Modern" Kawaihae Village
B. Pu'ukohola Heiau
     1. Traditional Construction History
          a) Hawai'i Island Politics at European Contact
          b) Kamehameha Begins His Bid for Power
          c) Kamehameha is Instructed to Build a Heiau
          d) Construction of the Heiau Begins
          e) Warfare Interrupts Construction
          f) Kamehameha Becomes Undisputed Ruler of Hawai'i Island
          g) Kamehameha Unites the Hawaiian Islands
     2. Historical Descriptions
          a) Introductory Remarks
          b) Archibald Menzies, 1792-94
          c) Samuel Patterson, 1804-5
          d) Otto von Kotzebue, 1816-17
          e) Louis de Freycinet, 1819
          f) Missionaries Hiram Bingham, Henry Cheever, 1820
          g) Reverend William Ellis, 1823
          h) Reverend Artemas Bishop, 1826
          i) John Kirk Townsend, 1834-37
          j) James Jarves, 1837-42
          k) Gorham D. Gilman, 1844-45
          l) Account, 1847
          m) Samuel S. Hill, 1848
          n) Charles-Victor Crosnier de Varigny, 1855
          o Lady Jane Franklin, 1861
          p) Clara K. Whelden, 1864
          q) Isabella Bird, 1873
          r) Frank Vincent, Jr., ca. 1875
          s) John F. G. Stokes, 1906
          t) Thomas Thrum, 1908
          u) Gerard Fowke, 1922
          v) Oral Interview, 1919-20
     3. Modern Description
C. Mailekini Heiau
     1. Traditional Construction History
     2. Mailekini Becomes a Fort
     3. Historical Descriptions
          a) Reverend William Ellis, 1823
          b) John Kirk Townsend, 1834-37
     4. Later Descriptions
          a) John F. G. Stokes, 1906
          b) Thomas Thrum, 1908
          c) Deborah Cluff et al., 1969
D. Hale-o-Kapuni Heiau
     1. Shark Heiau
     2. Historical Descriptions
          a) Abraham Fornander
          b) Theophilus Davies, 1859
          c) Oral Tradition
E. Stone Leaning Post (Leaning Rock of Alapa'i, Alapai'i's Chair, Kamehameha's Chair)
F. Pelekane (King's Residence)
     1. Significance
     2. Historical Descriptions
          a) Louis de Freycinet, 1819
          b) Jacques Arago, 1819
          c) Madame de Freycinet, 1819
          d) L. I. Duperrey, 1819
          e) Miscellaneous Resources in Area
G. Stone Walls Associated with Pu'ukohola Heiau
H. World War II Military Remains
I. Other Resources
J. John Young Homestead
     1. Lands Given to John Young by Kamehameha
     2. Kawaihae Land Divisions
     3. Pahukanilua
          a) Boundaries
          b) Lower Portion
          c) Upper Portion
               (1) Early Maps of Homestead
               (2) Young's Accounts of Construction Activities
               (3) Description by Isaac Iselin, 1807
               (4) Descriptions by Crew of Rurick, 1816
               (5) Description by Arago, 1819
               (6) Description by Laura Judd, 1828
               (7) Missionary Descriptions
               (8) Use of the Homestead After Young's Death
     4. Structural Remains
          a) Upper Portion of Pahukanilua
          b) Lower Portion of Pahukanilua
K. Significance of Resources Within Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site
     1. Establishment of the National Historic Site
     2. Pu'ukohola Heiau
     3. Mailekini Heiau
     4. Hale-o-Kapuni Heiau
     5. John Young Homestead
     6. Other Resources
L. Contributing and Non-Contributing Elements
M. Threats to Resources
N. Management Recommendations
     1. Analysis of Pu'ukohola Heiau
          a) Original or Rebuilt Structure
          b) Extent of Use
          c) Original Appearance
               (1) Archibald Menzies, 1792-94
               (2) Samuel Patterson, 1804-5
               (3) Otto von Kotzebue, 1816-17
               (4) Jacques Arago, 1819
               (5) Reverend Hiram Bingham, 1820
               (6) Reverend William Ellis, 1823
               (7) Gorham D. Gilman, 1844-45
               (8) Account, 1847
               (9) Samuel S. Hill, 1848
               (10) Charles-Victor Crosnier de Varigny, 1855
               (11) John F. G. Stokes, 1906
               (12) Gerard Fowke, 1922
               (13) Cluff et al., 1969
               (14) Edmund J. Ladd, 1986
          d) Traditional Plans and Furnishings of Luakini According to Native Historians and Other Scholars
               (1) David Kalakaua
               (2) David Malo
               (3) William Davenport
               (4) Samuel Kamakau
               (5) John Papa I'i
               (6) William Alexander
               (7) Wendell Bennett
               (8) Valerio Valeri
          e) Comparative Historical Descriptions of Luakini
               (1) George Vancouver, 1792-94
               (2) Louis de Freycinet, 1819
          f) Illustrations of Luakini
          g) Variability of Heiau Styles
          h) Known Features of Pu'ukohola Heiau
     2. Treatment of Resources
          a) Introductory Remarks
          b) Management Options
               (1) Preservation and Stabilization
               (2) Restoration and Reconstruction
               (3) Interpretive Options
O. Further Research and Interpretive Needs

CHAPTER VIII. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park

A. Setting
B. Chronology of Settlement
     1. A.D. 900s-1700s
     2. Historic Period (1800-1900)
     3. Historic Period (1960s-Present)
C. Social and Political Structure of the Prehistoric Community
D. Relationship of Prehistoric Kaloko with Neighboring Ahupua'a
E. Summary of Prehistoric Development
F. Historical Associations
     1. Earliest Reference to Kaloko-Honokohau Area
     2. Use as Burial Ground for Ali'i
     3. Traditional Burial Site of Bones of Kamehameha
     4. Association with Kamehameha II
G. Description of Resources
     1. Fishponds
          a) Kaloko Fishpond
          b) 'Aimakapa Fishpond
          c) 'Ai'opio Fishtrap
     2. Heiau
          a) Maka'opio Heiau
          b) Pu'u'oina (Hale-o-Mano) Heiau
     3. Graves
     4. Trail Systems
     5. Ahu (Cairns)
H. Significance of Resources and Establishment of a National Historical Park
I. Archeological Research Accomplished
     1. Honokohau Area
     2. Kaloko Area
          a) Robert Renger's Work
          b) New Study by Ross Cordy, Joseph Tainter, Robert Renger, and Robert Hitchcock
J. Contributing and Non-Contributing Elements
K. Threats to Resources
L. Management Recommendations
M. Further Research Needs

CHAPTER IX. Pu'uhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park

A. Setting
B. Description of Refuge Area
C. Development of Honaunau Ahupua'a
D. Places of Refuge
     1. Types
     2. Origins
     3. Historical Associations with Hebraic Cities of Refuge
     4. Use Within Hawaiian Culture
     5. Use During Reign of Kamehameha
E. Pu'uhonua o Honaunau
     1. Early Descriptions by Europeans
          a) Cook Expedition, 1779
          b) Archibald Menzies, 1793
          c) John Papa I'i, 1817
          d) Reverend William Ellis, 1823
          e) Andrew Bloxam, 1825
          f) Reverend Rowland Bloxam, 1825
          g) Lord G. A. Byron, 1825
          h) James Macrae, 1825
          i) Laura Judd, 1828
          j) Later References to the Site
     2. Early History
          a) Original Chronology of Pu'uhonua Development
          b) New Archeological Data Forces Revisions to Chronology
     3. Later History of the Pu'uhonua and of Hale-o-Keawe
     4. Early Study, Restoration, and Archeological Efforts
F. Description of Resources
     Pu'uhonua Area
          1. Palace Grounds
          2. Pahu tabu (Sacred Enclosure), Great Wall
               a) Early Descriptions
               b) Construction Details
               c) Restoration Efforts
               d) John F.G. Stokes's Observations
               e) Later Stabilization Efforts
          3. Hale-o-Keawe
               a) Early Descriptions
               b) Function
               c) Traditional Stories Surrounding the Hale-o-Keawe
               d) Human Sacrifices
               e) Hale o Lono
               f) Decline of the Mausoleum
               g) The NPS Undertakes Reconstruction of the Mausoleum
          4. Hale o Puni
          5. "Old Heiau ("Ancient Heiau")
          6. 'Ale'ale'a Heiau
          7. Keoua Stone
          8. Ka'ahumanu Stone
          9. Hale o Papa (Heiau No Na Wahine)
          10. Miscellaneous Resources
               a) 'Akahipapa Flat
               b) Shelf in South Section of the Great Wall
               c) Walled Enclosure Within the Sanctuary
               d) Konane Stone
               e) Petroglyph
               f) Pohaku Nana La (Stone for Looking at the Sun)
               g) Spring
               h) Makaloa Pools
               i) Kekuai'o Pool
               j) Artificial Concavities in the Lava
               k) Stone Image Named Hawa'e
               l) Cup Marks
               m) Fisherman's Shrine (Ku'ula)
               n) The Beach Site (Site B-107)
               o) Burials
     Inland Honaunau and Keamoali'i
          1. Animal Pens, Graves, and Trails
          2. Holua
          3. House Lots
     North Keokea Ahupua'a
          1. Boundary Markers, Platforms, House Lots, and Graves
          2. Oma'o Heiau
     Central Keokea Ahupua'a
          1. House Lot
          2. Keawe House Site
          3. 1871 Trail
               a) Remains
               b) Hawaiian Trail System
               c) Types of Trails in the Park
               d) Trails Around the Pu'uhonua
               e) Beach Trail System
               f) Trails Change to Accommodate Horse Travel
               g) Inland Trail Ascends Keanae'e Cliff
               h) Inland Trail Improved
               i) Stabilization Work on Alahaka Ramp, 1963
          4. Holua
          5. Keanae'e Cliff Burial Caves and Shelters
          6. Alahaka Heiau
          7. House Platform at Base of Alahaka Ramp
          8. Fisherman's Shrine
     South Keokea
          1. Outskirts of Ki'ilae Village
          2. Ki'ilae Village
               a) Research Accomplished and Types of Remains
               b) Anchorages
               c) Early History
               d) Later History
               e) Houses and Furnishings
               f) Water Supply
               g) Economy
               h) Livestock and Other Animals
               i) Food Preparation
               j) Society and Culture
               k) Decline of Village
               l) Individual Sites
                    (1) Kahikina House Lot
                    (2) Ahu House Lot
                    (3) Pipi House Lot
                    (4) Manunu House Lot
               m) Kenneth P. Emory's Fieldwork
               n) Edmund J. Ladd's Fieldwork
G. Significance of Resources and Establishment of a National Historical Park
H. Contributing and Non-Contributing Elements
I. Threats to Resources
     1. Sea Action
     2. Exotic Vegetation and Animals
     3. Visitor Recreational Activities
     4. Unprotected Related Resources
     5. Park Development
J. Management Recommendations
     1. Further Archeological Surveys
     2. Treatment of Resources
     3. Preservation of Resources Outside Park Boundary



A Note on Spelling
Due to the inability of some Web browsers to display certain characters, the anglicized spelling of many Hawaiian words will be used in this on-line edition. We hope this does not detract from the contents of this document. You are encouraged to consult printed materials for proper spelling. The following illustrates the correct spelling of the three parks covered by this study:

park names with correct spelling


1. Map of Polynesian Triangle
2. Homestead on the west coast of Hawai'i Island, n.d.
3. Hawaiian thatched houses, ca. 1779
4. Villagers at Kalaupapa, 1880s (pre-leprosy settlement)
5. Hawaiian temporary shelters, ca. 1778-1950
6. Hawaiian fishponds, fishtraps, and other types of holding devices
7. Hawaiian fishpond features
8. Drawing of an ahupua'a
9. Traditional Hawaiian land use pattern
10. Reconstruction of a Hale o Lono
11. Heiau construction techniques for terraces and walls
12. Ground plan drawings of luakini on Hawai'i Island
13. Two reconstructions of a luakini
14. Interior of a hale mana, drawing by John Webber
15. The king's luakini in the Kona District, Hawai'i Island, drawing by Jacques Arago
16. Temple of Kamehameha in Kona District at Kamakahonu
17. Stick and temple images
18. Hawaiian temple image
19. Hawaiian hOlua (sled)
20. John Young, drawn by Jacques Arago, 1819
21. Route of William Ellis around Hawai'i Island, 1823
22. Map of Hawai'i Island showing ancient and modern districts
23. Map of Hawai'i Island showing distribution of population in 1853
24. Map of South Kohala District showing Kawaihae area
25. Kawaihae landing, probably 1880s
26. Kawaihae Bay and village, ca. 1880s
27. Map of Kawaihae Bay by L.I. Duperrey, 1819
28. Sketch of Kawaihae Bay by David Tyerman, 1822
29. Map of Kawaihae Bay by George Jackson, 1883
30. Photo of Kawaihae Bay, ca. 1889
31. Portion of 1903 map of Kawaihae Bay area by A.B. Loebenstein
32. Map of Kawaihae Village by George Wright, 1914
33. Kawaihae landing, n.d
34. Aerial view to southeast of Kawaihae Bay, 1969
35. Drawing of changes to Kawaihae Bay shoreline, 1819-1978
36. Site plan of Pu'ukohala Heiau National Historic Site
37. View to southwest of Pu'ukohola Heiau from coral stockpile, 1989
38. View to east of Pu'ukohola Heiau, 1989
39. Sketch of Kawaihae Bay by W.F. Wilson, ca. 1920
40. Drawing of Pu'ukohola and Mailekini heiau by L.I. Duperrey, 1819
41. Ground plans of Pu'ukohola and Mailekini heiau from 1853 Lyons survey
42. Ground plan of Pu'ukohola Heiau from 1869 Alexander survey
43. View to southeast of Pu'ukohola Heiau by Brigham, 1889
44. Pu'ukohola and Mailekini heiau, n.d. (ca. 1889)
45. Ground plan of Pu'ukohola Heiau by Stokes, 1906
46. Floor plan of Pu'ukohola Heiau based on 1969 survey
47. View west of Mailekini Heiau by Stokes, 1906
48. View north of Mailekini Heiau by Stokes, 1906
49. View south over burials in Mailekini Heiau by Stokes, 1906
50a. 50b. Burials at north end of Mailekini Heiau, 1989
51. Survey map of Mailekini Heiau, 1969
52. Aerial view of Pu'ukohola and Mailekini heiau, 1969
53a. 53b. Walled enclosure, Pelekane; beach trail; Leaning Stone, 1989
54a. 54b. Pelekane area, showing stone features, 1989
55. Door of charcoal oven, Pelekane, 1989
56. Side view of charcoal oven, Pelekane, 1989
57. "King's Trail," n.d.
58. Concrete batch plant, Pelekane area, 1969
59. Drawing of important features within Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site
60. Stone wall feature within Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site
61. Location map of John Young homestead (upper portion)
62. Land awards in area of John Young homestead, ca. 1850
63. Photo of Kawaihae grass house, attributed to Brigham, 1889
64. Kawaihae landing, ca. 1882
65. View of structure purported to be John Young homestead, 1882
66. Another view of structure purported to be John Young homestead, ca. 1882
67. Ruins said to be those of John Young homestead, ca. 1920
68. Archeological base map, John Young homestead, 1991
69. Western-style Feature I, John Young homestead, 1989
70. Site of Hawaiian-style structures, John Young homestead, 1989
71a. 71b. Location of archeological sites in Kawaihae 1 and 2
72. View toward coral stockpile from Pu'ukohola Heiau, 1989
73. View to north along platform of Mailekini Heiau, 1989
74. View to south along platform of Mailekini Heiau, 1989
75. View to southeast of Pu'ukohola and Mailekini heiau, n.d
76. Sites recorded by Soehren in the vicinity of Pu'ukohola Heiau
77. Map of Pu'ukohola Heiau site showing topography
78. Aerial view of Pu'ukohola Heiau, 1925
79. Ground plan of Pu'ukohola Heiau prior to stabilization
80a. 80b. Construction techniques for walls and corners of Pu'ukohola Heiau
81. Plans of luakini inner courts according to Malo and I'i
82. Interior of luakini at Waimea, Kaua'i, by John Webber, 1778
83. Drawing of Kaneaki Heiau on O'ahu as restored
84. Row of images in Hikiau Heiau, Kealakekua, Hawai'i, 1779
85. Conjectural 1916 drawing of Pu'ukohola Heiau under the direction ofStokes
86. Conjectural drawing of Pu'ukohola Heiau by Kane, 1978
87. Entrance at northwest corner of Pu'ukohola Heiau, 1989
88. View toward northeast corner of Pu'ukohola Heiau, 1989
89. View to north of Pu'ukohola Heiau platform area, 1989
90. View of east wall of Pu'ukohola Heiau, 1989
91. View to south of Pu'ukohola Heiau platform area, 1989
92. View of pavement of large stones, Pu'ukohola Heiau, 1989
93. Map of Koloko-Honokohau National Historical Park
94. Portion of map showing Koloko-Honokohau area, by Emerson, 1952
95. Map of National Register boundaries of Honokohau Settlement
96. Kaloko Fishpond seawall, view to north, 1989
97. Kaloko Fishpond, view north, 1989
98. Map of Kaloko Fishpond showing subdivisions
99. Map of Kaloko Fishpond showing placement of nets for harvesting
100. Techniques of ancient Hawaiian fishpond wall construction
101. Map of Kaloko area showing cultural sites
102. Archeological sites along Koloko-Honokohau coastal area
103. Detail of archeological sites along Kaloko coast
104a. 104b. Archeological sites around Kaloko Fishpond
105. Habitation site east of Kaloko Fishpond, 1989
106. "Queen's Bath," 1989
107. Sketches of archeological sites in vicinity of 'Aimakapa Fishpond
108. Sketches of possible ancient fishpond wall southwest of 'Aimakapa Fishpond
109-110-111. Sluice gate, 'Aimakapa Fishpond; possible remains of another fishpond near 'Aimakapa; view of 'Aimakapa Fishpond, 1989
112. 'Ai'opio Fishtrap and associated archeological sites
113. 'Ai'opio Fishtrap, view to north, 1989
114. View from Pu'uoina Heiau of 'Ai'opio Fishtrap, 1989
115. Map of Maka'opio Heiau and associated features
116. Map of Keahole, Hawai'i, 1928, showing Honokohau Settlement
117. Map of Pu'u'oina Heiau and associated features
118. Pu'u'oina Heiau, east end, 1989
119. Fishermen's huts at west end of Pu'u'oina Heiau, 1989
120a. 120b. South wall of Pu'u'oina Heiau, 1989
121. Maka'opio Heiau, view east, 1989
122. Maka'opio Heiau, view southwest, 1989
123. Examples of features found in Honokohau area
124-125-126. Distant view of ahu surrounding "Queen's Bath;" close-up view of ahu; anchialine pond referred to as "Queen's Bath," 1989
127. Engraving of ahu on Hawai'i Island, from Wilkes, 1845
128. Agricultural enclosure near Kaloko Fishpond, 1989
129. Stone-walled enclosure in Kaloko area, 1989
130-131-132. Petroglyphs, village site, Mamalahoa Trail, Kaloko-Honokohau NHP, 1989
133. Honokohau coastal area showing archeological sites surveyed in 1969
134. Archeological sites along coastal Kaloko
135. Kaloko Fishpond features
136. Walled-structure complex, Kaloko Fishpond
137. Large complex of enclosures, platforms, and shelters, Kaloko area
138. Burial area in Kaloko
139. Large enclosure complex, Kaloko
140. Surveyed section of Kaloko containing platform, shelter, well, and trail
141. Boundary map of Pu'uhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park
142. Nautical chart showing Honaunau Bay, n.d.
143. Map showing Honaunau Bay, by Wall, 1895-96
144. Map of Honaunau, by Wall, 1906
145a. 145b. 145c. 145d. 145e. Map of portions of Honaunau area, by Podmore, 1918-19
146. Drawing of prehistoric and historic sites along Honaunau Baycoast, after Stokes, 1919
147a. 147b. Portion of map of Honaunau beach section showing historical and archeological remains, by Stokes, 1919
148. Plan of Honaunau area, showing settlements, Palace Grounds, and refuge, ca. 1750
149. Map showing resources of Pu'uhonua o Honaunau, including Ki'ilae Village
150. Archeological map of Pu'uhonua o Honaunau
151. Lithograph of Hale-o-Keawe by Ellis, 1823
152. Image removed from Hale-o-Keawe by Henry Bloxam
153. Drawing of Hale-o-Keawe by Andrew Bloxam, 1825
154. Sketch of Hale-o-Keawe by Dampier, 1825
155. Lyman sketch of the Pu'uhonua o Honaunau, 1846
156. Hitchcock map of the Pu'uhonua o Honaunau, 1889
157. Interior of the pu'uhonua o Honaunau, ca. 1890
158. Conjectural chronology of development of the pu'uhonua o Honaunau
159. Woven sennit caskets
160. NPS test excavations, Pu'uhonua o Honaunau NHP, 1968
161. Archeological excavations at Pu'uhonua o Honaunau NHP, 1919-63
162. Map 1, showing pu'uhonua area and associated features, Bishop Museum, 1957
163. View of refuge area enclosed by Great Wall, 1989
164. Cross-section drawing of Great Wall showing pao construction
165. Fishpond in Palace Grounds, 1989
166. Keoua Stone, 1989
167. Old lavatory, bathhouse, and caretaker's house at Pu'uhonua o Honaunau
168. Corner of Great Wall, looking into refuge area, 1989
169. Konane board in refuge, 1989
170. Plan of "City of Refuge," by Wall, 1907
171. Plan of south wall of pu'uhonua at Honaunau, after Stokes, 1957
172. Plan of "City of Refuge," by Baker, 1921
173a. 173b. Diagrams of stabilized sections of Great Wall
174. Ground plan of Hale-o-Keawe platform
175. Reconstructed Hale-o-Keawe, 1989
176. Plan of ruins of "Old Heiau"
177. Post-excavation surface of "Old Heiau"
178. Conjectural periods of growth and modification of 'Ale'ale'a Heiau
179. Map 3, showing Honaunau, mauka section, Bishop Museum, 1957
180. Concrete salt pans along shore, 1989
181. Animal pen, 1989
182. Map 4, showing Honaunau-Keokea, mauka section, Bishop Museum, 1957
183. Holua
184. View of De Mello beach house
185. Map 2, Keokea, north section, Bishop Museum, 1957
186. View to northwest of Oma'o Heiau, 1989
187. Ground plan of Oma'o Heiau
188. Map 5, Keokea, center section, Bishop Museum, 1957
189. Ground plan of King Keawe's House Site
190. Types of trails in the Pu'uhonua o Honaunau area, ca. 1750-1875
191. View to south along 1871 trail, 1989
192. Alahaka ramp and 1871 trail, 1989
193. Alahaka Heiau remains, 1989
194. Ground plan of Alahaka Heiau
195. Site of fisherman's shrine at Pukakio Point, 1989
196. Concrete tomb at Ahu homestead near Ki'ilae Village, 1989
197. Map of Ki'ilae ahupua'a, by Jackson
198. Map of sites in Ki'ilae Village, by Jackson
199-200. Walls at site of Ki'ilae Village, 1989
201. View north of Ki'ilae Village site, 1989
202. Salt pan at Ki'ilae Village, 1989
203. Map 6, Keokea, south section, Bishop Museum, 1957
204. Map 7, Kiilae, Bishop Museum, 1957
205. Archeological site plan of Ki'ilae Village
206. Conjectural drawing of House Site D-140, Ki'ilae Village
207. Conjectural drawing of House Site D-160, Ki'ilae Village
208. Conjectural drawing of House Site D-163, Ki'ilae Village

Last Updated: 15-Nov-2001