Jefferson National Expansion
Administrative History
NPS Logo


Administrative History:
Jefferson National Expansion Memorial
National Historic Site
June 1984

Administrative History
Sharon A. Brown


List of Photographs and Illustrations

Chapter I - 1933-1935

Legislative Efforts
Bond Issue
Legal Problems
The Attorney General's Opinion
The Historic Sites Act

Chapter II - 1936-1939

Opposition Continues
City Bonds Sold
Legal Action
Alleged Election Fraud
Interpretation and Architecture
Court Decision
Advisory Board
Land Acquisition
Park Planning
Court Decision
Lapsed Funds
Demolition Begins
The Old Courthouse
Railroad Negotiations

Chapter III - 1940-1945

Preservation Efforts
Lapsed Funds
Railroad Negotiations
Demolition Continues
Further Railroad Negotiations
Landing Strip Plans

Chapter IV - 1945-1948

Fund Raising
Competition Advisor
Architectural Competition

Chapter V - 1949-1952

Railroad Agreement
Authorization Efforts
Railroad Tunnel Clearance
Further Authorization Efforts
Death of Luther Ely Smith

Chapter VI - 1953-1958

Work On Site
Appropriation Efforts
Continuing Railroad Problems
Increased Authorization

Chapter VII - 1959-1968

Zoning Questions
Museum Planning
Surrounding Development
Appropriation Efforts
Construction Decisions
Awarding of Arch Construction Contract
Beginning Arch Construction
Arch Topping Out
Union Walkout
Bond Issue Election
Peripheral Building Height
Arch Transportation System
Arch Dedication

Chapter VIII - 1968-1980

East St. Louis Planning
Further Construction Concerns
Old Cathedral Controversy
Museum Contract
Museum v. Grounds Controversy
Museum of Westward Expansion Opened
Further Interpretive Development

Selected Bibliography


A. Executive Order
B. U.S. Territorial Expansion Memorial Commission
C. Photographs and Illustrations
D. Chronology

Urban Innovation and Practical Partnerships:
An Administrative History of Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, 1980-1991
Bob Moore
Historian, Jefferson National Expansion Memorial
National Park Service
United States Department of the Interior

Gary W. Easton, Superintendent
Jefferson National Expansion Memorial

David N. Given, Associate Regional Director
Planning and Resource Preservation, Midwest Region

William W. Schenk
Acting Regional Director, Midwest Region

Administrative History
Bob Moore


Color photograph of the Gateway Arch by Kurt Hosna

List of Illustrations

List of Abbreviations


Introduction: The National Park Comes Into the Grid

A Visit to Jefferson National Expansion Memorial
Meet Jerry Schober
A Note on the Text

Chapter One - The Arch Parking Garage

Chapter Two - The 70mm World Odyssey Theatre

Rock Removal
Projection System
70mm Film Production

Chapter Three - The Veiled Prophet Fair

History of the Event
Minimizing the Damage
Visitor Protection
"A Gift or a Desecration?"
The Importance of the VP Fair
The Fairs:
The VP Fair and JEFF

Chapter Four - Maintenance

Part I - Building Services and HVAC

Maintenance Management System
Heating and Air Conditioning
Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site
Cyclic Maintenance
Old Courthouse Repairs
Physical Improvements and Preventative Maintenance
Entrance Ramps
Water Intrusion

Part II - Grounds

Tree and Ground Cover Replacement
Integrated Pest Management and the Ash Borer
Bermuda Grass and Weed Control
Tree Inventory
Snow Removal
Reflecting Ponds
Parking Garage
The VP Fair
Youth Conservation Corps

Part III - Tram Maintenance

The Unique Arch Transportation System
Repairs and Maintenance
Electrical Systems
Unique Systems and Repairs
Specialized Staffing Problems
Motor Generator Set Replacement

Part IV - Custodial Services


Chapter Five - Old Courthouse Rehabilitation and Restoration

Early Restoration Efforts, 1930-1946
Further Restoration, 1947-1974
Inspection of Conditions, 1975-1977
Lantern Restoration and Fire, 1978-1980
Dome Restoration, 1980-1981
Exterior Restoration, 1982-1986
Interior Restoration 1983-1988

Chapter Six - Accessibility

Video Programs
Further Accessibility Improvements

Chapter Seven - Entrance Fee

Chapter Eight - The Role of the Jefferson National Expansion Historical Association

Enlargement and Modernization of the JNEHA Store
Donation Expense - Funding Provided to the NPS
Sales Items Controversy
Union Station
Interpretation at Union Station
The Future

Chapter Nine - Museum Services and Interpretation

Interpretive Planning at JEFF
The Museum of Westward Expansion
Interpreting the Museum
Visitor Center Rehabilitation
Old Courthouse Exhibit Galleries
The Museum Education Program
Beginnings: 1977-1980
Folklife Program
Education Program, 1981-1985
Education Program Revisions
New Directions
Interpretive Programs in the Late 1980s
JNEHA and Interpretation
Special Interpretive Activities
Folklife Program
Black Heritage Month
Christmas Programs
Scout Programs
Union Station Urban Initiative Project
Victorian 4th of July
Other Programs
Special Events
25th Anniversary Celebration
The 75th Anniversary of the NPS
Volunteers-In-Parks Program
Collections Management
Exhibit Staff and the Temporary Exhibit Program
American Indian Peace Medal Exhibit

Chapter Ten - Division of Law Enforcement and Safety

Emergency Medical System
Hazardous Duty
The VP Fair
Rank Identification at the VP Fair
Arch Parking Garage
The Staff
The Gulf War
Horse Patrol
Bicycle Patrol

Chapter Eleven - Two New Parks Are Created: The Ulysses S. Grant and Harry S Truman National Historic Sites

Harry S Truman National Historic Site
Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site
Early Years and Development, 1796-1821
The Dent Family and Ulysses S. Grant at White Haven, 1821-1860
Grant's War Years, 1861-1865
Grant Owns White Haven, 1866-1885
White Haven in the Post-Grant Years, 1885-1979
Creation of a National Historic Site, 1980-1991

Chapter Twelve - East Side Expansion - Taking the Dream Across the River

Chapter Thirteen - Unusual Events and Occurrences at JEFF



A. Chronology of Events, JEFF, 1980-1991
B. Visitation Figures, 1980-1990
C. Chronology, East Side Expansion Effort
D. JEFF Amendments Act of 1984
E. Law Enforcement Statistics, 1981-1991
F. Chronology, U.S. Grant National Historic Site
G. U.S. Grant National Historic Site Legislation
H. Ash Borer Statistics
I. Agreement between JNEHA and NPS

Maps and Diagrams

1. Area Map, Downtown St. Louis

Landscape, Jefferson National Expansion Memorial:
     2. Original Landscape Plan, 1947
     3. Modified Landscape Plan, 1959
     4. Schematic of Landscape, 1980s

Index (omitted from the online edition)

<<< Previous <<< Contents >>> Next >>>

Last Updated: 15-Jan-2004