Gaslighting in America
A Guide for Historic Preservation
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1. Fredrick Accum, A Practical Treatise on Gas-Light (London: R. Ackermann, 1815), p. 115. Accum's name, given as Fredrick on the title page of his book, was actually Friedrich Christian Accum.

2. This remarkably early view of a gaslighted interior has been reproduced in color in J. B. Priestley, The Prince of Pleasure and his Regency 1811-1820 (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), plate 15.

3. Accum, Practical Treatise, p. 118. Accum is actually referring here to his plate 4, but his statement applies with equal validity to his plate 5. His description of his plates 3-5 is found on pp. 115-121.

4. Dean Chandler, Outline of History of Lighting by Gas (London: South Metropolitan Gas Company, 1936), p. 200. This dates the first advertisement for the Welsbach mantle as having appeared in December 1890.

5. Ibid., p. 87.

6. Letter of August 20, 1976, from J. P. A. Scott to W. Brown Morton III, in Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation files. Scott, who is Museum Assistant, Illumination Collection, at the Science Museum, South Kensington, London, dates the engravings between 1820 and 1830 on the basis of firmly dated fixtures in the museum's collection.

7. Journal of the Franklin Institute, 3rd ser. (Philadelphia: Franklin Institute), 37(1859): 125-126; an advertisement in The American Gas-Light Journal, 2(1860):164 gives the American patent date.

8. Starr, Fellows, and Company, Illustrated Catalogue of Lamps, Gas Fixtures, &c. ([New York], 1856), plates 31, 41. The Academy of Music in New York, built in 1854, had brackets in the form of chimerical creatures (plate 27) and the hall chandelier of 1854 in the Wickham-Valentine House (Valentine Museum) in Richmond, Virginia, has branches in the form of dragons. The January 1973 issue of Antiques shows a full-color view of the Richmond example. The rather repulsive (except for a herpetologist!) bracket in the form of a rattlesnake was one of a series of fixtures designed in 1859 by Joseph Goldsborough Bruff (1804-1889) for the south wing of the U.S. Department of the Treasury in Washington; Washington, D. C., National Archives, Record Group 121, Records of the Public Buildings Service, "Photographs of Designs, Bureau of Construction, Treasury Department."

9. First National Bank in St. Louis, St. Louis—A Fond Look Back (St. Louis, 1956). A lithograph of J. Y. Hart's "Capitol Oyster Saloon and Restaurant" shows counterweighted water-seal chandeliers with smoke bells over the burners. The Seabury Tredwell House (Old Merchant's House) of 1832 in New York City has a fine bronze-finished pair of neoclassical counterweighted water-seal gaseliers that appear to be as old as the house. Curiously, the James Lancaster Morgan House of 1870 in Brooklyn had a counterweighted water-seal gaselier in the front hall as well as one in the dining room that exemplified the Neo-Grec style; John A. Kouwenhoven, The Columbia Historical Portrait of New York (Garden City: Doubleday and Company, 1953), pp. 369-370; the Morgan dining room is also illustrated in William Seale, The Tasteful Interlude (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1975), p. 103.

10. Stereograph by G. W. Wilson, Aberdeen, "Abbotsford—The Library. No. 574," author's collection.

11. Edward Everett Hale, A New England Boyhood (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1927), p. 5. Hale, born in 1822 and writing in 1893, was reporting a personally observed circumstance.

12. Marjorie Drake Ross, The Book of Boston — The Victorian Period — 1837 to 1901 (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1964), p. 71.

13. Marshall B. Davidson, Life in America (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1951), 2:12. The scene shown in the Thayer lithograph is identified as "Tremont House;" and as "the ballroom of Tremont House" in Marshall B. Davidson, The American Heritage History of American Antiques from the Revolution to the Civil War (New York: American Heritage Publishing Company, 1968), p. 331. However, William Havard Eliot, A Description of Tremont House with Architectural Illustrations (Boston: Gray and Bowen, 1830), shows that no such ballroom existed in the hotel.

14. Edgar Allan Poe, "Philosophy of Furniture" (1840), The Complete Tales and Poems of Edgar Allan Poe (New York: The Modern Library, 1938), p. 464.

15. Voucher, "Miscellaneous Treasury Accounts of the General Accounting Office, 1790-1894," National Archives, Record Group 130. Information courtesy of William Seale. Loris S. Russell, "Early 19th Century Lighting," Building Early America (Radnor, Pennsylvania: Chilton Book Company, 1976), p. 197. Russell states the chandeliers were "oil fixtures;" he was misinformed.

16. Oliver E. Allen, "The Lewis Albums," American Heritage (December 1962), pp. 65-80; includes color illustration.

17. "The cast pillar icicles, and other pendulous ornaments of these splendid lamps, are the first of the kind presented to the public from American sources, and they bear a strict scrutiny for transparency, lustre, and workmanship." Journal of the Franklin Institute, n.s. 13 (Philadelphia, 1834), p. 93.

18. A handsome G. and W. Endicott lithograph in the Bella C. Landauer Collection at the New York Historical Society shows three chandeliers and two brackets in the ladies' saloon. The ill-fated "Atlantic" made her first trip on August 18, 1846, and was lost by shipwreck in November of that same year. She manufactured her gas on board. John H. Morrison, History of American Steam Navigation, (New York: Stephen Daye Press, 1958), p. 328. Except for Long Island Sound and Hudson River vessels, few steamboats used gaslighting. The flexing of limber-hulled Western river boats made gas impracticable, as did the motion of ocean-going ships. Hudson River steamboats used compressed, or "liquid," gas to supply their chandeliers. Doggett's New York City Directory for 1846-1847 listed "Charles Starr, liquid gas," at 117 Fulton Street. Wilson's Business Directory of New York City for 1860 listed six firms under the heading of "Gas Works (Portable)," among them the "New York Car and Steamboat Company" at the premises listed in 1846-1847 for Starr. On October 1, 1859, The American Gas-Light Journal carried an advertisement by S. B. Bowles for "gas apparatus for cars."

19. Cf., plate 50 of this report. After Charles Goodyear patented his vulcanization process on June 15, 1844, it became possible to make rubber hose with which to attach gaslamps to chandeliers, pendants, or brackets. A lithograph illustration in Charles Ellery Stedman [Chinks], Mr. Hardy Lee, His Yacht (Boston: A. Williams and Company, 1857) shows a lamp suspended from a chandelier by what appears to be a flexible hose, although it may be a very slender metal duct. The lamp has an apparently paper octagonal shade, and jointed brackets in another illustration in Stedman's pseudonymous work have what seem to be fluted paper shades. These and other lithographs by "Chinks" are reproduced in American Heritage, June 1964), pp. 24-31.

20. Thomas U [stick] Walter and J. Jay Smith, A Guide to Workers in Metal and Stone: For the Use of Architects and Designers, Black and White Smiths, Brass Founders, Gas Fitters, Iron Masters, Plumbers, Silver and Goldsmiths, Stove and Furnace Manufacturers, Pattern Makers, Marble Masons, Stucco Workers, Carvers and Ornamental Workers in Wood, Potters, Etc., From Original Designs, and Selections Made from Every Accessible Source, American and European (Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1846), plate 17.

21. The George Washington Whittemore House of 1850 that formerly stood at 329 Harvard Street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, had four brackets, each with seven gas candles, in the parlor. The sleeves forming the "candles" were porcelain.

22. "Cornelius & Baker are the most extensive manufacturers of lamps, chandeliers, gas fixtures, &c., in the United States, employing upwards of seven hundred persons in the several departments of the establishment..." The Art-Journal Illustrated Catalogue — The Industry of All Nations 1851 (London: George Virtue, 1851), p. 212; "The pioneer establishment in this manufacture, [of lamps and chandeliers] and the one which, in extent, is now confessedly without an equal in Europe or America, is that of Cornelius & Baker." Edwin T. Freedley, Philadelphia and Its Manufactures: A Hand-Book Exhibiting the Development, Variety, and Statistics of the Manufacturing Industry of Philadelphia in 1857. Together with Sketches of Remarkable Manufactories; and a List of Articles Now Made in Philadelphia (Philadelphia: Edward Young, 1859), p. 352; "To-day a single firm or establishment in this country, that of the Messrs. Cornelius and Sons, of Philadelphia, Penn., makes nearly one-half of all the gas fixtures manufactured in the United States, which, together with the unsurpassed, if not wholly unequalled character as well, of their wares, renders them the representative manufacturers in their line." Horace Greeley, et al, The Great Industries of the United States: Being an Historical Summary of the Origin, Growth, and Perfection of the Chief Industrial Arts of this Country (Hartford: J. B. Burr and Hyde, 1873), p. 308. From these quotations it would appear that the Cornelius firm held its lead from before 1851 until at least 1873.

23. Charles S. Cornelius, History of the Cornelius Family in America (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1926), 8, pp. 2-4; 10, pp. 48-49.

24. Pyne Press, Lamps & Other Lighting Devices — 1850-1906 (Princeton: The Pyne Press, 1972), p. 21. Instead of 1783, "about 1800" is also mentioned as the time of Christian Cornelius's arrival. Greeley, Great Industries, p. 315.

25. Pyne Press, Lamps, p. 21.

26. Dean Hale, "Diary of an Industry," The American Gas Journal (1970), unpaginated reprint.

27. Greeley, Great Industries, p. 315.

28. Ibid. "In 1831, Robert was admitted to the partnership, under the style Cornelius and Son..." However, a letter dated June 30, 1840, to Colonel S. Birdsall from the firm, stating that fixtures for the North Carolina Capitol at Raleigh had been shipped, was signed "Cornelius & Co." North Carolina Archives, ST P&C of SC 1839-45. It should be noted that those fixtures were fitted for real candles, not gas. The print in Walter's Guide to Workers in Metal and Stone refers to "Cornelius and Son," but McElroy's Philadelphia Directory consistently lists the firm as "Cornelius & Co." from 1841 through 1856. As has already been seen in footnote 22, the firm was styled "Cornelius & Baker" by the Art-Journal as early as 1851. It therefore seems reasonable, despite directory listings, to date the change from "Cornelius & Co."(or "Cornelius & Son") to "Cornelius, Baker & Co." from the death of Christian Cornelius in 1851.

29. Directory of American Biography, 1935 ed., s.v. "Gerard Troost." Dr. Gerard Troost had been sent on a scientific expedition to Java by King Louis of Holland before coming to Philadelphia in 1810. He was a founder and first President of the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia and went in Robert Dale Owen's famous "boat-load of knowledge" to New Harmony, Indiana in 1825. In 1827 he went to Nashville, Tennessee, where he joined the faculty of the University of Nashville in 1828. He was one of the most eminent American scientists of his day.

George C. Groce and David H. Wallace, The New York Historical Society's Dictionary of Artists in America—1564-1860 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957), pp. 151-152. James Cox was an English born-Philadelphia artist of considerable prominence as a teacher. He had a library of over 5,000 books on art, a very large collection for the time, which he ultimately sold to the Library Company of Philadelphia. If one may judge from the caliber of his teachers, Robert Cornelius could hardly have received better instruction.

30. Greeley, Great Industries, p. 315.

This remarkably early daguerreotype portrait has been reproduced in American Heritage (December 1956), p. 50; an excellent account of Robert Cornelius' career as a daguerreotypist is contained in Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Three Centuries of American Art, Bicentennial Exhibition, April 11 to October 10, 1976 (Philadelphia, 1976), pp. 311-313.

31. Dean Hale, "Diary of an Industry," The American Gas Journal (1970), unpaginated reprint.

32. Reproduced in American Heritage (October 1969), p. 48. The ultimate source is not noted, but was probably Harper's Weekly or Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper.

33. Photographs taken in 1916, now in the Armory Museum files, and an old photograph of a Myers House interior reproduced in William Rotch Ware, The Georgian Period, Boston, American Architect and Building News Company, 1899-1902, illustrate these chandeliers.

34. The inversion of the detail in the Baltimore examples may have been the result of the original assembly, but it suggests that it is highly advisable, before disassembling a complicated chandelier for cleaning or repair, to photograph it for record.

35. The Daughters of the American Revolution Museum example is in the Missouri State Room, and the Missouri Historical Society's chandelier is in a permanent display representing the Ladies' cabin of a Mississippi steamboat.

36. Edwin T. Freedley, Philadelphia and Its Manufactures (Philadelphia, Ed. Young, [1859]), p. 355.

37. J. B. Chandler, Description of the Establishment of Cornelius and Baker, Manufacturers of Lamps, Chandeliers and Gas Fixtures, Philadelphia (Philadelphia, [1860]), p. 20. Was the reference to the Kremlin merely advertising hyperbole or based on fact? It has not been possible to answer that question. The architect Konstantin Andreevich Ton completed the Great Palace in the Moscow Kremlin for Tsar Nicholas I in 1849. Because the monarch esteemed George Washington Whistler (1800-1849), the American engineer who built the Saint Petersburg-Moscow Railway, so much that he honored him with the Order of St. Anne in 1847, it may be possible that he admired American industry enough to order some of his new palace chandeliers from Cornelius and Company. Dictionary of American Biography, 1936 ed., s.v. "George Washington Whistler."

38. Starr, Fellows and Company's Illustrated Catalogue, plate 31. The figure numbered 700 has branches identical with those on several chandeliers at Quarters One, Springfield Armory, as seen in 1916 photographs. Craig Littlewood, a craftsman experienced with Cornelius castings, believes the morning-glory branch is a Cornelius design.

39. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 19th-Century America—Furniture and Other Decorative Arts (New York: New York Graphic Society, Ltd., 1970), item 113. The chandelier is illustrated in color. Charles Lockwood, Brick and Brownstone (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972), p. 204. Illustrates similar glass elements on a chandelier fitted for eight gas candles.

40. A. D. Jones, The Illustrated American Biography; Containing Correct Portraits and Brief Notices of the Principal Actors in American History, vol. 2 (New York: J. Milton Emerson and Company, 1854), pp. 406, 413.

41. The American Gas-Light Journal, June 15, 1863), pp. 370-373. List of 433 gas companies in the United States with the dates of their charters. See Appendix.

42. Archer and Warner, A Familiar Treatise on Candles, Lamps and Gas Lights; with Incidental Matters, Prepared for the Use of their Customers by Archer & Warner, Manufacturers of Gas Fixtures, Chandeliers, Lamps, Girandoles, &c. (Philadelphia, [1850]), passim. Freedley, Philadelphia and Its Manufactures, p. 438.

43. Viggo Rambusch, "Technical article: lighting for restorations," Interiors (April 1975), p. 172.

44. Ibid.

45. Craig Littlewood, who has restored many gas fixtures and lamps, has observed this to be the case.

46. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 19th-Century America—Furniture, items 131, 134, and 135. The cover shows the bronzes in color with other details.

47. Southwestern Bell Telephone Company, A St. Louis Heritage: Six Historic Homes, (St. Louis: 1967), pp. 26-27. The Campbell House parlor is illustrated in color. Richard Hubbard Howland, "Tuscan Transplant," Arts in Virginia (1968), 9:6.

48. Art-Journal Illustrated Catalogue (1851), p. 212.

49. Benjamin Silliman, Jr., and Charles R. Goodrich, eds., The World of Science, Art, and Industry Illustrated from Examples in the New York Exhibition, 1853-1854 (New York: G. P. Putnam and Company, 1854), p. 157.

50. Ibid., p. 158

51. Greeley, Great Industries, p. 315. Pyne Press, Lamps, p. 17.

52. McElroy's Philadelphia Directory, 1853.

53. Boyd's Philadelphia City Business Directory, 1861.

54. Freedley, Philadelphia and Its Manufactures, p. 352, plate opp. p. 35.

55. Federal Writers' Project, Washington City and Capital (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1937), p. 655.

56. Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper (1863), pp. 42-43.

57. Cornelius and Baker, Description, p. 24; Freedley, Philadelphia and Its Manufactures, p. 356.

58. Nicholas B. Wainwright, Philadelphia in the Romantic Age of Lithography (Philadelphia: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1958), pp. 110-112.

59. Jones, Illustrated American Biography 2(1854):401.

60. This print has been frequently illustrated: e.g., E. Douglas Branch, The Sentimental Years 1836-1860 (New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1934), opp. p. 252; Davidson, Life in America 2:40; Kouwenhoven, Columbia Historical Portrait of New York, p. 225; and Harold L. Peterson, Americans at Home from the Colonists to the Late Victorians (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971), plate 197.

61. Kouwenhoven, Columbia Historical Portrait, p. 282.

62. Wainwright, Philadelphia in the Romantic Age, pp. 87, 153. This ornate store, designed by John Fraser, had a two-story showroom and measured 55 feet wide by 175 feet deep.

63. Jones, Illustrated American Biography 2(1854):81, 121, 125.

64. Reproduced in Kouwenhoven, Columbia Historical Portrait, p. 273.

65. This watercolor, now in the Bertram K. and Nina Fletcher Little Collection, has been reproduced in Peterson, Americans at Home, plate 91.

66. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 19th-Century America—Furniture, item 112. A color illustration showing this lamp in a period room installation appeared in Antiques (September 1970), p. 405.

67. Doggett's New York City Business Directory; Wilson's Business Directory of New York City; The New York City Mercantile Register (1848-1849). The Mercantile Register carried an advertisement stating that Johnson's Gas Fittings and General Brass Works made gas pipes and fittings, plain and fancy brass tubing, pendants, brackets, chandeliers, brass bedsteads, gas burners, and cocks. Among the well-known firms listed by Wilson during the 1850s were: 1) Archer, Warner and Company, 376 Broadway; 2) John Cox and Company, 349 Broadway "Importers and dealers in French, English and American gas fixtures;" 3) H. Dardonville, 445 Broadway "Importer of French gas fixtures;" 4) (1854) Mitchell, Bailey and Company; 5) Ringuet Leprince, Marcotte and Company; 6) (1855) Tiffany and Company, 550 Broadway; 7) (1858) Mitchell, Vance and Company; 8) Warner, Peck and Company; and, of course, 9) (1859) Starr, Fellows and Fellows, Hoffman and Company. Wilson's Business Directory for 1860 listed among the 24 gas fixture makers the following: 1) Archer, Pancoast and Company, wholesale manufacturers, 9 Mercer Street; 2) Fellows, Hoffman and Company; 3) E. V. Haughwout and Company, 488 Broadway; 4) Isaac P. Frink, 104 Worth Street; 5) Mitchell, Vance and Company, 620 Broadway and 339 W. 24th Street; 6) Tiffany and Company; and 7) Warner, Peck and Company. Note that several firms listed themselves as importers of French or English fixtures. E. V. Haughwout's billhead (reproduced in Kouwenhoven, Columbia Historical Portrait, p. 245) characterized the firm as "wholesale and retail dealers in Cornelius & Baker's chandeliers & gas fixtures," among other items. The fine cast-iron store erected by Haughwout in 1857 at Broadway and Broome Streets still stands. Tiffany dealt in more than jewelry; Ringuet Leprince, Marcotte and Company was a leading decorating and furniture making firm of New York.

68. A circular letter dated March 2, 1857, pasted to the endpaper of the Starr, Fellows catalogue says,

The co-partnership heretofore existing under the name and style of Starr, Fellows & Co. expired by limitation on the first of February, 1857. Wm. H. Starr, so long and so favorably known as the head of the house having sold his interest therein to the remaining partner and they having associated with themselves Mr. J. A. G. Comstock, the business will be continued as heretofore, at the same locality, under the name and style of Fellows, Hoffman & Co. . . .

In 1847, William H. Starr, lamps, was listed at 67 Beekman Street, and in 1854 Starr, Fellows and Company was listed at the same address with a notation that the address after August 1 would be 74 Beekman Street. This was the locale of Starr, Fellows, and from 1857 through 1870, Fellows, Hoffman and Company. (Doggett's New York City Directory; Wilson's Business Directory of New York City). The co-partnership was first composed of William H. Starr, Charles H. Fellows, Charles O. Hoffman, James G. Dolbeare, and George Nichols. Upon the withdrawal of Starr in 1857, the partners were Fellows, Hoffman, Jeremiah A. G. Comstock, Dolbeare, and Nichols. In 1876 the firm was listed at 631-633 Broadway and advertised as "manufacturers of gas fixtures and importers of French bronzes, crystal gas fixtures, French clocks, statuettes, &c." By 1881, they were listed as C. H. Fellows, Hoffman and Company, gas fixtures, at 206 Canal Street, evidently a descent from the eminence of Broadway, and no later listings appeared. (Wilson's New York City Co-Partnership Directory; Trow's New York City Directory).

69. The catalogue now in the library of Old Sturbridge Village, Sturbridge, Massachusetts, has about 50 lithographed plates, half of them illustrating gas fixtures. The others illustrate oil lamps. The gilt-embossed cloth cover of the quarto volume shows an oil-lamp chandelier. A few fragments of what appears to have been an Archer and Warner catalogue of the early 1850s have been found attached to correspondence in the National Archives (R.G. 121) relating to the furnishing of the U. S. Custom House in Wheeling, West Virginia.

70. The word "slides" refers to cork-sealed, sleeved stem pipes that could be extended to allow the adjustment of the pendant or chandelier to any height desired.

71. Illustrated in Antiques (July 1970), p. 96.

72. Because two other Whittemore chandeliers had Starr, Fellows branches, it is possible, unless the supplier dealt with two or more manufacturers, that the attribution should be to the New York firm rather than to Cornelius and Baker.

73. Illustrated in William Seale, The Tasteful Interlude: American Interiors through the Camera's Eye, 1860-1917 (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1975), p. 137, plate 112.

74. Illustrated in Antiques (May 1976), p. 1034. The globes belong properly to lamps, not to a gaselier.

75. Op. cit., Silliman and Goodrich, p. 158.

76. McElroy's Philadelphia Directory, 1841-1872; O'Brien's Philadelphia Wholesale Business Directory, 1843-1857; Boyd's Philadelphia City Business Directory, 1859-1860; Cohen's Philadelphia City Directory, 1860. An attestation dated August 25, 1859, giving the precise dates of the Archer, Warner, and Miskey partnership, is on file in the Office of the Architect of the Capitol, Washington, D. C.

77. Wilson's Business Directory of New York City, 1853-1860; Wilson's Co-Partnership Directory, 1857-1861; Trow's New York City Directory, 1861-1902.

78. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 19th-Century America—Furniture, item 103; Denys Peter Myers, Maine Catalogue—The Historic Architecture of Maine (Augusta: The Maine State Museum, 1974), pp. 121-122. If the J. J. Brown House was equipped with gas when built in 1845, the attribution should be to Archer solely, as Warner did not become a partner until 1848. It should be noted that the Portland Gas-Light Company was not chartered until 1849, but it may well have begun operations, like several other gas companies, before receiving its charter.

79. Freedley, Philadelphia and Its Manufactures, p. 438.

80. Ibid., p. 439.

81. Ibid. The railing is illustrated in Myrtle Cheney Murdock, Constantino Brumidi—Michelangelo of the United States Capitol (Washington: Monumental Press, Inc., 1950), p. 9.

82. Thomas Webster and Frances Byerley Parkes, An Encyclopaedia of Domestic Economy (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1849), p. 202, para. 764. The first edition appeared in London in 1844, the year of Goodyear's patent (see footnote 19).

83. It has not been considered necessary to discuss governor burners in detail as their use in America was so limited. William Sugg, the English manufacturer of gas equipment, developed a number of such devices, the best of which was probably one introduced around 1880 that used a steatite float. As early as 1867, Julius Bronner of Frankfurt-am-Main produced a governor burner with a steatite plug, and one Giroud developed a patent governor called a "Rheometer" in 1871 that was improved by one Peebles in 1875. Chandler, Outline, pp. 91-95.

84. The Oertel painting is illustrated in Peterson, Americans at Home, plate 126. Plate 167 in Peterson reproduces half of a D. R. Holmes stereograph taken around 1875 of Senator Charles Sumner's study. A gaslamp attached by a hose to a chandelier may be clearly seen.

85. An interior photograph of the Leland Stanford House of 1869-1871 in Sacramento, California, shows a six-branched chandelier with an additional central burner that could be lowered by what appears to be Monson's patent device. See Seale, Tasteful Interlude, p. 47, ill. 21.

86. G. and D. Cook and Company's Illustrated Catalogue of Carriages and Special Business Advertiser (New Haven: Baker and Godwin, 1860; reprinted ed., New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1970), p. 138. Dover Publications reprinted the Cook catalogue in 1970 as part of their Dover Pictorial Archive Series. Because the patent was dated ca. 1860, and because the Civil War brought construction by the Treasury Department to a halt until well after Bowman was transferred to other duties, it is uncertain whether many Monson patent equipped fixtures were actually used in Federal buildings.

87. William Paul Gerhard, The American Practice of Gas Piping and Gas Lighting in Buildings (New York: McGraw Publishing Company, 1908), p. 146.

88. Winslow Ames, "The Vermont Statehouse and Its Furniture," in Antiques (August 1965), pp. 200-204; Cornelius and Baker, Description, p. 24.

89. Ames, "Vermont Statehouse."

90. Cornelius and Baker, Description, pp. 23-24.

91. Freedley, Philadelphia and Its Manufactures, p. 355.

92. Mario E. Campioli, "Building the Capitol," in Charles E. Peterson, ed., Building Early America—Contributions Toward the History of a Great Industry (Radnor, Pennsylvania: Chilton Book Company, 1976), p. 227.

93. Freedley, Philadelphia and Its Manufactures, p. 356.

94. Data sheet dated June 14, 1968, accompanying negative #12567 on file in the Office of the Architect of the Capitol.

95. "The California Trail" in Thomas Froncek, "Winterkill, 1846," in American Heritage (December 1976), pp. 35-41. Additional data supplied by Donald J. Lehman.

96. Washington, D. C., National Archives, R.G. 121. Records of the Public Buildings Service, Office of the Supervising Architect, "Photographs of Designs, Bureau of Construction, Treasury Department."

97. The Hawthorne painting is reproduced in color in American Heritage (February 1971), pp. 30-31.

98. Peterson, Americans at Home, plate 200. This plate reproduces the Hawthorne in black and white. Peterson mistakes the striped flooring not uncommon in the 1860s, for floor cloth and incorrectly surmises that the beer pumps dispensed "coffee or other non-alcoholic beverages."

99. The small hook shown on plate 60 above the burner was provided for the purpose of hanging a smoke bell.

100. The Stanton Hall bronze fixtures are alleged to have been imported from France. However, no documentary evidence has been produced to support the allegation, except that the term "French bronze" has long been associated with the fixtures. Against the contention that they were imported may be cited the fact that "French bronze" was a common trade term used to designate a particular finish. Furthermore, no French fixtures are known that resemble the Natchez examples in style, whereas many examples of the Philadelphia school resemble them closely. All the allegorical subjects on them that can be identified refer to American history. It may be observed that several marked fixtures by Cornelius and Baker are extant in Natchez.

101. The Art-Journal; The Illustrated Catalogue of the Universal Exhibition Published with The Art Journal (London: Virtue and Company, [1867]), p. 139.

102. Treasury Department data were supplied by Donald J. Lehman.

103. Unfortunately, despite their promise, the editors of The Art Journal did not mention the "interesting process" elsewhere in the Illustrated Catalogue.

104. The publication in 1868 in London of Eastlake's Hints on Household Taste spread his ideas like wildfire. Even before the first American edition of his influential work appeared in 1872, arbiters of taste in this country were pressing for the adoption of his rather ascetic aesthetic principles.

105. Jay E. Cantor, "A Monument of Trade—A. T. Stewart and the Rise of the Millionaire's Mansion in New York," Winterthur Portfolio 10 (Charlottesville, Virginia: University Press of Virginia, 1975), pp. 165-197. Cantor's article discusses both the aesthetic and the sociological significance of the house. The photographs of the interiors shown here on plates 66 and 67 are reproduced from Artistic Houses (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1883-1884), vol. 1, part 1. The difference in design concept between the Stewart drawing room fixtures of 1869 and the Morse-Libby House music room chandelier of 1863 (plate 62) is obvious when the two plates are compared. Clearly, a new trend was setting in. Elm Park, the Lockwood-Matthews Mansion of 1868 in Norwalk, Connecticut, probably the most lavish American country house of its time, originally had gas fixtures similar to the Stewart chandeliers, but they were lighter in design. See Seale, Tasteful Interlude, pp. 43-45.

106. For examples of the type, see plates 73, 83, 84, 85, 89.

107. Cantor, "Monument of Trade," p. 187, fig. 22.

108. Dean Hale, "Diary of an Industry." See also note 18.

109. Cook and Company's Illustrated Catalogue of Carriages, p. 106. The St. Nicholas Hotel advertisement quotes the New York Pathfinder at length and illustrates the hotel's main dining room lighted by three large chandeliers and numerous brackets.

110. Advertising "Letter" dated January 19, 1856, reproduced in Leslie Dorsey Janice Devine, Fare Thee Well (New York: Crown Publishing Inc., 1964), pp. 64-65. Possibly the source of the St. Nicholas Hotel lighting system was the Ornamental Iron Works of Philip Tabb at 522 Broadway "opposite St. Nicholas Hotel." Tabb advertised "Portable Gas Works made to order. Contracts taken for building Gas and Water Works. . ." in 1860.

111. Roy T. Bramson, Highlights in the History of American Mass Production (Detroit: Bramson Publishing Company, 1945), p. 52.

112. Jones, Illustrated American Biography, 2(1854):393. After the development of oil drilling (for petroleum) at Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859 by Edwin L. Drake (1819-1880) who appears to have had no connection with O. P. Drake, gasoline replaced benzine as the agent for vaporization in gas machines.

113. American Gas-Light Journal (December 1, 1859), p. 103.

114. [Springfield Gas Machine Company], Circular of the Springfield Gas Machine Co. of Springfield, Mass. Manufacturers of Portable Gas Machines and Contractors for the Erection of Gas Works, Suitable for the Lighting of Mills, Factories, Machine Shops, Hotels, Public Halls, Churches, Blocks of Stores, Private Dwellings, or Any Class of Buildings Beyond the Reach of Coal Gas Mains. Also, Manufacturers of Carbureting Apparatus for the Purpose of Enriching Coal Gas. Also, Dealers in Gasoline for Gas Machines (Springfield: [Samuel Bowles and Company, 1867]). Testimonials in this eight-page pamphlet are dated 1866 and refer to the satisfactory use of "vapor of Naphtha" (gasoline) in the previous year. Poor Richard's Gas Catechism for the People (Springfield, 1870), p. 15 refers to gasoline as the substance from which gas "is made" in portable gas machines. That pamphlet was probably issued by the Springfield Gas Machine Company. The status of the Springfield Gas Machine is indicated by the fact that a leading technical publication of the period illustrated and described that particular device for the major part of its article titled "Gas, Illuminating, Machines for Producing." Appleton's Cyclopaedia of Applied Mechanics: A Dictionary of Mechanical Engineering and the Mechanical Arts (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1880) 1:935-938.

115. The dotted lines running between the house cellar and the buried generator at the left are labeled "Gas Pipe" and "Air Pipe."

116. The Guy painting was reproduced in color in American Heritage (April 1966), pp. 8-9. The Johnson painting was reproduced in color in Metropolitan Museum of Art, 19th-Century America—Paintings and Sculpture (New York: New York Graphic Society Ltd., 1970), item 144, and in American Heritage (October 1966), p. 53. A lithograph published in 1865 by Leslie's Chimney Corner shows the east room of the White House gaslighted during President Lincoln's Inauguration Day reception. At the other end of the social spectrum, a painting entitled "An Evening at the Ark" done by Julius Gollmann in 1859, now in the Western Reserve Historical Society in Cleveland, shows a cheaply furnished room papered in arsenical green wallpaper during a meeting attended by a group of poorly dressed men. The stark interior is lighted by the single fishtail burner of a plain pendant.

117. The description referred to the steamers "Bristol" and "Providence," built in 1867. Old Colony Railroad, The Popular Resorts of Massachusetts and Newport, R. I. (Boston: Old Colony Railroad, 1878).

118. Gerhard, American Practice of Gas Piping, p. 146.

119. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 19th-Century America—Furniture, item 161.

120. Chandeliers fitted with gas candles are among the types not included in the Mount Washington Glass Works display. The firm made shades as well as fixtures and evidently wished to encourage their use. Their advertisements show that they were particularly proud of their painted shades. During the 1880s Louis XVI Revival crystal chandeliers fitted with gas candles were used in some fine mansions. An excellent matching set composed of a chandelier and brackets in that style was in the drawing room of the Oliver Ames, Jr., House (1882) at 355 Commonwealth Avenue in Boston and is illustrated in Seale, Tasteful Interlude, pp. 74-75. "[Mount Washington Glass Works] is the only factory in the country where crystal chandeliers are made complete." New Bedford Board of Trade, History of New Bedford (New Bedford: Board of Trade, 1889).

121. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 19th-Century America—Furniture, items 176, 177. The chandelier is illustrated in color in Antiques (September 1970), p. 409.

122. The 1875 firm also included: Samuel Vance, Vice-President; Edgar M. Smith, Secretary Treasurer; and Edward A. Mitchell, and Dennis C. Wilcox, Trustees with these officers. Wilson's New York City Co-Partnership Directory, Wilson's Business Directory of New York City, and Trow's New York City Directory, passim. Mitchell, Vance and Company, Centennial Catalogue of Chandeliers, Gas Fixtures, Bronze Ornaments, Clocks, Etc. (New York: 1876), passim.

123. Trow's New York City Directory, 1881.

124. Mitchell, Vance and Company, Centennial Catalogue, unpaginated.

125. Other commercial structures included the Equitable Life Assurance Company building in Boston and the Lord and Taylor Store in New York. For the contemporary importance and historic significance of the Tribune and Western Union Telegraph Buildings, see Winston Weisman, "New York and the Problem of the First Skyscraper" in Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 12 (March 1953): 13-21. As Richardson specified Mitchell, Vance and Company fixtures for his Brattle Square Church, it is quite possible that the great corona of 1877 that once gave unity and scale to the crossing of his Trinity Church, Boston was by the same firm. The fixture is illustrated in Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold, Henry Hobson Richardson and His Works (1888; reprinted., New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1969), opp. p. 61. The removal of that fixture during "improvements" made in the 1930s was misguided. Fortunately, Mitchell and Vance's somewhat similar corona in Sanders Theatre at Harvard's Memorial Hall in Cambridge still exists.

126. As described further in the Art Journal, August, 1875: "The chandelier is massive in appearance, but graceful withal, and is finished in . . . verd-antique, and relieved at prominent points by judicious gilding . . . [it] is one of the most elaborate designs of the kind ever executed in this country. The drawings were made by Mr. Charles C. Perring, Chief designer for the company.

Several of the fixtures illustrated in the Mitchell, Vance and Company Centennial Catalogue are also illustrated in more readily available sources, e.g., A Facsimile of Frank Leslie's Illustrated Historical Register of the Centennial Exposition 1876 (New York: Paddington Press, Ltd., 1974), p. 306 (accompanying text on p. 296) and Asher and Adams' Pictorial Album of American Industry 1876 (1876; reprint ed., New York: Rutledge Books, 1976), p. 133. Unfortunately, nothing has been discovered concerning Charles C. Perring. He does not appear in any of the standard published reference sources.

127. See plates 15, 27, 53, and 64.

128. Gopsill's Philadelphia City Directory, 1887, p. 375.

129. McElroy 's Philadelphia Directory, 1841-1872.

130. Cornelius and Company issued a 13 page catalogue in 1877 with the title Examples of Gas Fixtures and other Metal work for Ecclesiastical and Domestic Use. Designed after the Manner of Medieval Art Works by J. M. Beesley.

131. Illustrated London News, May 21, 1853.

132. For the medieval prototype, see Kenneth John Conant, Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 800 to 1200 (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1959), p. 16, fig. 3 (A).

133. Asher and Adams' Pictorial Album, p. 49. The article describes the processes carried on at Archer and Pancoast's manufactory and also notes that:

we import bronzes—real and imitation—but only to a very limited extent, as compared with the quantity manufactured at home. Since 1860, the bronze manufacture—the most important feature of which is the production of gas fixtures, has greatly increased in importance. The development of the zinc mines of Lehigh Valley, Pa., and the late discoveries of spelter, as zinc is called in the trade, in New Jersey, Illinois and Missouri, have made American manufacturers altogether independent of foreign mines, and they now turn out goods with which foreign manufacturers cannot successfully compete.

134. Wilson H. Faude, "Associated Artists and the American Renaissance in the Decorative Arts," Winterthur Portfolio 10 (Charlottesville, Virginia: University Press of Virginia, 1975), p. 123, fig. 23; Wilson H. Faude, "Mark Twain's House in Hartford, Connecticut," Antiques (October 1974), p. 636, fig. 3.

135. The Art Journal 2(1876):56.

136. Possibly J. F. Travis was the firm's principal designer, comparable to Charles C. Perring at Mitchell, Vance and Company. Unfortunately, no information about Travis has come to light; he is not listed in any standard reference work.

137. For earlier uses of gas candles, see plates 15 and 71, and note 21 of this report. The Morse-Libby House of 1863 in Portland, Maine, has dining room brackets with gas candles, although the chandelier has shaded burners. The James M. Beebe House ca. 1865 in Boston had a dining room chandelier with a center oil lamp and real candles, but gas candles in the wall brackets. Seale, Tasteful Interlude, p. 68, fig. 42. The dining room of the George Finch House in St. Paul had a chandelier dating from around 1880 to 1885 in the Anglo-Japanese taste that was fitted with gas candles. Seale, Tasteful Interlude, pp. 94-95, fig. 69.

138. As early as 1844 Petit's Shawl Store in Boston was reported to have single-paned plate glass windows, each containing 48 square feet; and A. T. Stewart's store in New York had French plate glass windows measuring 7 feet wide by 11 feet 2 inches high, or 77 square feet. In 1853, Taylor's Saloon in New York had windows of plate glass 7 feet wide by 16-1/2 feet high. The fact that these were reported in the newspapers indicates that they were exceptional. It was not until 1853 or 1854 that an attempt was made to make plate glass in America. Kenneth M. Wilson, "Window Glass in America," in Charles E. Peterson, ed., Building Early America—Contributions Toward the History of a Great Industry (Radnor, Pennsylvania: Chilton Book Company, 1976), pp. 161-164.

139. Isaac P. Frink, Frink's Patent Reflectors [New York: 1883]. Patents were issued to Frink on April 10, April 17, and June 12, 1860; December 24, 1861; June 8 and July 7, 1869; February 8, 1870 (patents #3826 and #3827); April 9, 1872; April 17, 1874; May 20, 1879; January 10, 1882; and April 3, 1883.

140. The fixture is illustrated in color in Antiques (October 1974), p. 639.

141. Washington, D.C., National Archives, R.G. 42, case 2, folder 9. Richard von Ezdorf was born in the Palazzo Balbi in Venice on the eve of the Revolution of 1848, during which his family suffered much for its loyalty to the Austrian crown. The young aristocrat experienced a particularly bad year in 1866. On July 24 he was wounded at the second Battle of Custozza, and his family sustained grave financial losses after August 23, when Austria signed the Treaty of Prague ceding Venetia to Italy at the end of the Seven Weeks' War. The misfortunes of 1866 may well account for Ezdorfs sailing for New York in 1872 after completing his studies at the Technische Hochschule in Stuttgart, the universities at Innsbruck and Graz, and the Academia del' Arte in Venice. In 1873 he placed his education in architecture, engineering, and the fine arts at the service of the U.S. government. He first appeared on the payroll of the State Department wing of the new State, War, and Navy Building and divided his time between it and other work in the Supervising Architect's office. From 1876 until late in 1886, he was on the War Department rolls while devoting his full time to the State, War, and Navy Building, where the interior ornaments and exterior sculpture were executed from his designs. Thereafter, he was with the Supervising Architect's office again until 1898. He then worked for the Navy Department until 1920, when he retired after more than 47 years in Federal service. He died in 1926. Richard von Ezdorf was an exceptionally gifted designer for his time and a delineator of truly superior talent. Data on von Ezdorf are based on Donald M. Lehman, Executive Office Building, General Services Administration Historical Study No. 3, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1970), pp. 46-53, 83.

142. Lehman, Executive Office Building, p. 49.

143. Washington, D.C., National Archives, R.G. 42.

144. Washington, D.C., National Archives, R.G. 77, Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, Fortifications File, 1776-1920, drawer 156, box no. 9.

145. By 1886 small-necked shades were already called "old-fashioned globes." C. J. Russell Humphreys, Gas as a Source of Light, Heat and Power (New York: A. M. Callender and Company, 1886), pp. 11-12, figs. 11-12.

146. McElroy's Philadelphia Directory and Gopsill's Philadelphia City Directory.

147. Interior photographs showing the Horticultural Hall chandeliers are reproduced in Robert C. Post, ed., 1876: A Centennial Exhibition (Washington: The National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, 1976), pp. 66-67 and 72. Facsimile of Frank Leslie's, p. 82 has a wood engraving showing the fixtures. A trade card of Thackera, Buck and Company shows Horticultural Hall and says, "Gas fixtures in this building manufactured by Thackera, Buck and Co." Bella C. Landauer Collection, New York Historical Society, vol. 8A.

148. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 19th-Century America—Furniture, item 226.

149. Sir William Robert Graves had demonstrated an incandescent electric light as early as 1840, and Sir Joseph Wilson Swan developed a carbon filament electric light bulb in 1860.

150. Chandler, Outline of History of Lighting, p. 194.

151. Financial News, March 21, 1887. Quoted in Chandler, Outline of History of Lighting, pp. 193-194.

152. Machinery Market, April 1, 1887. Quoted in Chandler, Outline of History of Lighting, p. 194.

153. The advertisement is reproduced in Chandler on p. 200. The statistics quoted are on p. 201. The chapters entitled "Evolution of the Incandescence System of Gas Lighting" and "Development of Incandescence Gas Burners" in Chandler, pp. 179-220, are singularly detailed and excellently illustrated.

154. The photograph of the Scott Studio is reproduced in David A. Hanks, "Isaac E. Scott, Craftsman and Designer," in Antiques (June 1974), p. 1312. Clay Lancaster, New York Interiors at the Turn of the Century (New York: Dover Publications, 1976), plate 108.

155. The passage continues: "Quite recently, such lamps have been used in connection with the compressed-gas system for the illumination of railroad cars, both here and abroad, and the mantles seem to be but little affected by the vibration and jarring of the cars." Gerhard, American Practice of Gas Piping, p. 124.

156. Chandler, Outline of History of Lighting, p. 229.

157. Portions of the catalogue are reproduced in Larry Freeman, New Light on Old Lamps (Watkins Glen, New York: Century House, 1968) pp. 164-174. Prices included artificial candles and bobeches, but glassware, i.e., shades, was extra. The art glass domes and "seed bead" fringe of two fixtures called "Colonial" were included in the prices. The lamps, or "gas portables," could be had with Argand or Welsbach burners at extra charge. Freeman's New Light also reproduces 100 turn-of-the-century shades of different fancy patterns on pages 176-179. The Phoenix Glass Company made 40 of the shades. This firm should not be confused with the earlier Phoenix Glass Works that failed on May 1, 1870.

158. See plate 110, below for a lighter of this type.

159. "Gas-Lighting by Electricity" in The American Gas-Light Journal (October 1, 1859).

160. Mario E. Campioli, "Building the Capitol," in Charles E. Peterson, ed., Building Early America, p. 227, fig. 12.28.

161. "Gas-Lighting by Electricity" in American Gas-Light Journal (October 1, 1859). Journal of the Franklin Institute, 3rd ser. (1860) 39:283, 385-389.

162. Journal of the Franklin Institute, 3rd ser. (1861) 12:349.

163. Lois B. McCauley, Maryland Historical Prints 1752 to 1889, A Selection from the Robert G. Merrick Collection Maryland Historical Society and other Maryland Collections (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1975), p. 112.

164. The title page of Morris, Tasker and Co.'s Illustrated Catalogue, reproduced in Diana S. Waite, Architectural Elements: The Technological Revolution (New York: Bonanza Books, n.d.), shows the counterweights and pulleys of a gasholder more clearly than the Hoen lithograph does. Robert M. Vogel, ed., A Report of the Mohawk-Hudson Area Survey (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973), p. 46, reproduces a Historic American Engineering Record drawing of the Troy Gas Light Company Gasholder House, a domed brick structure built in 1873.

165. Park Benjamin, ed., Appleton's Cyclopaedia of Applied Mechanics: A Dictionary of Mechanical Engineering and the Mechanical Arts (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1880), pp. 900-946. Appleton's very detailed technical article on gas and its manufacture notes that purification with lime was then (1880) almost entirely abandoned in favor of "washers" or "scrubbers."

166. On page 131 of a paper entitled "One of the First Meter Makers in the United States," written for the American Gas Association and published in a now unidentified source, H. C. Slaney, the author, says, "It was in Philadelphia that gas was first produced and exhibited by Michael Ambrosie & Co. at their amphitheatre on Arch Street, between 8th and 9th Sts., in the year 1796." Malcolm Watkins mentions a demonstration of gaslight by one Mr. Henfry in 1799 or 1800 in Baltimore. . . . (C. Malcolm Watkins, "Artificial Lighting in America: 1830-1860," in Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. . . . 1951 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1952), p. 393). David Melville of Newport, Rhode Island, first used gas for domestic lighting (in his own house) in 1806 (Watkins) or 1812 (Dean Hale, "Diary of an Industry"). Melville patented his gas machine either in 1810 (Loris S. Russell, A Heritage of Light: Lamps and Lighting in the Early Canadian Home (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1968), p. 290) or in March 1813 (Hale). In 1813 Melville installed gaslights in a Watertown, Massachusetts, cotton mill and in a mill near Providence, Rhode Island (Hale). On April 23, 1816, Rembrandt Peale demonstrated gas lighting at the Peale Museum in Baltimore, and on June 17, 1816, an ordinance was passed authorizing the Baltimore Gas-Light Company to lay pipes. The first public lamplighting occurred on February 7, 1817 (Hale). For Samuel Morey's use of water gas in 1817, see Alice Doan Hodgson, "History in Towns—Orford, New Hampshire," Antiques, October 1977, p. 712.

167. American Gas-Light Journal (January 1, 1862), pp. 198-199.

168. Ibid.

169. American Gas-Light Journal (June 15, 1863), pp. 370-373.

170. Ibid. See appendix for a chronology of early gaslight companies in America.

171. Slaney, "One of the First Meter Makers in America," p. 131.

172. Journal of the Franklin Institute, 3rd ser., no. 1 (January 1848), 15:337-339.

173. The American Gas-Light Journal (November 1, 1859), p. 92. Information on the U.S. Treasury building supplied by Donald J. Lehman, from the U.S. Treasury Voucher, 1852 Accounts.

174. Donald McDonald, Meters and Meter Makers: A Paper Prepared for the Fiftieth Anniversary Number of the American Gas Light Journal, July 19, 1911 (Albany, New York: C. F. Williams and Son, 1911), p. 22.

175. Report of the Commissioner of the Patent Office 1(1868).

176. A Philadelphia lamp post with eagle finial by Morris, Tasker and Company is among the illustrations on the cover of their catalogue, the second edition of which was issued in 1860. The cover and eight plates from the catalogue are illustrated in Diana S. Waite, Architectural Elements: The Technological Revolution (New York: Bonanza Books, n.d.).

177. Information concerning the reconstruction of the lamp in front of Ford's Theatre was supplied by Henry A. Judd, Chief Historical Architect, National Park Service.

178. A photograph dated ca. 1890 of the Dundas-Lippincott Mansion at the northeast corner of Broad and Walnut Streets in Philadelphia shows one of the new type of gas street lamps on that corner, but a short distance from Broad Street on the south side of Walnut Street, one of the old type of lantern-form street lamps is clearly visible. The view is illustrated in Robert F. Looney, Old Philadelphia in Early Photographs 1839-1914:215 Prints from the Collection of the Free Library of Philadelphia (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1976), p. 174, plate 168.

179. Henry-Russell Hitchcock and William Seale, Temples of Democracy: The State Capitols of the U.S.A. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976), p. 119.

180. Walter H. Kilham, Boston After Bulfinch, An Account of its Architecture, 1800-1900 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1946), p. 51, plate 17.

181. Allan Nevins, ed., The Diary of Philip Hone 1828-1851 (New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1936), p. 302.

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