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Cover Page



Presidential Statement

Author's Preface


Part I

Part II

Part III



Yellowstone National Park:
Its Exploration and Establishment

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A. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

1. Records of the Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories ("Hayden Survey"), Record Group 57. Letters Received 1867-79. Reproduced as National Archives Microfilm Publication M623.

Baird, Spencer, to F. V. Hayden. Oct. 29, Nov. 10, 1870; June 16, 1871 (M623, roll 2, frames 42, 47, 119).

Barlow, John W., to F. V. Hayden. June 3, June 17, Nov. 9, 1871; Jan. 13, Jan. 17, 1872 (M623, roll 2, frames 117-8, 129-30, 170-1, 293-4, 299-300).

Belknap, William H., to Commanding Officers of Posts on Route of the Geological Explorations by Professor Hayden. Mar. 25, 1871 (M623, roll 14, frame 319).

Crofutt, George A., to F. V. Hayden. Feb. 19, 1872 (M623, roll 2, frame 379).

Gildess, R. W., to F. V. Hayden. Sept. 11, 1871 (M623, roll 2, frames 143-4).

Hancock, Winfield S., to F. V. Hayden. May 26, 1871 (M623, roll 14, frames 375-6).

Hayden, F. V., to Lt. Gen. P. H. Sheridan. May 27, 1871 (M623, roll 14, frame 339); to Columbus Delano, June 8, July 18, Aug. 8, Aug. 28, Sept. 9, 1871 (not on microfilm).

Heap, David P., to F. V. Hayden. Nov. 7, 1871 (M623, roll 2, frame 167).

Hildegarth, J. E., to F. V. Hayden. Oct. 30, 1871 (M623, roll 2, frames 160-1).

Jackson, William H., to F. V. Hayden. Aug. 1, 1870 (not on microfilm).

Moran, Thomas, to F. V. Hayden. Mar. 11, 1872 (M623, roll 2, frames 468-70).

Nettleton, A. B., to F. V. Hayden. June 7, June 16, Oct. 27, 1871 (M623, roll 2, frames 120-2, 127-8, 155).

Stevenson, James, to Prof. J. D. Butler. Feb. 28, 1886 (not on microfilm).

2. Records of the U.S. Army Continental Commands, Record Group 393.

a. Letters Received, Fort Ellis, Mont.
Camp, E. M., to Gen. Alfred Sully. July 5, 1870.
Gibbon, John, to Maj. B. M. Baker. July 1, 1870.
Green, O. D., to Col. John Gibbon (telegram). Nov. 16, 1870.
Hancock, Winfield S., to Col. John Gibbon (telegram). Aug. 15, 1870.

b. Letters Received, District of Montana.
Gibbon, John, to Gen. H. D. Washburn (telegram). Aug. 15, 1870.

3. Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Interior, Record Group 48.

a. Letters Sent, Patents and Miscellaneous Division.
Delano, Columbus, to F. V. Hayden. May, 1871. (vol. 6.)

b. Letters Received, Lands and Railroads Division.
Dunnell, Mark H., to the Secretary of the Interior. Jan. 27, 1872.

4. Records of the U.S. House of Representatives, Record Group 233.

42d Congress, 2d session. Original House Bills. House Bill 764.
"Original Statutes of the United States, 1871-72, 2d session, 42d Congress," part I, ch. xxiv.

B. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Wilkinson, James, to Thomas Jefferson. Oct. 12, 1805. Papers of Thomas Jefferson.

C. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Accession files.

D. Yellowstone National Park

1. Park Archives.

Folsom, David E., to Capt. George L. Anderson. Apr. 28, 1894. Letters received.
Horr, H. R., to Superintendent D. W. Wear. July 6, 1885. Document 1049.
Documents 162-3.

2. Park Reference Library.

Cook, Charles W. "Remarks of C. W. Cook, Last Survivor of the Original Explorers of the Yellowstone Park Region, on the Occasion of His Second Visit to the Park in 53 years, During the Celebration of the Park's Golden Anniversary." Official transcript, July 14, 1922.
Gourley, James A. "A Reminiscence of James A. Gourley, Prospector of 1870." Recorded Mar. 28, 1929.
Joyner, Newell. "Notes Collected by Newell Joyner Concerning Various Explorers." Compiled circa 1930.
Langford, Nathaniel P. Text of a lecture given during the winter of 1870-71.
Original MS.
_____. Untitled text of a lecture on Montana Territory, to be presented in the interest of the Northern Pacific Railway, 1871. Original MS.
Orton, A. W. "Some Scattered Thoughts on the Early Life of N. P. Langford" September 1966.
Potts, Daniel T., to Robert Potts. July 8, 1827. Original MS.

3. Park Files.

Burlingame, Merrill G., to Librarian. Feb. 15, 1970.
Decker, A., to "Manager, Yellowstone Park." June 20, 1931.
Doubt, Dorothea G., to "The Secretary of the Museum." Sept. 7, 1933.
Press release. "Art and Artists in the National Parks." Dec. 22, 1936.

E. Montana Historical Society, Helena.

Doane, Gustavus C., to Gen. H . D. Washburn. Aug. 12, 1870. Hauser Papers.
Gillette, Warren C . "Diary . . . Aug. 7 to Sept. 27, 1870."
Healy, John. Papers.
Hedges, Cornelius. Diary, Oct. 20 to 29, 1865.
_____. "Diary . . . June 24, 1870 to Oct. 16, 1871."
_____. Papers.
Simmons, A. J., to S. T. Hauser. Nov. 2, 1868. Hauser Papers.

F. Montana State University Library, Bozeman.

Doane, Gustavus C. "Official Report of the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition into the Upper Yellowstone in 1870." Original MS, Dec. 15, 1870.

G. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.

1. Northern Pacific Railroad Papers. Secretary, Series 2, Correspondence unregistered.
Canfield, Thomas H., to "Dear Governor" [Smith]. Oct. 25, 1869. Box 2.
Cooke, Jay & Co. Circular of Oct. 20, 1869. Box 2.
Everts, Truman C., to J. Gregory Smith. Jan. 13, 1872. Box 4.
Sexton, Jno. W., to Ja. G. Dudley (telegram). Nov. 14, 1871. Box 3.
Spaulding, G. S., to William R. Marshall, May 30, 1870, and to J. Gregory Smith, May 30, 1870. Box 2.
Wilkeson, Samuel to "Dear Governor" [Smith]. n.d. (filed as Mar. 19, 1870); Mar. 27, Apr. 20, 1870. Box 2.
Woodbridge, F. E., to J. Gregory Smith. July 8, 1870. Box 3.

2. _____. Letter Book of the President, vol. 1.
Lamb, Henry L., to J. Gregory Smith. Feb. 14, 1871. p. 156.
3. Langford Family Papers, 1702-1942.
Langford, Nathaniel P. Diary, 1869-71. Box 1, vol. 2.

H. Pennsylvania Historical Society, Philadelphia. Jay Cooke Papers.

Cooke, Henry D., to Jay Cooke. June 2, 1870.
Cooke, Jay, to Frederick Billings. Oct. 2, 1871.
_____. to William R. Marshall, Jan. 19, Feb. 7, 1870.
_____. to W. Milner Roberts. Oct. 30, 1871.
Langford, Nathaniel P., to Jay Cooke. Jan. 24, Jan. 29, Mar. 4, Mar. 16, 1871.
Roberts, W. Milner, to Jay Cooke (telegram). Nov. 21, 1871.
Wilkeson, Samuel, to Jay Cooke. Oct. 10, 1870.

I. Church Historian's Office, Salt Lake City.

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. "Journal History."

J. Beinecke Library, Yale University, New Haven. Coe Collection.

Hauser, Samuel T. "Diary . . . Aug. 17 to Sept. 4, 1870." MS No. 249.
Henderson, A. B. "Journal of the Yellowstone Expedition of 1866 Under Captain Jeff Standifer . . . Also the Diaries Kept by Henderson During his Prospecting Journeys in the Snake, Wind River and Yellowstone Country During the years 1866-72." MS No. 452.
Russell, Osborne. "Journal of a Trapper or Nine Years Residence among the Rocky Mountains Between the Years of 1834 and 1843. . ." MS No. 411.

K. Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa.

Thomas Moran Papers.

L. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino. P. W. Norris Collection (HM 506).

Norris, Philetus W. "The Great West . . . Letter No. 4, Hell Gate, Montana Ty., Aug. 16th, 1870." Clipped from the Norris, Mich., Suburban, n.d. Scrapbook No. 1.
_____. Scrapbook No. 3.
_____. "Meanderings of a Mountaineer, or, The Journals and Musings (or storys) of a Rambler over Prairie (or Mountain) and Plain." MS prepared about 1885 from newspaper clippings of Norris' adventures, 1870-75.

M. Other.

Taylor, Chloe, to her daughter. May 3, 1871. Original in possession of James Taylor Dunn, former Librarian, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.


Barlow, John W., and David P. Heap. "Sketch of the Yellowstone Lake and the Valley of the Upper Yellowstone River." Drawn by Emil Heubach, Feb. 28, 1872. Head quarters map file, Q 181, records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, Record Group 77, National Archives.

Blaine, John E. "Map of the Territory of Montana to Accompany the Report of the Surveyor General . . . 1871." Old map file, Mont. 5, Records of the Bureau of Land Management, Record Group 49, National Archives.

Clark, William. "A Map of Part of the Continent of North America . . . Compiled from the information of the best informed travellers through that quarter of the Globe . . ." MS no. 303-IV, Coe Collection, Beinecke Library, Yale University.

deLacy, Walter W. "Map of the Territory of Montana with Portions of the Adjoining Territories, Showing the Gulch or Placer diggings actually worked and districts where Quartz (Gold & Silver) Lodes have been discovered up to January 1865." Montana State Historical Society, Helena.

_____. Map of the Territory of Montana with Portions of the Adjoining Territories . . . St. Louis: Hutawa; New York: Rae; and Baltimore: Fridenwald, 1865.

_____. "Map of the Territory of Montana with Portions of the Adjoining Territories . . . 1866." Montana State Historical Society, Helena.

_____. Map of the Territory of Montana, with Portions of the Adjoining Territories. New York: G. W. & C. B. Colton, 1870.

DeSmet, Pierre-Jean. "Chart of the Head of Yellow Stone." Drawn by James Bridger. Jesuit Archives, Missouri Province. IX: Desmetiana. C-B: Atlas, No. 10. St. Louis University.

_____. [Untitled map 1. Jesuit Archives, Missouri Province. IX: DeSmetiana. C-B: Atlas, No. 5, St. Louis University.

Doane, Gustavus C. "Map of the Route of the Yellowstone Expedition, Escort Commanded by Lieut. G. C. Doane, U.S.A., September 1870." Headquarters map file, Q 329-30, Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, Record Group 77, National Archives.

Hayden, Ferdinand V. "Yellowstone National Park." Compiled and drawn by E. Hergesheimer, 1871. Records of the Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, Record Group 57, National Archives.

Hood, Washington. "Map exhibiting the practicable passes of the Rocky Mountains; together with the Topographical features of the country adjacent to the headwaters of the Missouri, Yellowstone, Salmon, Lewis and Colorado Rivers . . . 1839." Head quarters map file, U.S. 110, Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, Record Group 77, National Archives.

Raynolds, William F. "U.S. War Department Map of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers and their Tributaries explored by Capt. W. F. Raynolds TopI. Engrs. and 1st Lt. H. E. Maynardier 10th Infy, Assistant, 1859-60, to accompany a report to the Bureau of Topographical Engineers, Lt. Col. Bache in Charge." Headquarters map file, Q 106-1, Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, Record Group 77, National Archives.

Surveyor General of Montana. "Map of the Territory of Montana to Accompany the Report of the Surveyor General . . . 1869." Old map file, Mont. 2, Records of the Bureau of Land Management, Record Group 49, National Archives.

Washburn, Henry D. "Route of Washburn's party 1870, being a tracing of map made to accompany Washburn's report to Dept. of Interior." Park Reference Library, Yellowstone National Park.


Allen, E. T., and Arthur L. Day. Hot Springs of the Yellowstone National Park. Carnegie Institution Pub. No. 466. Washington, 1935.

Barlow, John W., and David P. Heap. Report of a Reconnaissance of the Basin of the Upper Yellowstone in 1871. Senate Executive Documents, 42d Cong., 2d Sess., No. 66 (1872).

Carter, Clarence E., ed. The Territorial Papers of the United States 13. Washington 1948.

Congressional Globe. 42d Cong., 2d Sess., 1871-72.

Congressional Record. 47th Cong., 2d Sess., 1882-83.

Cramton, Louis C. Early History of Yellowstone National Park and Its Relation to National Park Policies. Washington, 1932.

Doane, Gustavus C. Report of Lieutenant Gustavus C. Doane upon the So-called Yellowstone Expedition of 1870. Senate Executive Documents, 41st Cong., 3d Sess., No. 51(1871).

Hayden, Ferdinand V. Preliminary Report of the United States Geological Survey of Montana and Portions of Adjoining Territories, Being o Fifth Annual Report of Progress. Washington, 1872.

_____. Sixth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories . . . for the Year 1872. Washington, 1873.

_____. Twelfth Annual Report of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories . . .for the Year 1878. Washington, 1883.

Jones, William A. Report upon the Reconnaissance of Northwestern Wyoming, including Yellowstone National Park, Made in the Summer of 1873. Washington, 1875.

Mullan, John. Report on the Construction of a Military Road from Walla Walla to Fort Benton. Washington, 1863.

Norris, Philetus W. Report upon the Yellowstone National Park to the Secretary of the Interior for the Year 1878. Washington, 1879.

_____. Annual Report of the Superintendent of the Yellowstone National Park, to the Secretary of the Interior, for the Year 1880. Washington, 1881.

_____. Fifth Annual Report of the Superintendent of the Yellowstone National Park [1881]. Washington, 1881.

Raymond, Rossiter W. Mineral Resources of the Stales and Territories. Washington, 1869.

Raynolds, William F. The Report of Brevet Brigadier General W. F. Raynolds on the Exploration of the Yellowstone and the Country Drained by That River. Senate Executive Documents, 40th Cong., 1st Sess., No. 77 (1868).

United States. Statutes at Large. 13 Stat. 325 (Act of June 30, 1864).

United States Congress. House of Representatives. Reports of Committees, 42d Cong., 2d Sess., No. 26 (1872).

_____. House Executive Documents, 45th Cong., 2d Sess., No. 75 (1878).


Anonymous, by newspaper.

Avant Courier (Bozeman, Mont.)

"The Yellowstone Country." Sept. 13, 1871.
"Montana News." Sept. 13, 1871.
"Hon. N. P. Langford Nov. 9, 1871.
"The Cataracts and Geysers of the Upper Yellowstone-Why They Should be Given in Perpetuity to Montana." Dec. 7, 1871.
[Item from St. Joe Herald Mo.]. Jan. 18, 1872.
"Harry B. Horr & James C. McCartney Feb. 1, 1872.
"Bound for the Mammoth Hot Springs." Feb. 29, 1872.
"Our National Park." Mar. 7, 1872.
"Harry Horr's Hot Spring Claim." Jan. 11, 1883.

Daily Morning Chronicle (Washington, D.C.)

"Yellowstone River." Jan. 20, 1871.
"A National Park for Washington." Jun. 20, 1871.

Daily Oregonian (Portland, Oreg.)

"The Great Falls of the Yellowstone." Sept. 29, 1870.

Daily Territorial Enterprise (Virginia City, Nov.)

"The Hon. N. P. Langford..." Jan. 1, 1872.

Deseret Evening News (Salt Lake City, Utah)

"Exploring Expedition." Sept. 27, 1870.

Evening Star (Washington, D.C.)

[Senator Pomeroy's bill—S. 392]. Dec. 18, 1871.
"Mr. Pomeroy Called up the bill Jan. 30, 1871.
"The following Senate bills..." Feb. 27, 1872.

Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper

"The New Wonderland." Jan. 6, 1872.

Frontier Index (Fort Sanders, D. T.)

"The Greatest Bear Story Yet." Mar. 6, 1868.

Frontier Index (Green River, D. T.)

"The Great Shoshone Falls of Snake River." Aug. 21, 1868.

Frontier Index (Julesburg, Nebr.)

"Remarkable Discovery." July 26, 1867.

Frontier Index (Laramie, D. T.)

"California." May 5, 1868.
"Brevities Communicated from the Sanotum of the American Libertarian." June 16, 1868.

Helena Daily Herald (Montana)

"Truman C. Everts." Apr. 20, 1870.
"The Yellowstone Expedition." Aug. 13, 1870.
"Departure of the Expedition." Aug. 18, 1870.
"The Yellowstone Expedition." Aug. 24, 1870.
"The Yellowstone Expedition." Sept. 26, 1870.
"Interesting Data of the Trip, from Notes Furnished by Hon. N. P. Langford." Sept. 26, 1870.
"The Yellowstone Expedition." Sept. 27, 1870.
"Arrival of Warren C. Gillette, of the Yellowstone Expedition." Oct. 3, 1870.
"The Lost Man—$600 Reward Offered." Oct. 6, 1870.
"The Long-Lost Found." Oct. 21, 1870.
"More about Mr. Everts." Oct. 22, 1870.
"The Finding of Hon. T. C. Everts." Oct. 26, 1870.
"The Lost and Found." Oct. 28, 1870.
"Letter from Mr. Everts." Oct. 28, 1870.
"Lectures—Hon. N. P. Langford." Nov. 11, 1870.
"Our Washington Letter." Nov. 14, 1870.
"The Yellowstone Banquet." Nov. 14, 1870.
"A Grand Lecture." Nov. 17, 1870.
"Virginia City Correspondence." Nov. 26, 1870.
"N. P. Langford of Montana." Jan. 26, 1871.
"Around Montana." July 10, 1871.
"Exploration of the Yellowstone." Sept. 23, 1871.
"A National Park." Jan. 31, 1872.
"The National Park—Memorial to Congress." Feb. 3, 1872.
"Our National Park." Feb. 28, 1872.
"Our National Park." Mar. 1, 1872.

Helena Weekly Herald (Montana)

"Interesting from the Yellowstone." Apr. 11, 1867.
"The Headwaters of the Yellowstone." Dec. 12, 1867.
"Good Story." Dec. 26, 1867.
"Expedition to the Yellowstone." July 29, 1869.

Idaho Democrat (Boise City)

"Wonders of America." July 8, 1871.

Livingston Enterprise (Montana)

"The Name Yellowstone." Oct. 23, 1883.

Montana Post (Virginia City)

"The Scenery of the Yosemite..." July 14, 1866.
"Organized." June 29, 1867.
"From Emigrant Gulch." Aug. 17, 1867.
"The Upper Yellowstone." Aug. 24, 1867.
"The Upper Yellowstone." Aug. 31, 1867.

New North-West (Deer Lodge, Mont.)

"Yellowstone Party Heard From." Sept. 23, 1870.
"Mr. T. C. Everts Sept. 30, 1870.
"The Yellowstone Wonders." Oct. 21, 1870.
"Hon. Win. H. Clagett, Delegate..." Sept. 9, 1871.
"Notes on the Way to Wonderland." Oct. 14, 1871.
"Ohio Papers State..." Oct. 14, 1871.
"Geyser Land." Dec. 23, 1871.
"The Park Again." Mar. 9, 1872.
"The Splendors of the West." Mar. 16, 1872.

New York Herald

"Wonders of Montana." Jan. 22, 1871.

New York Times

"The Yellowstone Expedition." Oct. 14, 1870.
"Travels in Montana." Jan. 22, 1871.
"The Yellowstone Expedition." Sept. 18, 1871.
"The New Wonderland." Oct. 23, 1871.
"The Yellowstone Park Bill." Feb. 29, 1872.

New York Tribune

"Wonders of Montana." Jan. 23, 1871.

Niles Register (Philadelphia, Pa.)

"From the West." Oct. 6, 1827.

Philadelphia Gazette and Daily Advertizer (Pennsylvania)

"Communicated for the..." Sept. 27, 1827.

Pioneer Press (St. Paul, Minn.)

"Inauguration of the Northern Pacific Railroad." Feb. 16, 1870.
"Montana Geysers." Oct. 9, 1870.
"The Yellowstone Expedition." Oct. 14, 1870.

Press (Philadelphia, Pa.)

"The Northern Pacific Railway." Mar. 19, 1870.

Rocky Mountain Daily Gazette (Helena, Mont.)

"Return of the . . . Party." Sept. 24, 1870.
"The Mineral Springs of the Yellowstone-Wonderful Health Restoring Qualities." July 24, 1871.

Rocky Mountain News (Denver, Colo.)

"A Montana Romance." Oct. 8, 1870.

Rocky Mountain Weekly Gazette (Helena, Mont.)

"The National Park." Feb. 19, 1872.

St. Louis Review (Missouri)

"Former St. Charles Priest Helped Found Yellowstone." June 21, 1963.

San Francisco Chronicle

"Yosemite and the Big Trees." Feb. 29, 1872.

Virginia City Tri-Weekly Post (Montana)

"Niagara Eclipsed." Feb. 4, 1868.

Wasp (Nauvoo, Ill.)

"Rocky Mountain Geysers." Aug. 13, 1842.

Weekly Independent (Helena, Mont.)

"Visit to the Yellowstone Geysers 41 Years Ago." May 1, 1874.


Barlow, John W. "Natural Wonders." Chicago Evening Journal, Jan. 13, 1872.

Clawson, C. C. "Notes on the Way to Wonderland, or, a Ride to the Infernal Regions." New North-West (Deer Lodge, Mont.), Sept. 9, 1871, to Feb. 24, 1872.

Davis, John C. "Yellowstone Park." Courier-Journal (Louisville, Ky.), Apr. 13, 1884.

Elliott, Henry. "Great Soda Mountain and Jupiter's Baths, in the Yellowstone Region." Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, Sept. 31, 1871.

Fisher, James. "The Idea of a Wilderness." Listener (London), Apr. 26, 1962.

Hedges, Cornelius. "Mount Everts." Helena Daily Herald (Mont.), Oct. 8, 1870.

_____. "The Great Falls of the Yellowstone, A Graphic Picture of Their Grandeur and Beauty." Helena Daily Herald, Oct. 15, 1870.

_____. "Hell-Broth Springs." Helena Daily Herald, Oct. 19, 1870.

_____. "From Montana." Springfield Weekly Republican (Mass.), Oct. 21, 1870.

_____. "Pictures of the Yellowstone Country-Sulphur Mountain and Mud Volcano." Helena Daily Herald, Oct. 27, 1870.

_____. "Yellowstone Lake." Helena Daily Herald, Nov. 9, 1870.

_____. "Yellowstone Lake," Independence Conservative (Iowa), Dec. 7, 1870.

Sunderlee, Charles R. "A Thrilling Event on the Yellowstone." Helena Daily Herald, May 18, 1870.

Trumbull, Walter. "Yellowstone Expedition." Rocky Mountain Weekly Gazette (Helena, Mont.), Oct. 3, 1870.

_____. "Yellowstone Papers-No. 1." Rocky Mountain Daily Gazette (Helena, Mont.), Oct. 18, 1870.

_____. "Yellowstone Papers-No. 2." Rocky Mountain Daily Gazette, Oct. 19, 1870.

_____. "Yellowstone Papers." Rocky Mountain Weekly Gazette, Oct . 24, 31, 1870.


American Forests 41 (Sept. 1935): 416-539 [Conservation series].

Cook, Charles W. "The Valley of the Upper Yellowstone." Western Monthly 4 (July 1870): 60-7.

_____. "Preliminary Statement to the Cook-Folsom Diary." Haynes Bulletin (December 1922): 7-8.

_____. "Reconstructed Diary of the Cook-Folsom Expedition in 1869 to the Yellowstone Region." Haynes Bulletin (January, February, May 1923): 1 & 9, 8, 7.

Cooper, Suzanne T. "Summertime Revisited." American Heritage 14 (June 1963): 35-49.

deLacy, Walter W. "A Trip up the South Snake River in 1863." Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana 1 (1876): 113-43.

Everts, Truman C. "Thirty-seven Days of Peril." Scribner's Monthly 3 (November 1871): 1-17.

_____. "Thirty-seven Days of Peril." Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana 5 (1904): 395-427.

Ferris, Warren Angus. "Rocky Mountain Geysers." Western Literary Messenger 2 (July 13, 1842): 12-3.

_____. "Life in the Rocky Mountains." Western Literary Messenger 3 (Jan. 6, 1844): 196.

Folsom, David E. "The Folsom-Cook Exploration of the Upper Yellowstone in the Year 1869." Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana 5 (1904): 349-94.

Haines, Aubrey L. "The Bridge That Jack Built." Yellowstone Nature Notes 21 (January-February 1947): 1-4.

_____. "McGuirk's Medicinal Springs." Yellowstone Nature Notes 21 (March-April 1947): 22-3.

_____, ed. "William Peterson's Reminiscences." The Yellowstone Interpreter 2 (September-October 1964): 55-61.

Hayden, Ferdinand V. "The Yellowstone National Park." The American Journal of Science and Arts 3 (April 1872): 294-7.

_____. "Wonders of the West-II; More About the Yellowstone." Scribner's Monthly 3 (February 1872): 388-96.

Hedges, Cornelius. "An Account of a Trip to Fort Benton in October 1865, with Acting Governor Thomas F. Meagher to Treat with the Blackfeet Indians." Rocky Mountain Magazine 1 (November 1900): 155-8.

_____. "Journal of Judge Cornelius Hedges." Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana 5 (1904): 370-94.

Huth, Hans. "Yosemite: the Story of an Idea." Sienna Club Bulletin 33 (March 1948): 47-78.

Jashemski, Wilhelmina. "Pompeii." Natural History 73 (December 1964): 30-41.

Kuppens, Francis Xavier. "The Origin of the Yellowstone National Park." The Wood stock Letters 26 (1897): 400-2.

_____. "Thomas Francis Meagher, Montana Pioneer." Mid-America, An Historical Review 14 (October 1931): 127-40.

_____. "On the Origin of the Yellowstone National Park." The Jesuit Bulletin 41 (October 1962): 6-7, 14.

Langford, Nathaniel P. "Wonders of the Yellowstone." Scribner's Monthly 2 (May-June 1871): 113-28.

Matthews, Albert. "The Word Park in the United States." Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts 8 (April 1904): 373-99.

Mueller, Oscar O. "Yellowstone Map Drawn in 1870 Shows Cook & Folsom Route of 1869." Haynes Bulletin (March 1924): 2-3.

Munson, Lyman E. "Pioneer Life in Montana." Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana 5 (1904): 200-34.

Nash, Roderick. "The American Wilderness in Historical Perspective." Forest History 6 (winter 1963): 2-13.

"Notes." The Nation 14 (Mar. 7, 1872): 153.

[Potts, Daniel T.]. "Early Yellowstone and Western Experiences." Yellowstone Nature Notes 21 (September-October 1947): 49-56.

Trumbull, Walter. "The Washburn Yellowstone Expedition." Overland Monthly 6 (May-June 1871): 431-7, 489-96.

Thoreau, Henry David. "Chesuncook." The Atlantic Monthly 2 (August 1858): 305-17.

Wheeler, Olin D. "The Late James Gemmell." Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana 2 (1896): 331-6.

_____. "James W. Taylor: A Biographical Sketch." Minnesota Historical Bulletin 1 (Nov. 4, 1915).


Alter, J. Cecil. James Bridger, Trapper, Frontiersman, Scout and Guide. Columbus, Ohio, 1951.

Black, Walter J. The Best of Ralph Waldo Emerson. New York, 1941.

Camp, Charles L., ed. James Clyman, American Frontiersman, 1792-1881. San Francisco, 1928.

Carruth, Gordon, ed. Encyclopedia of American Facts and Dates. 2d ed. New York, 1959.

Catlin, George. Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Conditions of the North American Indians 1. New York, 1842.

Chittenden, Hiram M. The American Fur Trade of the Far West 3. New York, 1902.

_____. The Yellowstone National Park. Cincinnati, 1895.

_____. The Yellowstone National Park. Ed. by Richard Bartlett. Norman, Okla., 1964.

Chittenden, Hiram M., and Alfred T. Richards, eds. Life, Letters and Travels of Father Pierre-Jean DeSmet, S. J., 1801-1873.

Clark, Ella E. Indian Legends from the Northern Rockies. Norman, Okla., 1966.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. "Nature" (1844). In Harvard Classics 5. New York, 1910.

Everts, Truman C. Thirty-seven Days of Peril; A Narrative of the Early Days of the Yellowstone. San Francisco, 1923.

Ferris, Warren Angus. Life in the Rocky Mountains, 1830-1835. Ed. by Auerback & Alter. Salt Lake City, 1940.

_____. Life in the Rocky Mountains, 1830-1835. Ed. by P. C. Phillips. Denver, 1940.

Gerrish, Theodore. Life in the World's Wonderland. Biddeford, Maine, 1887.

Goetzmann, William H. Exploration and Empire. New York, 1966.

Gunnison, J. W. The Mormons, or, Latter-Day Saints. Philadelphia, 1852.

Haines, Aubrey L., ed. The Valley of the Upper Yellowstone. Norman, Okla., 1965.

Hafen, LeRoy R. Broken Hand: The Life Story of Thomas Fitzpatrick, Chief of the Mountain Men. Denver, 1931.

_____, ed. The Mountain Men and The Fur Trade of the Fan West 2. Glendale, Calif., 1965. Hamilton, William T. My Sixty Years on the Plains. Columbus, Ohio, 1951.

Hampton, H. Duane. How the U.S. Cavalry Saved Our National Parks. Bloomington and London, 1971.

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Bear, James A., to Julian Boyd. Oct. 29, 1970. Copy to Aubrey Haines. Boyd, Julian, to Dr. Oliver W. Holmes. Oct. 27, 1970. Copy to Aubrey Haines.

Hampton, Harold Duane. "Conservation and Cavalry: A Study of the Role of the United States Army in the Development of a National Park System, 1886-1917." Ph. D. dissertation, University of Colorado, 1965.

Schoenberg, Fr. Wilfred P., to Aubrey Haines. Aug. 13, 1970.


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