Grand Teton
Historic Resource Study
NPS Logo


1. National Archives, Record Group 49, "Records of the Bureau of Land Management," Homestead Patents, Patent 708783, Norman Smith, 1918. The Norm Smith family's experience was fairly representative of the homesteaders' frontier; the Smith homestead was located near the northwest corner of Blacktail Butte.

2. Jackson Hole Guide, October 12, 1972; and Home stead Patent 708783, N. Smith, 1918.

3. Jackson's Hole Courier, May 7, 1914; and Patent 708783, N. Smith, 1918.

4. Rockefeller Archive Center, Harold P. Fabian Papers, 1V3A7, Box 23, File 252, Norman Smith Tract.

5. Billington, Westward Expansion, p. 613.

6. A few sources date the arrival of Holland and Carnes as early as 1883.

7. Hayden, From Trapper to Tourist in Jackson Hole, pp. 37-38; Jackson's Hole Courier, January 28, 1909, reprinted in Jackson's Hole Courier, January 29, 1948; Agnes Spring Wright, "Early Settlement in Jackson Hole," File W994jk, n.d.; University of Wyoming Archives, American Heritage Center; and Jackson's Hole Courier, July 14, 1932.

8. Jackson's Hole Courier, April 19, 1934; Hayden, Trapper to Tourist, p. 38; "An Investigation of Proposed Enlargement of the Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks: Hearing on S. Res. 226," 73rd Congress, 1934, pp. 266-268; and Homestead Patent HC 1181, Evanston, J. Pierce Cunningham, 1904.

9. Jackson's Hole Courier, November 8, 1928, and January 5, 1950; and Jackson Hole Guide, December 9, 1965.

10. Nellie Van Derveer, "An Old Time Christmas in Jackson Hole," WPA Subject File 1321, State of Wyoming, Archives, Museums, and Historical Department. I am not comfortable with the accuracy of this report, but the descriptions of homesteads and locations seem generally consistent with other available sources. The Cherry cabin is still standing on the north end of East Gros Ventre Butte, adjacent to the park.

11. Uncle Nick Wilson recorded his life on the frontier in E.N. Wilson, with Howard R. Driggs, The White Indian Boy: The Story of Uncle Nick Among the Shoshones, rev. ed. (Yonkers-on-Hudson, NY: World Book Co., 1919).

12. Hayden, Trapper to Tourist, 38; Saylor, Jackson Hole, p. 118; and Jackson's Hole Courier, April 12, 1945.

13. Saylor, Jackson Hole, p. 118.

14. Margaret Cunningham may have arrived in the valley around 1890, but there is no convincing evidence to place her here. Many local sources list Mrs. Martin (Elizabeth) Nelson as the first woman to reside in Jackson Hole. Others list her as the first "white" woman, a backhanded acknowledgement to Millie Sorelle Carnes, the Shoshone wife of John Carnes, who was the valley's first female resident.

15. Jeff C. Dyke, The West of the Texas Kid, 1881-1910: The Recollections of Thomas E. Crawford (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1962).

16. Jackson's Hole Courier, December 8, 1932, January 5, 1950, and December 30, 1954; and Census of the United States, 1900, Jackson Precinct.

17. William O. Owen, T41N, R116W, 6th PM., October 6-16, 1892, and T42N, R116W, 6th PM., June 1-5, 1893, Jackson Hole Platbook, Harold and Josephine Fabian Collection, Grand Teton National Park.

18. Ibid.

19. Homestead Patents: HC 1245, Evanston, M. Kiskadden-H. Glidden, 1906; HC 315, Lander, J. Cherry, 1901; DLE 187, Lander, H. Glidden, 1901; and HC 1113, Lander, N. Nickell, 1905.

20. Homestead Patents: HC 334, Lander, J. May, 1901; HC 1006, Evanston, J. Budge, 1904; HC 532, Lander, J. Henrie, 1904; HC 1049, Evanston, A. Nelson, 1904; HC 469, Lander, N. Hoagland, 1903; HC 528, Lander, T. Hanshaw, 1904; HC 526, Lander, W. Kissenger, 1904; HC 529, Lander, E Lovejoy, 1904; HC 1055, Evanston, F. Sebastian, 1905; and HC 1036, Evanston, F. McBride, 1905.

21. Jackson's Hole Courier, July 13, 1950; Jackson Hole Guide, May 2, 1974 and November 27, 1969; and Maggie McBride, "My Diary," 1896, Jackson Hole Historical Society and Museum Files; also printed in Jackson's Hole Courier, July 27, 1950.

22. McBride, "My Diary."

23. Homestead Patents: HC 334, Lander, J. May, 1901; HC 1006, Evanston, J. Budge, 1904; DLE 152, Lander, J. May, 1901; and DLE 752, Evanston, J. Budge, 1904. Desert land entries required a fee of $1.25 per acre, in addition to irrigation of the land.

24. Jackson Hole Guide, March 21, 1957; Homestead Patents, Evanston, A. Nelson, 1904; and Census of the United States, 1900, Jackson Precinct.

25. Dyke, Recollections, p. 51; and U.S. Geological Survey, "Grand Teton Quadrangle," 1901.

26. Homestead Patents: HC 1175, Evanston, J. Miller, 1905; HC 1170, Evanston, R. Pemble, 1905; and DLE 232, Lander, E. Edwards, 1903.

27. Homestead Patent HC 503, Lander, W. D. Menor, 1904. According to local tradition, Menor came to Jackson Hole in 1892 or 1893. Menor's own testimony in his final proof papers is the most reliable source. See also Frances Judge, "Mountain River Men," Campfire Tales of Jackson Hole, pp. 52-58.

28. Homestead Patents HC 1181, Evanston, J. P Cunningham, 1904, and 36433, J. P Cunningham, 1908; and "Hearings on S. Res. 226," 1933, p. 267.

29. Homestead Patents: NC 1168, Evanston, W. F. Cunningham, 1904; HC 1020, Evanston, E. Wolff, 1904; 30855, J. Uhl, 1904; and 252376, E. Wolff, 1911.

30. Homestead Patent NC 1025, Evanston, N. Gregory, 1904.

31. Homestead Patent NC 373, Lander, J. Conrad, 1902.

32. Homestead Patents: NC 473, Lander, F. Lovell, 1903; and NC 173, Lander, C. J. Allen, 1901; and Lenore Diem, The Research Station's Place in History (Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming Research Center, 1978); pp. 4-5.

33. Homestead Patent NC 1024, Evanston, Sargent, 1905; Robert B. Betts, Along the Ramparts of the Tetons: The Saga of Jackson Hole, Wyoming (Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press, 1978), pp. 150-154; and Struthers Burt, The Diary of a Dude Wranger (New York: Charles Scriber's Sons, 1924), pp. 266-277.

34. USGS, "Grand Teton Quadrangle," 1901; Census of the United States, 1900, Jackson Precinct; and Elliot H. Paul, Desperate Scenery (New York: Random House, 1954), pp. 171-174.

35. Hayden, Trapper to Tourist, p. 54.

36. Jackson Hole News, April 12, 1973.

37. "Alphabetical List of Jackson Hole Post Offices," K. C. Allan Collection, 736, University of Wyoming Archives, 3 pages; and Mae Tuttle to Mrs. Cora Barber, September 5, 1951, Jackson Hole Historical Society and Museum Files, also reprinted in Jackson Hole Guide, December 5, 1974.

38. Jackson Hole Guide, December 2, 1965.

39. Roland W. Brown Jr., ed., A Souvenir History of Jackson Hole (Salt Lake City, 1924), pp. 33-35; and Hayden, Trapper to Tourist, pp. 38-39.

40. Jackson's Hole Courier, February 19, 1931.

<<< Previous <<< Contents >>> Next >>>

Last Updated: 24-Jul-2004