Grand Teton
Historic Resource Study
NPS Logo


1. The Lawrence Collection is currently housed in the Jackson Hole Museum and Teton County Historical Society in Jackson, Wyoming.

2. Gary Wright, Susan Bender and Stuart Reeve, "High Country Adaptations," Plains Anthropologist, Vol. 25, No. 89, p. 181.

3. Ibid., pp. 181-198.

4. Stuart Reeve, "Lizard Creek Sites (48TE700 and 48TE701): The Prehistoric Root Gathering Economy of Northern Grand Teton National Park, Northwest Wyoming" (Lincoln NE: National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center 1983).

5. Ibid., 7:122.

6. Gary A. Wright, "The Shoshonean Migration Problem," Plains Anthropologist, Vol. 23, 1978, pp. 117-120.

7. Ibid., p. 6.

8. Gary A. Wright, People of the High Country: Jackson Hole Before the Settlers (New York: Peter Lang, 1984).

9. Within the boundaries of the National Elk Refuge in Jackson, Wyoming, lies the Goetz site. Although never extensively excavated, this site reveals bison bone in association with prehistoric tools, suggesting that it is a butchering or kill site. The radiocarbon date from this site suggests that the site is 1,480 years old. Older style points are reported to have come from this site as well. Although this site has not been properly recorded and tested to today's archeological standards, it does demonstrate that bison was present in the prehistoric diet of Jackson Hole residents. See Charles Love, "An Archaeological Survey of Jackson Hole Region, Wyoming," M.A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, 1972.

10. Christy G. Turner II, "New World Origins," Ice Age Hunters of the Rockies, ed., Dennis Stanford and Jane S. Day (Denver, CO: Museum of Natural History Press, 1992), p. 8.

11. Cathy W. Barnowsky, "Late-Quaternary Vegetational and Climatic History of Grand Teton National Park and Vicinity," Jackson Lake Archeological Project: The 1987 and 1988 Field Work, Melissa A. Connor, et al. (Lincoln, NE: United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center, 1991), p. 26.

12. George Frison, Prehistoric Hunters of the High Plains, 2nd edition (New York: Academic Press, 1991), pp. 211-212.

13. Ibid.

14. Charles M. Love, "An Archeological Survey of the Jackson Hole Region," p. 96.

15. Connor, et al., Jackson Lake Archeological Project.

16. Melissa A. Connor and Raymond Kunselman, "Mobility, Settlement Patterns, and Obsidian Source Variation in Jackson Hole, Wyoming," unpublished paper presented at the Second Biennial Rocky Mountain Anthropological Conference, Steamboat Springs, Colorado, September 27-30, 1995).

17. George C. Frison, "The Foothills-Mountains and the Open Plains: The Dichotomy in Paleoindian Subsistence Strategies Between Two Ecosystems, Ice Age Hunters of the Rockies, ed., Dennis J. Stanford and Jane S. Day (Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1992), p. 323.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid., p. 4.

20. Ibid., p. 70

21. Brian M. Fagan, World Prehistory: A Brief Introduction (Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1979).

22. Hiram Martin Chittenden, The Yellowstone National Park Historical and Descriptive, 5th edition (Cincinnati, OH: Robert Clarke, 1905), p. 387.

23. Stuart Reeve, "Lizard Creek Sites (48TE700 and 48TE701): The Prehistoric Root Gathering Economy of Northern Grand Teton National Park, Northwest Wyoming" (Lincoln, NE: National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center 1983).

24. D.B. Shimkin, "Wind River Shoshone Ethnogeography," Anthropological Records, Vol. 5, No. 4.

25. Ibid., p. 8.

26. James R. Schoen, "High Altitude Site Locations in the Bridget Gros Ventre and Teton Wilderness," paper presented at the Third Biennial Rocky Mountain Anthropological Conference, Bozeman, Montana, September 18-21, 1997.

27. Ibid., p.4.

28. Ibid., p. 5.

29. Ibid.

30. Ibid., p. 24.

31. A term applied to smooth-bored, flintlock guns traded to American Indians primarily by the Hudson's Bay Company. They were usually shortened for ease of handling on horseback. The word is probably a corruption of the French fusil, which itself probably comes from the Italian fucile, a flint. These guns were vastly inferior to the rifled guns of the trappers in range and accuracy. Osborne Russell, Journal of a Trapper, ed., Aubrey L. Haines (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1965), p. 157, no. 25.

32. Ibid., p. 26.

33. Ibid.

34. Ella Clark, Indian Legends from the Northern Rockies (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1966), pp. 11-12.

35. Ibid.

36. Virginia Trenholm and Maurine Carley, The Shoshonis: Sentinels of the Rockies (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964), p. 3.

37. Ibid.

38. Ibid.

39. Ake Hultkrantz, "The Shoshones in the Rocky Mountain Area," Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 33, April 1961, 34; and Adamson Hoebel, "Bands and Distributions of the Eastern Shoshone, American Anthropologist, Vol. 40, No. 3, 1938, p. 410.

40. Julian Steward, "Some Observations of Shoshonean Distributions," American Anthropologist, Vol. 41, 1939, p. 262.

41. Ibid., p. 24.

42. Deward Walker Jr., "Protection of American Indian Sacred Geography." Handhook of American Indian Religious Freedom, ed., Christopher Vecsey (New York: Crossroads Publishing, 1993), p. 104.

43. Âke Hultkrantz, Belief and Worship in Native North America (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1981), pp. 34-35. Italics original.

44. Julian Steward, "Culture Element Distributions," XXIII Northern Gosiute Shoshoni, Anthropological Records, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1945), p. 282.

45. Sherri Deaver, "American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA) Background Data" (Billings, MT, Bureau of Land Management, 1986), p. 78.

46. Ibid., p. 26.

<<< Previous <<< Contents >>> Next >>>

Last Updated: 24-Jul-2004