Grand Teton
Historic Resource Study
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General references: Lorraine and Orrin H. Bonney. The Grand Controversy (New York, NY: The AAC Press, 1992); Bob Godfrey. Chelton, and Dudley, Climb! Rock Climbing in Colorado (Boulder, CO: Published for the American Alpine Club by Alpine House Publishing, 1977); Chris Jones, Climbing in North America (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: Published for the American Alpine Club by the University of California Press, 1976); Leigh N. Ortenburger, and Reynold G. Jackson, A Climber's Guide to the Teton Range (Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers, 1996); and Alfred Runte, National Parks, The American Experience (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1979).

1. Chris Jones, Climbing in North America (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press for the American Alpine Club, 1976).

2. Z. M. Pike, The Journals of Zebulon Montgomery Pike, ed. Donald Jackson (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma, 1958).

3. Richard [Beaver Dick] Leigh, Letter to Mr. Editor, (Denver) Rocky Mountain News, probably late December 1894.*

4. Nathaniel P Langford, handwritten manuscript, the first version of his subsequent article in Scribner's Monthly, Yellowstone National Park library. Wyoming.*

5. Fort Hall Ledger Book, 1837, Columbia River Fishing and Trading Company. Manuscript 938, p. 136, Oregon Historical Society, Portland, Oregon.*

6. Mike Foster, The Life of Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden. (Niwot, CO: Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 1994), p. 235.

7. Nathaniel P. Langford, "Dr. Hayden's Geological Survey." Helena Daily Herald, September 9, 1872, p. 1, c. 2.*

8. Nathaniel P Langford, "The Ascent of Mount Hayden," Scribner's Monthly 6 (2) (June 1873): 146.

9. Baillie-Grohman, Camps in the Rockies.

10. The Kieffer letter was first uncovered in the Owen papers at the Western History Research Center, University of Wyoming, Laramie, by Leigh N. Ortenburger in the spring of 1959.*

11. "The Jackson Hole Country of Wyoming," Scientific American, March 30, 1918, p. 272.

12. At a meeting held June 3, 1931, the United States Geographic Board gave official status to 61 place names in Grand Teton National Park, which had previously been approved by the National Park Service. Garnet Canyon was originally named for the geologist on the 1872 Hayden Survey. Frank Bradley, who was one of the members of the expedition that made it to the Lower Saddle.

13. Fritiof M. Fryxell, "The Grand Tetons: Our National Park of Matterhorns," American Forests and Forest Life 35 (August 1929): 455.

14. Jones, Climbing in North America, p. 127.

15. Fritiof M. Fryxell, The Teton Peaks and Their Ascents (Grand Teton National Park, WY: The Crandall Studios, 1932), pp. 56-57.

16. Interview of Jack Durrance and Henry Coulter by Renny Jackson, September 23, 1988.

17. Interview of Gerald B. Cullinane, member of 87th Mountain Infantry Regiment, F Company. 10th Mountain Division, by Renny Jackson, December 6, 1997.

18. Daugherty, John, "A Place Called Jackson Hole: A History," draft, Grand Teton National Park, National Park Service.

19. Pete Sinclair, We Aspired: The Last Innocent Americans (Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 1993).

*Notes marked with this symbol were taken from an as yet unpublished manuscript by Leigh N. Ortenburger on the history of the Teton Range in the nineteenth century, and based on research done by that author. Ortenburger is considered by many to be the climbing historian of the range.

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Last Updated: 24-Jul-2004