USGS Logo Geological Survey Bulletin 613
Guidebook of the Western United States: Part C. The Santa Fe Route



Principal Divisions of Geologic Time




References cited

Glossary of Geologic Terms

Index of Railroad Stations



For the convenience of the traveler the sheets of the route ma p are so folded and placed that he can unfold them one by one and keep each one in view while he is reading the text relating to it. A reference in parentheses is given in the text at each point where a new sheet should he unfolded.


1. Kansas City, Mo., to Lakeview, Kans
2. Lecompton to Ellinor, Kans
3. Strong City to Halstead, Kans
4. Paxton to Stafford, Kans
5. St. John to Bellefont, Kans
6. Spearville to Mansfield, Kans
7. Garden City to Medway, Kans
8. Coolidge, Kans., to Caddoa, Colo
9. Hilton to Thatcher, Colo
10. Simpson, Colo., to Raton, N. Mex
11. Dillon to Wagon Mound, N. Mex
12. Bond to Fulton, N. Mex
13. Gise to Albuquerque, N. Mex
14. Abajo to McCartys, N. Mex
15. Acoma to Gallup, N. Mex.
16. West Yard, N. Mex., to Adamana, Ariz
17. Adamana to Moqui, Ariz
18. Dennison to Nevin, Ariz.
19. Maine to Chino, Ariz
19A. Anita to Grand Canyon, Ariz
20. Audley to Louise, Ariz
21. Kingman, Ariz., to Goffs, Cal
22. Piute to Ash Hill, Cal
23. Ludlow to Todd, Cal
24. Hicks to Los Angeles, Cal



I. Relief map showing surface features of the western part of the United States

II. A, Granite marker of Santa Fe Trail; B, Restoration of mammoth.

III. A, Pulpit Rock, near Alum Creek, south of Carneiro, Kans.; B, Pawnee Rock, southwest of Great Bend, Kans

IV. A, The Great Plains of western Kansas; B, Buffalo—one of the few survivors

V. A, Mesas of Timpas limestone, Boom-Thatcher region, Colo.; B, Tylosaurus

VI. Greenhorn limestone near Thatcher, Colo

VII. A, West Spanish Peak, Colo., from the northeast; B, Dike of igneous rock forming narrow wall, Spanish Peaks, Colo

VIII. Fishers Peak, near Trinidad, Colo

IX. Wall of Dakota sandstone west of Trinidad, Colo

X. A, Allosaurus; B, Stegosaurus

XI. A, Brontosaurus; B, Skeleton of Diadectes

XII. A, Ruins of old Pecos Church, northwest of Rowe, N. Mex.; B, Santo Domingo, N. Mex

XIII. A, West front of Sandia Mountains, near Bernalillo, N. Mex.; B, Crater of extinct geyser 3 miles west of Suwanee, N. Mex

XIV. A, Mesa Encantada, N. Mex., seen from the north; B, Bed of gypsum at Rito, N. Mex

XV. Pueblo of Acoma, N. Mex

XVI. A, Pyramid Rock and red cliff of Wingate sandstone north of Zuni siding, a few miles east of Gallup, N. Mex.; B, El Tintero, a volcanic cone with a crater in its top, 3 miles northeast of Blue. water station, N. Mex

XVII. Navajo Church, northwest of Wingate, N. Mex

XVIII. Tilted beds of sandstone dipping west on west slope of Zuni uplift, 3 miles east of Gallup, N. Mex

XIX. A, Sharp bend in boundary of Zuni Mountain uplift as seen from Santa Fe Railway 3 miles east of Gallup, N. Mex.; B, Great arch in the red sandstone north of Houck, Ariz

XX. A, Bed of Rio Puerco at Navajo siding, Ariz.; B, Natural bridge in massive sandstone near the Haystack Rocks, north of Manuelito, Ariz

XXI. Petrified logs south of Adamana, Ariz

XXII. Badlands north of Holbrook, Ariz

XXIII. A, Navajo Indians visiting the Hopi Indians at Oraibi, north of Winslow, Ariz.; B, An evening with Navajo Indians about the camp fire, north-central Arizona

XXIV. Oraibi, a Hopi village on the sandstone promontories east of the Painted Desert, north of Holbrook, Ariz

XXV. A, View of Crater Mound, Ariz., from the southwest, showing en circling rim; B, Near view of rim of Crater Mound; C, View across the crater of Crater Mound, showing upturned limestone beds in its walls

XXVI. Canyon Diablo, Ariz

XXVII. A, Recent cinder cone east of San Francisco Mountains, north of Winona, Ariz.; B, Cinder cones in Coconino Forest east of San Francisco Mountains, Ariz

XXVIII. Bottomless pits south of Cliffs, 8 miles southeast of Flagstaff, Ariz .

XXIX. A, Cliff dwellings in Walnut Canyon, southeast of Flagstaff, Ariz.; B, Cross-bedding in Coconino sandstone in Walnut Canyon, Ariz.

XXX. North side of Grand Canyon as viewed by telescope from El Tovar Hotel

XXXI. View northeastward across the Grand Canyon from Zuni Point east of Grandview Point

XXXII. South wall of Grand Canyon east of Grandview Point

XXXIII. The Granite Gorge in the Grand Canyon, northwest of Grandview Point

XXXIV. Maj. J. W. Powell and the boats in which he made the trip down the Grand Canyon

XXXV. A, Mescal, or maguey; B, Ocotillo, a characteristic desert plant

XXXVI. Cliffs of sandstone of the Tonto group in canyon 4 miles north of Peach Springs, Ariz

XXXVII. A, Typical desert valley of northwestern Arizona; B, Edge of desert plain on west side of Hualpai Mountains, Ariz.

XXXVIII. A, A water bottle in the desert; B, Barrel cactus, or visnaga.

XXXIX. Desert at Fenner, Cal

XL. Mount Pisgah, between Ludlow and Barstow, Cal

XLI. A, Joshua tree; B, San Gabriel Mission, Cal

XLII. San Bernardino Mountains, Cal



1. Section of bluff at Kansas City, Mo., showing succession of lime stones and shales

2. Section of rocks exposed near Eudora and Lawrence, Kans

3. Section showing succession of rocks in plateau south of Topeka, Kans

4. Section across Cottonwood Valley southwest of Elmdale, Kans

5. Section of rocks in Sawlog Valley northeast of Dodge, Kans

6. Section across Timpas Creek valley near Bloom, Colo

7. Section across Timpas Creek valley at Thatcher, Colo

S. Section through Spanish Peaks west of Tyrone, Colo

9. Section through Trinidad, Colo., showing relations of rocks

10. Section across canyon of Mora River southeast of Optimo, N. Mex.

11. Section 6 miles north of Las Vegas, N. Mex

12. Section through Las Vegas, N. Mex

13. Section across the east slope of the Rocky Mountain uplift near Ojita, N. Mex

14. Section across Galisteo Valley at Lamy, N. Mex

15. Section through Madrid, 3 miles south of Los Cerrillos, N. Mex

16. Section through Sandia Mountains, near Bernalillo, N. Mex

17. Section north of Suwanee, N. Mex

18. Sections showing relations of gypsum bed at Rito and near Rosario, N. Mex

19. Sketch section through Acoma, N. Mex

20. Sketch section showing relations of lava sheets near Mount Taylor, N. Mex

21. Section from the Zuni Mountains north across the Santa Fe Railway near Thoreau, N. Mex

22. Section of coal-bearing Mesaverde formation, Dakota sandstone, and underlying beds in and near the gap 3 miles east of Gallup, N. Mex

23. Generalized section across Crater Mound, Ariz

24. Map of the lava field in the San Francisco Mountain district, Ariz.

25. Section of Elden Mountain, east of Flagstaff, Ariz

26. Generalized section through the San Francisco Mountains northeast of Flagstaff, Ariz

27. Section through Red Butte, near Grand Canyon, Ariz

28. Ideal sections of faulted blocks of Unkar rocks in Grand Canyon, Ariz

29. Section of rocks exposed on Bright Angel trail, Grand Canyon, Ariz

30. Sections across Grand Canyon, Ariz

31. Section of the west slope of the Arizona Plateau between Williams and Ash Fork, Ariz

32. Section through Aubrey Cliffs, northwest of Seligman, Ariz

33. Sections showing relations of granite and lava in canyon of Truxton Wash between Valentine and Truxton, Ariz

34. Section of the Grand Wash Cliffs north of Hackberry, Ariz

35. Section showing relation of volcanic rocks between Louise and McConnico Ariz

36. Section succession of volcanic rocks in east face of Black Mesa of Yucca, Ariz

37. Sketch section showing quartzite (hard sandstone) on granite at south end of the Iron Mountains, southwest of Siam, Cal

38. Ideal section through a recent lava field and vent

39. Section through sand and gravel deposits of the sloping plain along the Santa Fe Railway north of the San Gabriel Mountains, near Victorville, Cal

40. Bird's-eye view of Cajon Pass and vicinity, California

George Otis Smith, Director

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Last Updated: 28-Nov-2006