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Historical Background

Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings

Suggested Reading

Founders and Frontiersmen


Information Regarding Published Edition


This volume was prepared by the Division of History Studies, National Park Service, under the general supervision of the Chief, Robert M. Utley. One of a series designed to make available to the public the studies of the National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, directed by John O. Littleton, it incorporates survey and evaluation reports prepared by the following National Park Service historians: S. Sydney Bradford, Robert F. Fenton, Ray H. Mattison, Frank B. Sarles, Jr., Charles E. Shedd, Jr., Horace J. Sheely, and Robert M. Utley. These reports were reviewed by the Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments and the Consulting Committee for the National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings. Members of these groups are listed in the Acknowledgments. The assistant editor for this volume was Richard E. Morris.

The background narrative for this volume was prepared by Charles H. McCormick.

Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments (1959—60)

Edward B. Danson, Jr., Museum of Northern Arizona.
Harold P. Fabian, Utah State Park and Recreation Commission.
E. Raymond Hall, University of Kansas.
Walter L. Huber, San Francisco, Calif.
John A. Krout, Columbia University.
Frank E. Masland, Jr., Carlisle, Pa.
John B. Oakes, New York City.
Sigurd F. Olson, Ely, Minn.
Earl H. Reed, American Institute of Architects.
Fred Smith, Newark, N.J.
Robert G. Sproul, Berkeley, Calif.
Harold S. Wagner, Akron, Ohio.
Carl I. Wheat, Menlo Park, Calif.

Consulting Committee for the National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings (1959-60)

J. O. Brew, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology.
Eric Gugler, American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society.
Richard Howland, Smithsonian Institution.
Frederick Johnson, Robert S. Peabody Foundation for Archaeology, Phillips Academy.
Waldo G. Leland, American Council of Learned Societies.
Earl H. Reed, American Institute of Architects.
S. K. Stevens, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.
Louis B. Wright, Folger Shakespeare Library.

National Park Service

Roy E. Appleman, Historian, Division of Interpretation and Visitor Services.
Edwin C. Bearss, Historian, Division of History Studies.
Frederick R. Bell, Picture Librarian, Office of Information.
James H. Charleton, Student Research Assistant.
Vincent L. Gleason, Chief of Publications, Divison of Interpretation and Visitor Services.
Herbert E. Kahler, Chief (retired), Division of History and Archeology.
Ronald F. Lee, Chief (retired), Division of Interpretation.
Steven H. Lewis, Historian, Division of History Studies.
Mrs. Carol J. Smith, Public Information Officer, National Capital Region.
John W. Walker, Archeologist, National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings.
Mrs. Lucy Wheeler, Division of History Studies.
Rogers W. Young, Chief, Branch of Park History Studies, Division of History Studies.

Other Individuals

Dr. William T. Alderson, Executive Secretary, Tennessee Historical Commission, Nashville.
George W. Anderson, Tennessee Eastman Corporation, Kingsport.
Dr. Lewis Beeson, Executive Secretary, Michigan Historical Commission, Lansing.
Dr. Peter A. Brannon, Director, Department of Archives and History, Montgomery, Ala.
Waldo S. Carrell, Pensacola Chamber of Commerce, Fla. William Center, Fort Smith Chamber of Commerce, Ark.
Dr. Walter L. Creese, President, Society of Architectural Historians, Urbana, Ill.
Thomas N. DeLashmutt, Oak Hill Farms, Aldie, Va.
Miss Milburn Divine, Association for the Preservation of Tennessee Antiquities, Johnson City.
Robert G. Dougan, Librarian, Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, Calif.
C. L. Dvorecka, Public Information Officer, Springfield Armory, Springfield, Mass.
Thomas S. Eader, Assistant Librarian, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore.
Mrs. Josephine M. Elliott, Librarian, Workingmen's Institution, New Harmony, Ind.
Lawrence J. Flynn, Director, Vacation/Travel Promotion, Massachusetts Department of Commerce, Boston.
Mrs. John M. Gilchrist, Society of Architectural Historians, Mount Vernon, NewYork.
Mrs. June L. Goldman, 9307 Wadsworth Drive, Bethesda, Md.
Ralph P. Grant, Kingsport, Tenn.
Frederick J. Griffiths, Director, Gunston Hall, Lorton, Va.
Charles F. Hinds, Executive Secretary, Kentucky Historical Society, Frankfort.
Jay W. Johns, Charlottesville, Va.
Milton Kaplan, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Miss Gussie Killian, Portersville, Ala.
Dr. Richard C. Knopf, Research Historian, Anthony Wayne Parkway Board, Columbus, Ohio.
Dr. George S. May, Historic Sites Specialist, Michigan Historical Commission, Lansing.
Mrs. Florence Miller, Office Manager, U.S. Capitol Historical Society, Washington, D.C.
Mrs. Margaret Palmer, Clemson, S.C.
J. C. Parker, Kingston, Tenn.
Eugene T. Peterson, Mackinac Island State Park Commission, Lansing, Mich.
Earle R. Poorbaugh, Information Officer, Maryland Department of Economic Development, Annapolis.
J. Reese Price, Jefferson County Historical Society, Watertown, N.Y.
Miss Charlotte M. Read, Genesee County Historian, East Pembroke, N.Y.
Mrs. Edith S. Reiter, Campus Martius Museum, Marietta, Ohio.
Mrs. Marion duPont Scott, Montpelier, Orange County, Va.
Mrs. Lorrain Seay, Executive Secretary, Henry Clay Memorial Foundation, Lexington, Ky.
Raymond S. Sivesind, Chief, Historic Sites and Markers Division, Wisconsin State Historical Society, Madison.
Dr. S. K. Stevens, Executive Director, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg.
Mrs. Florian H. Thayn, Librarian, Office of the Architect of the U.S. Capitol.
Dr. G. R. Turrentine, Registrar, Arkansas Polytechnic College, Russellville.
Dr. R. W. C. Vail, Director, New-York Historical Society, New York City.
Charles C. Wall, Resident Director, Mount Vernon, Va.
Mrs. Harry T. Watts, Sr., Chairman of Restoration for "Grouseland," Vincennes, Ind.
Clark Wilcox, Chemung County Historical Society, Inc., Elmira, N.Y.
Dr. Erwin Zepp, Director, Ohio State Historical Society, Columbus.


Foreword to Published Edition

Between 1783 and 1828, the formative years when the foundations of our Nation were laid, Americans dreamed bright dreams and faced harsh realities. Statesmen such as Washington, Hamilton, and Jefferson began to fashion the national political structure that the Constitution of 1787 created. Millions of pioneers struggled over the Appalachian barrier and moved the frontier to the Mississippi and beyond. As the Nation surmounted obstacle after obstacle—internal political strife, international crises, and war—it gained in strength and confidence. The newly emerging national spirit among the people began to give substance to the Founding Fathers' hopeful motto, E Pluribus Unum.

The founders and the frontiersmen were pivotal figures in United States history. They proclaimed the basic ideals of our heritage and initiated courses of national action so consequential to the Republic. We can profit immensely from knowing more about them and by sharing their experiences.

Books and pictures help us accumulate facts and ideas about the past, but visits to historic sites and buildings—the scenes of past events—provide us with a living sense of history. Books about George Washington or Thomas Jefferson, for example, seldom impart so vivid a picture of the men as visits to Mount Vernon or Monticello.

This volume describes many of the historic sites and buildings that are associated with and commemorate or illustrate our early nationhood. It is one of a series designed to make available the findings of the National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, a nationwide program conducted by the National Park Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior under authority of the Historic Sites Act of 1935. The Survey's purpose is to identify historic and prehistoric places of significance to the Nation. Such places are studied and evaluated by Service field historians and archeologists, screened by a Consulting Committee of outside scholars, and final selections recommended to the Secretary of the Interior by the Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments. When approved by the Secretary, sites and buildings judged of national historical significance are eligible for designation as Registered National Historic Landmarks. Upon application, their owners are provided with a certificate and bronze plaque attesting to the distinction.

Credit for the preparation of this volume is shared widely by persons both in and out of the National Park Service. In particular, the work of the Service in the general field of historic preservation has benefited in estimably from the assistance provided by the National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States, a cosponsor of the Survey.

It is my earnest hope that citizens will use the volumes in this series to seek out and visit sites of interest to them, and that they will also encourage individuals, private groups, and State and local governments to unite with the Federal Government in an unremitting campaign to preserve our historic treasures, an indispensable part of our national heritage.

National Park Service

Art and Picture Credits to Published Edition

Photographs are by the National Park Service except where specified

Last Updated: 29-Aug-2005