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Historical Background

Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings

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Explorers and Settlers
Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings


Location: Navajo County, near Ariz. 264, north of Walpi and Sichomovi on First Mesa, Hopi Villages.

Hano is the only pueblo inhabited today that exemplifies the shifts of the native New Mexican population resulting from Spanish pressures. During the first part of the 17th century, the Tewa-speaking people of Hano lived in the Galisteo Basin south of Santa Fe. During the Pueblo Revolt of 1680-92, they moved to a new pueblo near Santa Cruz. In 1696, they rebelled again, burned their church, killed two padres, and abandoned their pueblo, Tsanwari, as they fled west, as had other Rio Grande groups during earlier periods of unrest.

To help protect Walpi from Ute inroads, the Hopi Indians at that pueblo invited the Tewas to settle to the north, at the head of the trail leading from First Mesa. As time passed, other Rio Grande groups that had taken refuge in Hopiland returned to New Mexico, but the people of Hano remained. They still retain their language and ceremonies, although their kivas and some other aspects of their culture have been influenced by contact with the Hopis. They are noted as producers of fine pottery. Their population is more than 300 today.


Location: Santa Cruz County, on U.S. 89, about 40 miles south of Tucson.

Tubac Presidio was the most northerly Spanish military outpost of Pimeria Alta between 1752 and 1776, and was the base from which Capt. Juan Bautista de Anza opened an overland route from Sonora to California and founded the colony that grew into the city of San Francisco. The Spanish established the presidio in 1752, on the site of a Pima Indian village, to protect Jesuit missionaries who had been driven from the area during a Pima rebellion the preceding year. Settlers, attracted by mining and agricultural possibilities, built the pueblo of Tubac and the church of Santa Gertrudis de Tubac.

Because of Apache depredations, in 1776 Spanish officials replaced the presidio at Tubac with one at Tucson. In the first years of U.S. occupation and acquisition of Arizona, Tubac and Tucson were about the only towns in the region. Until recently Tubac resembled a typical small Mexican village of adobe huts, but the present artists' colony has done much to foster interest in its early history. Tubac Presidio State Historical Monument is located in the plaza where the presidio once stood. Archeological excavation and restoration is planned at the presidio and at the nearby site of the church. The park contains an excellent museum.

Ruins at Tubac, Arizona. From 1752 to 1776, Tubac Presidio was the northernmost Spanish military outpost in Pimeria Alta.

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Last Updated: 22-Mar-2005