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Historical Background

Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings

Suggested Reading


Explorers and Settlers

This volume was prepared by the Division of History Studies, National Park Service, under the general supervision of the Chief, Robert M. Utley. One of a series designed to make available to the public the studies of the National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, directed by John O. Littleton, it incorporates survey and evaluation reports prepared by the following National Park Service historians: John Porter Bloom, S. Sydney Bradford, William E. Brown, William C. Everhart, Ray H. Mattison, Frank B. Sarles, Jr., Charles E. Shedd, Jr., Horace J. Sheely, Jr., Charles W. Snell, and Robert M. Utley. These reports were reviewed by the Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments and the Consulting Committee for the National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings. Members of these groups are listed in the Acknowledgments.

The background narrative for this volume is based on a study prepared under contract by Dr. Seymour V. Connor, Texas Technological College. Special contributions to the entire volume were made by Richard E. Morris and John W. Walker, Editorial Assistant and Staff Archeologist respectively, National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings.

Portions of the 1964 document have been omitted and only minor revisions have been made to the original text, however the reader should note that some of the information contained herein may not reflect current conditions. Current color photos of historic sites are courtesy of current property owners who are the caretakers of National Historic Landmark properties that are in private ownership. Additional historical site information can be obtained by visiting

National Register of Historic Places Travel Itineraries

Information Regarding Published Edition


Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments (1959-61)

Stanley A. Cain, University of Michigan
Edward B. Danson, Jr., Museum of Northern Arizona
Harold P. Fabian, Utah State Park and Recreation Commission
E. Raymond Hall, University of Kansas
Walter L. Huber, San Francisco, Calif.
John A. Krout, Columbia University
Frank E. Masland, Jr., Carlisle, Pa.
John B. Oakes, New York City
Sigurd F. Olson, Ely, Minn.
Earl H. Reed, American Institute of Architects
Fred Smith, Newark, N.J.
Robert G. Sproul, Berkeley, Calif.
Robert L. Stearns, Denver, Colo.
Harold S. Wagner, Akron, Ohio
Carl I. Wheat, Menlo Park, Calif.

Consulting Committee for the National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings (1958-61)

J. O. Brew, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology
Eric Gugler, American Scenic and Historical Preservation Society
Richard Howland, Smithsonian Institution
Frederick Johnson, Robert S. Peabody Foundation for Archaeology, Phillips Academy
Waldo G. Leland, American Council of Learned Societies
Earl H. Reed, American Institute of Architects
S. K. Stevens, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission
Louis B. Wright, Folger Shakespeare Library

National Park Service

Frederick R. Bell, Picture Librarian, Office of Information
Mrs. Eleanor S. Calhoun, Publications Branch, Division of Interpretation and Visitor Services
Vincent L. Gleason, Chief of Publications, Division of Interpretation and Visitor Services
Herbert E. Kahler, Chief (retired), Division of History and Archeology
Robert E. MacKay, Student Research Assistant
Charles W. Porter III, Chief Historian (retired), Division of History Studies
Rogers W. Young, Staff Historian, Division of History Studies

Other Individuals

E. O. Baum, President, Pasquotank County Historical Society, Elizabeth City, N.C.
Mrs. H. Beal, Photographic Library, Museum of the City of New York
Mrs. Gordon C. Berryman, Directress, Thomas Rolfe Branch, Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, Surry.
Mrs. Margaret C. Blaker, Office of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Mrs. Peter Bolhouse, Executive Secretary, Newport Historical Society, Newport, R.I.
Frederick A. Bonsal, formerly Resident Director, Saugus Iron Works Restoration, Saugus, Mass.
Dr. Mark F. Boyd, Tallahassee, Fla.
Dr. Peter A. Brannon, Director, Department of Archives and History, Montgomery, Ala.
Orin M. Bullock, Jr., Supervisor of Architectural Research, Colonial Williamsburg, Williamsburg, Va.
Miss Charlotte Capers, Director, Department of Archives and History, Jackson, Miss.
Waldo S. Carrell, Pensacola Chamber of Commerce, Pensacola, Fla.
Dr. H. Bailey Carroll, Editor, Southwestern Historical Quarterly, University of Texas, Austin.
Robert D. Christie, Director, Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh.
Walter A. Coldwell, Assistant Director, Florida Park Service, Tallahassee.
Dr. Ernest A. Connally, Associate Professor of Architecture, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill.
Dr. Albert B. Corey, State Historian, Division of Archives and History, New York State Education Department, Albany.
Dr. Walter L. Creese, President, Society of Architectural Historians, Urbana, Ill.
Abbott L. Cummings, Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, Boston, Mass.
Miss Anna K. Cunningham, Supervisor of Historic Sites, University of the State of New York, State Educational Department, Albany.
Dr. Donald C. Cutter, Department of History, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Miss Elizabeth Dawson, Curator, Adam Thoroughgood House Foundation, Norfolk, Va.
Leon de Valinger, Jr., State Archivist, Hall of Records, Dover, Del.
Charles L. Dufour, New Orleans, La.
Harold J. Dyer, Director of State Parks, State Park Commission, Augusta, Maine.
Jack Dyson, Historian, California Division of Beaches and Parks, Sacramento.
Thomas S. Eader, Assistant Librarian, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore.
Claude Evanhamm, Director, Museum of Man, San Diego, Calif.
Mason Foley, Town Historian, Hingham, Mass.
Mrs. F. E. Freeman, Custodian, Fairbanks House, Dedham, Mass.
Peter Geldof, Jr., Superintendent of State Parks, Wilmington, Del.
Dr. Benjamin Gilbert, Department of History, San José State College, San José, Calif.
Mrs. Alice B. Good, Director of Library and Archives, State of Arizona, Phoenix.
E. W. Gravolet, Pointe-ala-Hache, La. Miss Pearl V. Guyton, Natchez, Miss.
Mrs. Ethel W. Harris, Custodian, San José Mission National Historic Site, San Antonio, Tex.
J. Carver Harris, Business Manager, St. Augustine Historical Society, St. Augustine, Fla.
Dr. Emil W. Haury, Arizona State Museum, Tucson.
Miss Gertrude Hill and the staff of the Library of the Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe.
David S. Hugg, Information Office, Delaware State Development Department, Dover.
Wesley A. Johnson, Courtaulds (Alabama), Inc., Mobile.
Rupert S. Jones, Plant Manager, Courtaulds (Alabama), Inc., Mobile.
Douglas F. Jordan, Wakefield, Mass.
Miss Elizabeth Jordan, Fort Boykin-on-the-James, Smithfield, Va.
Miss Ella Jordan, Fort Boykin-on-the-James, Smithfield, Va.
Donald H. Kent, Chief, Research and Publications Division, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg.
Richard G. Kimball, Minister, New North Church, Hingham, Mass.
Dr. Lawrence Kinnaird, Department of History, University of California, Berkeley.
Mrs. Walter Kyers, Whitman House—Farmington Museum, Farmington, Conn.
Mrs. Sidney J. Legendre, Medway Plantation, Mount Holly, S.C. Miss Bessie Lewis, Pine Harbor, Ga.
Maj. Gen. R. B. Luckey, Commandant, U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, S.C.
Thomas W. Martin, Chairman of the Board, Alabama Power Co., Birming ham.
Dr. George May, Historic Sites Specialist, Michigan Historical Commission, Lansing.
Dennis McCarthy, Director, Arizona State Parks Board, Phoenix. James Messer, Sr., Tallahassee, Fla.
Mrs. Florence Miller, Office Manager, U.S. Capitol Historical Society, Washington, D.C.
John B. Morrill, Forest Preserve District of Cook County, River Forest, Ill.
Dr. A. Russell Mortensen, Director, Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City.
Dr. Aubrey Neasham, Historian, California Division of Beaches and Parks, Sacramento.
Vrest Orton, Chairman, Vermont Historic Sites, Weston.
C. H. Overman, Jr., Pensacola, Fla.
Glenn Price, Historian, California Division of Beaches and Parks, Sacramento.
Anthony Ragusin, Biloxi Chamber of Commerce, Biloxi, Miss.
Dr. Frank D. Reeve, Editor, New Mexico Historical Review, Albuquerque.
Mrs. Mary F. Rhymer, Curator of Prints and Photographs, Chicago Historical Society.
Dr. Rupert N. Richardson, Department of History, Hardin-Simmons University, Abilene, Tex.
Richard S. Rodney, President, New Castle Historical Society, New Castle, Del.
C. H. Schaeffer, former Director of the Florida Park Service, Tallahassee.
Henry I. Shaw, Jr., Editor-in-Chief, Company of Military Historians, Washington, D.C.
Albert Simons, F.A.I.A., Charleston, S.C.
O. K. Sistrunk, Biloxi, Miss.
Capt. Pete Skrmetta, Biloxi, Miss.
Miss Eleanor Sloan, Secretary, Arizona Pioneers Historical Society, Tucson.
Dr. S. K. Stevens, Executive Director, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg.
W. S. Tarlton, Historic Sites Superintendent, State Department of Archives and History, Raleigh, N.C.
John O. Theobald, Phoenix, Ariz.
William Thomas, President, Fort Toulouse Memorial Park Association, Wetumpka, Ala.
William G. Tyrrell, Historian, Division of Archives and History, New York State Education Department, Albany.
Stephen S. Waligurski, Town Historian, Hurley, N.Y.
Dr. Clyde Walton, State Historian, Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield.
Dr. Joseph Waring, Old Town Plantation, Charleston, S.C.
Mr. and Mrs. Walter P. Warren, Bacon's Castle, Smithfield, Va.
Dr. W. W. Wasley, Arizona State Museum, Tucson.
Dr. Eugene P. Watson, Librarian, Northwestern State College, Natchitoches, La.
Justin Weddell, Pensacola, Fla.
W. W. Wells, Assistant Director, State Parks and Recreation Commission. Baton Rouge, La.
Samuel Wilson, Jr., New Orleans, La.
Ted R. Worley, Executive Secretary, Arkansas History Commission, Little Rock.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 66—60013

Foreword to Published Edition

The United States today is a mixture of diverse nationalities, cultures, and races. The mixing process began when Europeans first probed the land and has continued into modern times. This volume, which emphasizes significant historic sites and structures, tells the fascinating story of early exploration and settlement and contributes to understanding our past. It commemorates the daring men who conquered a strange, forbidding wilderness and in so doing fostered a heritage of overcoming the unknown—a heritage carried on today in our exploration of space.

We need physical reminders of our past. Otherwise we tend to lose the sense of being part of a continuous process. Visits to historic places provide a refreshing awareness of immediacy and historical reality. They provide an association with our past that is impossible to achieve with the written or spoken word.

This volume has two parts. The first offers a brief, narrative background for the period of early exploration and settlement. The second consists of evaluations and descriptions of historic sites and structures associated with the period.

Historians and archeologists of the National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior, after comprehensive fieldwork, prepared the basic studies from which this publication has been drawn. The studies were reviewed by the Consulting Committee for the National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, composed of eminent historians, architects, and archeologists not otherwise connected with the National Park Service; and by the Secretary of the Interior's Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments, which has a similar membership. The findings of the National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, achieved through this process, are made available to the public by means of this series of volumes.

The purpose of the Survey is the evaluation of places important in our history and prehistory. Those sites judged to possess exceptional value in illustrating or commemorating the history of the United States are declared eligible for designation as Registered National Historic Landmarks. Upon request, the Secretary of the Interior will provide the owner of a Landmark property with an engraved certificate and a bronze plaque attesting to its value and encouraging its continued preservation. A very few Landmarks may, in addition to possessing national historical significance, meet the standards of suitability and feasibility for park purposes and be considered for addition to the National Park System.

Credit for the preparation of this volume is shared widely by persons both in and out of the National Park Service. In particular, the work of the Service in the general field of historic preservation has benefited in estimably from the assistance provided by the National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States, cosponsor of the Survey.

We believe that this book will assist students, teachers, travelers, historians, archeologists, preservation groups, and other Americans in understanding and appreciating a period of our history that is both complex and difficult, yet basic to a proper comprehension of American democracy and culture. We earnestly hope that this volume will also focus attention on, and stimulate further activities in, the field of historic preservation. Important as progress is, it should not result in the thoughtless destruction of sites and buildings that commemorate our national heritage.

National Park Service

Art and Picture Credits to Published Edition

Photographs are by the National Park Service except where specified. Color photographs are courtesy of the current property owner.

Last Updated: 22-Mar-2005