Crater Lake
Historic Resource Study
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I. Formation of the Crater Lake Environment

A. Northern Plateau Area of Southern Oregon
B. Prehistoric Indian Occupation of the Crater Lake Vicinity
C. Historic Indian Occupation of the Crater Lake Vicinity
     1. The Klamaths
     2. The Modocs

II. White Men Slowly Penetrate the Southern Oregon Wilderness

A. Early Exploration by Fur Traders
B. New Land Routes Through Southern Oregon Studied
C. Opening of the Southern Emigrant Route
D. Gold Rush of 1849 Accelerates Oregon Settlement
E. Gold Mining Begins in Southern Oregon

III. Discovery of Crater Lake

A. John Wesley Hillman
B. Chauncey Nye
C. Captain Franklin B. Sprague
D. Later Visits to Crater Lake
E. James Sutton Party

IV. Indian Perceptions of Crater Lake

A. Early Observations by White Men
B. Role of Crater Lake in Shamanistic Quests
C. Indian Myths Explaining Geological Occurrences
D. Legends Surrounding Crater Lake

V. Geological and Biological Information on Crater Lake Area

A. Mount Mazama
B. Formation of Lake
C. Description of Lake
     1. Statistics
     2. Color
D. Volcanic Parks
     1. Importance in National Park System
     2. Importance of Crater Lake National Park
E. Points of Geological Interest in Crater Lake National Park
      1. Rim Slopes
      2. Wizard Island
      3. The Watchman
      4. Hillman Peak
      5. Devils Backbone
      6. Llao Rock
      7. Red Cone, Timber Crater
      8. Pumice Desert
      9. Mazama Rock
     10. Palisade Point
     11. Wineglass
     12. Redcloud Cliff
     13. Castle Rock (Pumice Castle)
     14. Mount Scott
     15. Kerr Notch
     16. The Pinnacles
     17. Phantom Ship
     18. Sun Notch
     19. Godfrey Glen and Colonnades
     20. Union Peak
     21. Llao's Hallway
F. Other Natural Resources
     1. Forests and Plant Life
     2. Wildlife
G. Will Mount Mazama Erupt Again?

VI. Steps Leading Toward Establishment of Crater Lake National Park

A. Further Exploration of Crater Lake by Boat
B. Crater Lake Meets the Camera
C. Scientific Studies Commence
D. William Gladstone Steel
E. Commercial Exploitation Threatens National Forestlands
F. Emergence of a National Conservation Philosophy
G. Steel Mounts a Campaign to Save Crater Lake
H. The Dutton Survey
I . John Muir Assists the National Park Concept
J. Federal Forest Reservations
K. Cascade Range Forest Reserve
L. The Mazamas Expedition to Crater Lake
M. The National Forest Commission Visits Crater Lake
N. Crater Lake National Park
O. Provisions of the Crater Lake Act
P. William Steel and the Preservation of Crater Lake
Q. Park Boundaries

VII. Concessionaire Development of Visitor Services

A. The Crater Lake Company Begins Construction of Crater Lake Lodge
B. The Crater Lake National Park Company Takes Over Park Concessions
C. Cafeteria and Cabins Added to Rim Village
D. The National Park Service Purchases the Lodge and Ponders Its Future
E. Importance of Crater Lake Lodge

VIII. Roads of Crater Lake National Park

A. Approaches to the Park
B. Entrance Road and Bridges
      1. Early Conditions Call for Improvements
      2. A New Road to the Rim
      3. First Cars Reach the Lake
      4. Accounts by Early Visitors
      5. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Plans the Park Road System
      6. Several New Roads Contemplated
      7. Plans Made for First Rim Road
      8. Annie Spring and Goodbye Creek Bridges
      9. Plans Made for Second Rim Road
     10. Motorways
     11. Restraints Imposed by Snow and a World War
     12. New Bridges Needed
     13. Evaluations and Recommendations

IX. Trails and Campgrounds of Crater Lake National Park

A. Rim Trails
B. Wizard Island Trails
C. Castle Crest and Lake Circle Trails
D. Other Trails
E. Summary of Park Trail System
     1. On the Rim
        a) Watchman Trail
        b) Devils Backbone
        c) Llao Rock
        d) Cleetwood Cove Trail
        e) Mount Scott
        f) Crater Peak
        g) Castle Crest Wildflower Gardens
        h) Canyon Rim Loop Trail
        i) Hillman Peak Trail
        j) Sun Notch
     2. Northwest Section of Park
        a) Red Cone
        b) Boundary Springs
     3. Northeast Section of Park
        a) Timber Crater
        b) Wineglass Motorway
     4. Southeast Section of Park
        a) Crater Peak
     5. Southwest Section of Park
        a) Union Peak
        b) Snow Crater
        c) Llao's Hallway
F. Campgrounds
     1. Rim Campground
     2. Annie Spring Campground
     3. Lost Creek Campground
     4. White Horse Campground
     5. Cold Spring Campground
G. Evaluations and Recommendations

X. Construction of Government Buildings and Landscaping in Crater Lake National Park

A. Functionalism Dictates Building Styles at Annie (Anna) Spring Camp
B. The Rustic Architecture Program of the National Park Service
C. Kiser Studio (Bldg. #066)
D. Headquarters Moved to Government Camp
E. Community House Erected and Government Headquarters Enlarged (Bldg. #116)
F. Building Inventory of 1926
G. Western Field Office of National Park Service Implements Rustic Architecture Program
H. Construction Plans for 1928
     1. Superintendent's Residence
     2. Employee's Cabin
     3. Medford Warehouse
     4. Barn at Government Camp
     5. Comfort Station at Lake
     6. Dam, Pumphouse, and Pumping Equipment for Rim
     7. Toilets and Bath at Government Camp
     8. Septic Tank at Government Camp
I. Building Inventory of 1929
J. Physical Changes from 1930 to 1931
     1. Employee's Cottage at Government Camp
     2. Addition to Utility Shed at Government Camp (Bldg. #005)
     3. Comfort Station in Rim Campground
     4. Headquarters Building
     5. Watchman Lookout Station (Bldg. #168)
     6. Storeroom and Garage at Government Camp
K. Important Additions to Headquarters Complex in 1932
     1. Administration Building
     2. Superintendent's Residence
     3. Naturalist's Residence
     4. Ranger Dormitory (Club House)
     5. Final Field Activity in 1932
        a. Employee's Quarters (Naturalist's Residence)
        b. Oil House at Government Camp
        c. Superintendent's Residence
        d. Machine Shop and Utility Shed at Government Camp
        e. Ranger Dormitory (Club House)
L. Civilian Conservation Corps Work Performed in Park
M. Landscaping
     1. Rim Area
     2. Ranger Dormitory, Superintendent's Residence, Naturalist's Residence, and three Employee Residences
N. Emergency Conservation Work Camps
     1. Camp No. 1
     2. Camp No. 2 (Wineglass Camp)
     3. Work Accomplished
O. Construction Activity Tapers Off

XI. Summary of Important

A. List of Classified Structures
B. National Register of Historic Places
C. Structures Eligible for the National Register
     1. Headquarters Area
     2. Watchman Fire Lookout (Bldg. #168)
     3. Sinnott Memorial Building (Bldg. #067)
D. Structures Not Eligible for the National Register
     1. Exhibit Building (Bldg. #066)
     2. Community Building
     3. Cafeteria Cabins
     4. Sleepy Hollow Residential Area
     5. Steel Circle Residential Area
     6. Miscellaneous Structures

XII. General Recommendations for Interpretation


A. "Discovery of Crater Lake," by J.W. Hillman

B. "Blue Lake," [by J.W. Sessions]

C. "Lake Majesty," by F.B. Sprague

D. "How Crater Lake was Discovered," by O.A. Stearns

E. "The Legends of Crater Lake," by W. Craig Thomas

F. Correspondence Relative to Withdrawal from Settlement of Land Surrounding Crater Lake

G. "Crater Lake," by Joaquin Miller

H. Names and Places of Crater Lake




1. How Crater Lake was formed
2. Wizard Island, 1937
3. The Pinnacles
4. Phantom Ship
5. First photograph of Crater Lake
6. Cleetwood on Crater Lake
7. Steel party on rim of Crater Lake, 1903
8. Launching Start, Steel excursion of 1903
9. Excursion at Crater Lake, 1905
10. "Map Showing the Proposed Enlargement of the Crater Lake National Park," 1918
11. Cold-water cabins behind cafeteria
12. Four-plexes behind cafeteria
13. "Map showing routes to Crater Lake National Park," 1903
14. Crater Lake highway, ca. 1900
15. Close-up view of road to Crater Lake (showing log "bridge" over Annie Creek)
16. Annie Creek bridge, Fort Klamath road, 1903
17. Crater Lake highway lunchroom
18. Map showing new road to rim, 1906
19. "Crater Lake Road Survey," 1910-11
20. Annie Spring bridge, 1929
21. Rim drive above Kerr Notch
22. Trail around Crater Lake, 1897
23. "Anna Spring Camp," post-1909
24. Rim campground
25. Trail to Crater Lake from rim
26. Interior of tent camp, Crater Lake
27. Administration building and superintendent's residence, Anna Spring Camp, ca. 1917?
28. Ranger cabin, Medford entrance
20. Kiser Studio, Rim Village, n.d.
30. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers camp, rim road, ca. 1917
31. Government Camp, pre-1930s
32. Community house and cafeteria, Rim Village, n.d.
33. Rim Center (former community house), 1981
34. Cafeteria, Rim Village, 1981
35. Headquarters at Government Camp, post-1925
36. Annie Spring checking station area, n.d.
37. Will Steel's residence at Government Camp while he served as commissioner
38. Sinnott Memorial Building, 1981
39. Veranda of Sinnott Memorial Building, 1938
40. Mess hall and dormitory building at Government Camp, n.d.
41. Mess hall and dormitory building, 1981
42. Building #025, stone housing area, 1981
43. Building #028, stone housing area, 1981
44. Old fire lookout, The Watchman, n.d.
45. Mount Scott fire lookout, July 1958
46. New Watchman fire lookout, n.d.
47. Ranger dormitory and grading activities for new headquarters building, Munson Valley
48. CCC Camp, Annie Spring, 1934
49. Frame residence, Lost Creek, 1956
50. Wineglass patrol cabin, n.d.
51. Wineglass patrol cabin, 1968
52. Maklak patrol cabin, n.d.
53. National Creek patrol cabin 1933
54. Storage equipment sheds at headquarters area
55. Double garage at headquarters area
56. Warehouse at headquarters area
57a. 57b. Cabins in Sleepy Hollow residential area
58. Administration building, 1981
59. Ranger dormitory, 1981
60. Superintendent's residence, 1981
61. Naturalist's residence, 1981
62. Machine shop, ca. 1930s ?46
63. Machine shop, 1981
64. Building #031 in stone housing area, 1981
65. Building #032 in stone housing area, 1981
66. Sign shop, 1981
67. Transformer house, 1981
68. Structures in Sleepy Hollow residential area, 1981
69. Apartments and school in Steel Circle residential area
70. Building #034 in Munson Valley
71. Employee dorm south of lodge
72. Cafeteria in Rim Village

Last Updated: 14-Feb-2002