Coronado National Forest
Coronado National Forest is a noncontiguous national forest in southeastern Arizona. Its five districts are Sierra Vista, Nogales, Safford, Santa Catalina, and Douglas. These districts occupy nearly 2 million acres and encompass numerous mountain ranges (fig. 109). The Region is largely desert, interspersed with isolated, rugged mountains and steep canyon country. Climate and forest resources vary greatly according to elevation.
Originally nicknamed "Islands of the Desert," the Coronado National Forest was officially established in 1908 when three forest reserves, the Santa Rita, Santa Catalina, and Dragoon, were consolidated (fig. 110).
In 1911, the Garces National Forest was added, and in 1917, the Chiricahua National Forest and Dragoon Addition became part of Coronado. Tucson was made forest headquarters in 1917. The final land acquisition occurred in 1953, when part of the Crook National Forest was added. Certain land areas, such as the Saguarro National Monument, Huachuca District in the Fort Huachuca Military Reservation, and Baboquivari Forest Reserve, had been removed from Forest Service administration by 1933. During the entire CCC period, Fred Winn was forest supervisor. 
Civilian Conservation Corps projects on the Coronado focused primarily on water-related activities, such as stream development, erosion control, development of watering areas for stock, and well digging. Because there was less forested acreage, timber management and forest revegetation projects were not as time-consuming as elsewhere.
Fire protection, however, was necessary. In April 1934 all lookouts on the Coronado were manned by CCC enrollees, who also did most of the firefighting. 
Additional CCC work revolved around livestock and grazing interests, historically significant in the area. Relations between foresters and ranchers were precarious for years. With the onset of the 1930's and the CCC, the Forest Service found ways to enforce grazing restrictions largely through the establishment and fencing of grazing allotments. Ranchers were eventually persuaded that regulating grazing, improved overgrazed areas and, ultimately, the quality of livestock.  Civilian Conservation Corps crews were used to build fences, cattle guards, stock tanks, and corrals, and to revegetate grassland areas.
The CCC also helped develop recreation areas on the Coronado. Burrall and Snow's Forest Recreation Plan (1930, 1939) separated recreation areas into two major zones:
Many recreation areas housed businesses, boys' and girls' schools, recreation sites, and places for wildlife observation. The Catalina and Rincon Districts were considered the most important on the forest because of their heavy usage and location near population centers. 
In general, CCC building projects were adapted to the natural landscape by using materials from the local environment and traditional designs. Use of adobe was one important method. Adobe brick was traditionally molded from sand and clay mixed with water. Straw and grass were included in the mixture as binders. Prepared mud was placed in wooden forms, tamped, and leveled by hand. The bricks were then turned out of the mold to dry on a level surface covered with straw or grass so the bricks would not stick. After several days of drying, the adobe bricks were stood on end and air-dried for a 4-week period. The CCC followed this traditional method.
Originally, adobe bricks were mortared with mud. Later, cement and lime mortars were used although these mortars sped up the deterioration process by differing in expansion and contraction rates from the bricks. The CCC used lime mortar. Mud plaster was originally used to cover the adobe bricks. In the early 20th century, cement stucco was introduced. The CCC used cement, sand, and water mixed and applied by trowels in one to three coats over a wire mesh nailed to the adobe surface. 
Flat roofs on buildings were made by using layers of large logs which supported small wood poles. The CCC ranger stations used the same large peeled logs, but replaced the small poles with narrow wooden slats. 
Four CCC camps opened on the Coronado in the first enrollment period. Two of these camps, Box Canyon and Cave Creek, were among the first camps to open in the State. The other camps on the southern Forest were Sunnyside and Rucker Canyon. 
Seven camps operated on the Coronado in the second enrollment period, including the four named previously, as well as camps at Madera Canyon, Tanque Verde, and Ash Canyon. The number dwindled the following year, and an average of three camps remained open each period until the end of the CCC era. Over the years, new camps were added at Turkey Creek, Pena Blanca, and Flux Canyon. Many Coronado camps were occupied only during the winter months. The companies traveled north for the summer. 
Camp F-10 was established during the first enrollment period. The camp was located on Cave Creek near Portal, AZ, in Cochise County. On July 18, 1933, enrollee Harold C. Riley was killed while engaged in blasting operations. F-10 was thereafter formally called Camp Harold C. Riley, although informally it maintained its Cave Creek designation. 
In October 1934, a veterans camp was transferred to Cave Creek from Three Forks on the Apache Forest.  Camp F-10 was occupied by Company No. 1830, which was made up of enrollees from Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Wyoming, and Oklahoma. The company was reported to be racially mixed. Company commander was N.L. Chamberlain. 
The company totaled 146 men with 106 assigned to work under Project Supervisor D.C. Best. Projects covered approximately 80,000 acres and included construction of mountain roads requiring considerable blasting and jackhammer work; fence building on range-land; and water development consisting of completing boxing in springs with concrete and piping water to concrete watering troughs. Other work involved ranger station and public campground improvement.  A winter fly camp was maintained in Sulphur Draw. 
The Cave Creek Camp was located at the foot of a mountain. A rock fence, about 2 feet high, was constructed across the front and sides of the camp. Buildings and services were rated good to excellent. The buildings were of the rigid, nonportable type. Pit latrines were used. 
A March 1939 inspection report stated that F-10 had four barracks. Two had attached bathhouses used by all occupants. Attached bathhouses were unusual in CCC camps, and it was soon determined these facilities were inadequate to serve the number of men. However, a request for additional space was not granted by district headquarters. 
Numerous complaints were filed by enrollees, citing the mess, the company commander, and lack of recreational liberty parties to Douglas. Complaints against the commander described him as being gruff in his conversation and inconsiderate of enrollees' welfare, rebuffing them if they attempted to complain or make suggestions or recommendations.  Many men expressed unwillingness to re-enroll if the situation continued. The company commander's response was that it was the toughest company he had ever handled. 
Enrollees complained of having had only one weekend liberty party to Douglas in a 6-week period. The commander explained that the development of two venereal disease cases had brought about restrictions on liberty to Douglas. The suggested alternative, Lordsburg, NM, had not been welcomed by enrollees because of distance and lack of recreational opportunities. Lack of camp recreation in general was viewed as a problem. 
Work projects at F-10 continued in the same areas. A new project was a checking station set up at the camp during the big game hunting season. This was also done at the Rucker Canyon CCC Camp. 
By May 1940, Company 2870 at F-10-A was under the command of First Lieutenant Gordon C. Murray. Camp superintendent was William H. Hughes. Of the 188-man company, 116 were recent replacements at the camp. There were problems with morale and desertions.  A major concern was the condition of the camp buildings. After 6 years of continual use, they were in need of major rehabilitation.
Despite the large number of new recruits, progress on work projects was considered good. Projects included road, telephone line, and trail construction and the development of campgrounds, waterlines, and a building program. 
By October 1940, Company 2870 had been reduced to 109 men. Administration and work projects were primarily unchanged. A special investigation was made at the camp on October 7 to determine the cause of an August 5 accident that killed three enrollees. The three men were killed by a cave-in while cleaning a debris-filled culvert. The results of the investigation showed adequate precautions had been taken. 
Camp morale was somewhat low because of the accident, as well as the isolation of the camp. Little recreation outside the camp was available, although a variety of activities and athletics were offered within the camp. 
A camp inspection report, dated June 6, 1941, listed 162 men in Company 2870 under the command of First Lieutenant Ira Bellenger. Camp F-10 was given a high rating in nearly all aspects of camp life. 
Work in the spring of 1941 consisted of improving 3 miles of old mining road and constructing 1 mile of trail, all on the Chiricahua division of the Forest. 
On February 4, 1942, First Lieutenant Bellenger was commanding 100 men at Camp Cave Creek. Work projects had lagged due to the company's decreased strength. The camp's rigid style buildings were scheduled to be repaired. 
After the start of the war, desertions increased. Morale was fair to good, but enrollees living near camp often secured outside employment and simply neglected to apply for discharge. The nearby mining cities had become very busy. 
F-10 closed at the end of the CCC in 1942.  The camp's major work achievements included the Portal Ranger Station office, dwellings, barns, and corrals, South Fork Campground, and Rustler Park Fire Guard Building and latrines.
The office at the Portal Ranger Station is located in a wooded area and is atypical. It is approximately 34 feet wide and 15 feet long (fig. 111). The building is made of wood with riverbed rock veneer laid in mortar. The gabled section of the roof line is covered with decorative half-timbers. Porch posts are half wood and half riverbed rock.
The office interior is divided into two living rooms and one bathroom. A closet is located in each room. There are two front doors. The windows are six-over-one, double-hung sash type.
Box Canyon Camp, F-11, was among the first camps to begin operating in Arizona. Ranger Brisban was detailed as project superintendent at the camp starting around May 15, 1933.  The camp opened shortly thereafter:
The first row was for officers' tents, the second row contained 10 tents for enrollees, and the last row included a kitchen, mess hall, headquarters, hospital, and supply facilities. Captain Austin Triplett was in charge of the Box Canyon Camp.  He was reported to be very popular. 
Located in Box Canyon on the Santa Rita District, the permanent Camp F-11 was officially named Camp Cushing although it was rarely referred to by this name in written reports. The camp was named after Lt. Howard Cushing of the 6th Calvary, who had been killed in a fight with Chochise's Apaches in May 1872. 
In October 1933, the Box Canyon Camp moved to Flux Canyon because of lease difficulties. After the move, the camp kept the F-11 designation until the following year when it officially became Flux Canyon Camp, F-63. 
Early in January 1934, F-11 was reported overhauling and rebuilding the Nogales Ranger Station.  During the summer work began on the Patagonia Ranger Station. By this time, the Flux Canyon camp was occupied by a veterans company from Camp F-22 in Wyoming. 
F-63-A had side camps at Protero Canyon and Duquesne. The latter was responsible for tearing down 6 miles of old fence and replacing it in 10 days. Twenty men worked that job under the direction of Project Superintendent White. 
In May 1935, the Flux Canyon Company made its final move to the Apache National Forest.  One report indicates an SCS camp occupied the Flux Canyon site after the company's move.  Today there is little evidence of the camp except for a concrete-rubble grease rack, according to a letter dated November 9, 1982. 
Henry Dojaques, who was an enrollee at Flux Canyon Camp from January 1934 until October 1935, recalls that the men lived in big tents with wooden floors. Most camps had 200 men, but his had 250. Henry worked at building fences, carrying juniper posts and rolled wire. Men were assigned KP on weekends on a rotating basis. This was regular procedure, not a punishment. During the rest of the week a regular crew of enrollees did the cooking and KP duties. 
Louis Valenzuela was a carpenter for the CCC whose main job was to frame buildings. Even though he was not an enrollee himself, he worked with and instructed the CCC enrollees. Louis began working in 1933 and earned $9.99 per day. There were about 29 other carpenters, all of whom were locally employed, working with him. Valenzuela worked at Sunnyside Camp, then Flux Canyon, and finally Madera Camp. Louis mentioned the work accomplished by the CCC included plumbing, roads, fences, and water works. He recalled especially a dam in Eldon with beautiful rock work: "I had a chance to see the dam at Babocumari Ranchstill intacta masterpiece of rock work." Louis knows of one barracks left from the Flux Canyon Camp. The barracks, now a ranch house, is about 3 miles up the road from High to Nogales, and is about 200 yards in on the left side. There is also a truck ramp and well left at the site. Valenzuela indicated that having the CCC in the area helped business a great deal. 
The Patagonia and Canelo Ranger Stations show vividly how uniformity of structure design can, with slight modification, result in a distinctively different appearance from one site to another. The two stations, especially the residences, reveal how standard plans were varied to create distinctive sites despite the basic structural similarities of the buildings themselves.
Constructed in 1934, the Patagonia Ranger Station is located just northeast of Patagonia, AZ. The buildings at this station consisted of an office (now a residence), a residence, a garage, a barn, and a storage room or dynamite shed. All buildings are identical in plan to the Lowell Ranger Station except for the barn and garage. The layout, however, is somewhat different in order to fit the surroundings. All of these buildings, except the garage, have been modified.
The residence faces east and is approximately 35 feet wide (fig. 112). It is 50 feet long, rectangular in shape, and includes front and back porches. The residence is identical to the Lowell residence except that it does not have a side porch. The residence interior contains two bedrooms, a bath, living room, dining room, and kitchen. The front porch has been enclosed and used as a room. The building is made of adobe, has a flat roof with drains, and six-over-one, double-hung sash windows.
The Patagonia office faces east, in line with the residence. It is 30 feet wide and 35 feet long. Its front porch is now enclosed. There are two front doors, two rooms, and a bath projecting from the back of the building.
The ranger station garage is 35 feet wide and faces east, in line with the other buildings (fig. 113). There is a single-entry front entrance and two garage doors about 18 feet long. The interior is separated into three rooms.
The barn faces south and is located on a slight rise. It has a front door and small side window. The interior has a concrete floor and hay window. Attached to the rear is an enclosed lean-to that originally was open. The barn is now used for storage.
The storage room is located on a rise behind the garage. The concrete walls are very thick and slope inward. The building was possibly used to store dynamite.
The Nogales Ranger Station was built by the Box Canyon Camp in 1934-35. The station includes a residence, office, storage building, garage, workshop, and barn. The barn and garage are identical in design to the Patagonia buildings.
The Nogales ranger's residence faces east. It follows the same plan as Lowell Ranger Station except for a front porch extending across the entire width of the building. The building is 30 feet wide and 56 feet long. Clay tile detailing on the roof was added for decoration and possibly to aid water runoff. This detail appears on all of the Nogales buildings and is unique to this complex.
The office also faces east and stands in line with the residence. It is 30 feet wide and 17 feet long. The building plan is identical to the Lowell Ranger Station office. The front porch has been enclosed to provide an extra room.
Camp F-12 was established on July 12, 1933. The camp was located at an elevation of 5,500 feet in Rucker Canyon, 38 miles north of Douglas in the Chiricahua Mountains, Cochise County, AZ. Camp F-12 was formally named Camp Greenway after Rough Rider and Arizona mining magnate, General John C. Greenway. Most references to the camp, however, use the Rucker Canyon name. 
The original camp consisted of tents and was occupied by a veterans company. Frame structures were completed in December 1933. The veterans company was responsible for building an adobe clubroom containing a canteen. The mess hall was an extension of that building and was made of adobe. The company occupied the Rucker Canyon site until May 1934 at which time the company was transferred to the Tusayan National Forest.  The Rucker Canyon campsite was reoccupied in October 1934.
In February 1935, F-12 was occupied by Company 830, a company of junior white enrollees from Arizona and Texas. Company commander was R.H. Fullenwider, and project supervisor was C.L. White. Company strength was 204 men, 65 of whom were locally enrolled.
The camp was built on a hillside with buildings widely separated and connected by walks. An inspection described the camp as dirty and poorly maintained. Work projects covered 125 square miles and included construction of roads, bridges, cattle guards, telephone lines, range fences, stock dams, and a public campground and timber stand improvement.  A winter fly camp was maintained at Turkey Creek Ranger Station. In May, the camp moved to Colorado's Gunnison National Forest for the summer. 
By October 1937, the Rucker Canyon Camp was occupied by Company 2870, another junior company with enrollees recruited from Arizona, Oklahoma, and Texas. Company strength was 168 men with no LEM's. The company commander was First Lieutenant Alva E. Lindsay; project supervisor was W.H. Hughes.
Other work projects undertaken by Camp F-12 at that time were construction of drainage structures and bridges, maintenance of truck trails and telephone lines, seed collection, recreational lot survey, and revegetation.  The recreation areas built by F-12 were Rustler Park (rebuilt in the ninth period), Rucker Park, Cypress Park, Bathtub Park, and Hermitage Park. 
Although climatic conditions were reportedly favorable for year-round work activities at an elevation of 5,500 feet, a problem was encountered in 1937 with water shortages. From June until the middle of September, water for the camp had to be hauled a minimum of 6 miles. Records showed wells had gone dry for the first time in 60 years. Construction of two new wells and fall rains eventually ameliorated the problem. 
Another problem discovered by camp administrators was a high incidence of venereal disease among enrollees. A prophylaxis station was maintained at city hall by the CCC on weekends for personnel of three camps. No further cases of venereal disease were reported after these improvements. 
In 1937, camp buildings were rated good to excellent. 
In October 1938, Rucker Canyon Camp F-12 was moved to the CCC site at Cave Creek and subsequently became Camp F-10. The Rucker Canyon site was possibly redesignated as a Soil Conservation Service camp. 
Sunnyside was the third camp to open in the Coronado National Forest. It began operation on June 3, 1933.  Although usually referred to as Sunnyside, Camp F-13 was officially called Camp Miles after General Nelson A. Miles, to whom Geronimo surrendered in 1885.  The camp had a particularly good reputation and in February 1934 was given an "outstanding camp in the area" award. It was given the award again in April, just prior to its summer departure for Colorado. 
Among Sunnyside's work projects were construction of the Lyle-Parker Road and improvement of the side County Road as far as the Santa Cruz County line.  A side camp was operated in the winter of 1934 at Sand's Ranch.  Camp F-13-A closed permanently on October 21, 1935.
Alex Gonzales was an LEM for the Sunnyside Camp, F-13-A, from October 1933 until April 1934. He was 19 years old when he joined and had been working in the local area as a rancher and farmer. Gonzales recalls that when the CCC started all the Coronado land was open range. Cattle from different herds ran together, and each rancher would pick his cattle by brand. The CCC began dividing the range into allotments by building roads and fences.
Gonzales' main job was on a roadbuilding crew. He was designated cattle guard inspector. The guards were made of railroad rails and welded in camp. He says that the ones he built that year have now been replaced by larger ones.
The name "Sunnyside" was given to the area by a religious group who settled there in the late 1800's. The camp itself was actually in Parker Canyon. After some 45 days in tents the men moved into new barracks. The frame buildings housed 50 men each. Camp water had to be pumped 1-1/2 miles from the Collins Spring.
Gonzales remembers the following buildings at the Sunnyside Camp: four barracks, each with bath facilities (fig. 114), a blacksmith shop, an auto repair shop, a clinic, a PX or commissary, a recreation hall, dining hall, kitchen, and several storage buildings. Ice was brought in every 4 days. Perishables were kept in ground dugouts and covered by roofs of canvas and tin. Alex recalls that the food was good, but there was some waste. A disposal pit was dug daily to dispose of garbage. Cookstoves were fired by coal hauled in probably from Tucson. The recreation room was equipped with a radio and decks of cards. The men also played ball games and horseshoes. Because of its isolation, Sunnyside did not play against other camps.
Gonzales thinks there were about 200 men at Sunnyside. About one-fourth were enlisted from the local county, and the rest came from New Mexico, Texas, Nevada, Oregon, and Colorado. Every Friday after work four trucks left camp for Tucson, Nogales, and Douglas. The men would stay away for the weekend and make their own arrangements for returning to camp.
After Sunnyside closed, the buildings were dismantled and turned over to the Forest Service, according to Alex Gonzales. The land where the camp was located later became private land through a trade with the Forest Service. Gonzales left the CCC to do construction work, and in 1936 he started working for the Forest Service as a fire guard. He kept this job until the war started and then went into the military service. 
Don Willis was enrolled in the CCC for two years from 1933 to 1935. He was only 16 when he joined and lied about his age in order to get in. He was first an enrollee at Sunnyside. Later he moved to Flux Canyon, spending summers at Mesa Verde National Park.
Don Willis worked on a cattle fence line that he refers to as "an assembly line operation." First, a surveyor laid down the fence line. Then two men used sledgehammers to pound a bar into the ground every 2l feet to indicate postholes (fig. 115). Next, men with dynamite blasted the holes, which were then cleared out by the next crew of men with bars and shovels. LEM's cut juniper posts and hauled them to the fence line with burros. Another crew set the posts. Juniper was used because it does not rot and lasts for an average of 60 years. Finally, wire stringers put up wires between posts; bales of wire were hauled by hand or burros.
The Coronado Bulletin reports work on the existing Canelo Ranger Station began in November 1932 before the establishment of the Civilian Conservation Corps. Assistant Superintendent Anderson supervised the pouring of its concrete foundation and basement in November and early December 1932. During the excavation process, a redwood coffin was unearthed. Its contents were identified as the remains of Captain Joe Parks, who came to the area in 1882 and was one of the first white settlers. 
Improvements on the Canelo buildings were delayed by weather until February, at which time more workers were added. On June 16, 1933, it was reported that the station had been completed with the finishing of a barn made largely of materials salvaged from the previous Canelo ranger's dwelling. The new buildings were described as "consisting of a 5-room dwelling, storeroom-garage, machinery, and small barn, all of adobe construction." 
Strong evidence points to the use of CCC labor in improving the grounds around Canelo Ranger Station. The close proximity of the Sunnyside Camp in the summer of 1933 is one indicator. At least one enrollee remembers working at the station. Among the observable improvements are road work, stone walls, landscaping, and corrals. A small helicopter landing pad is located just above the ranger station, but it is not known when this was constructed.
The basic building plans for the Canelo Ranger Station are the same as found at the other ranger stations on the Coronado National Forest; however, by altering the roofline and using a different combination of building materials the entire appearance of the buildings was changed. This complex presently consists of a residence, office, garage, and barn.
The residence plan is similar in style to other ranger station residences on the forest. The front porch extends across half of the front. The house faces south. The building measures 35 feet wide and 45 feet long. Both front and back porches are screened in. The walls are adobe, and the wooden roof is gabled with brackets. Inside the residence are two bedrooms, a bath, dining room, living room, and kitchen. The basement has an outside entrance with an added shelter over it. Windows are deeply set six-over-one, double-hung sash type. Rough-cut rock retaining walls surround the house.
The Canelo office sits high off an unpaved road and looks east toward Turkey Creek (fig. 116). Identical in plan to the Patagonia and Lowell ranger station offices, this office also has two entrances, two interior rooms, and a projecting bath. An addition has been made to the rear, or north, side. The office is constructed of adobe, but instead of a flat roof, the roof is gabled with wooden shiplap and brackets. This change in roof line completely alters the building's appearance. Instead of a desert adobe building, it is a gabled building, designed appropriately for its wooded setting. Cypress trees in front of the office have grown so large they hide the building.
The Canelo garage also has a gable roof, but no brackets. It is located behind the residence and faces east (fig. 117). It has three garage doors, two the same style and one different. It has a single entrance doorway. There are three windows on the west side and two on the south.
The barn is an adobe structure that has a gable roof with no brackets. There is an open lean-to at the rear, a front door, one south window, a concrete floor, and a hay window. The barn is located behind the garage on a slight rise (fig. 118).
The Madera Canyon Camp was originally occupied by Company 1838 on November 1, 1934. In February 1935, the 209-man company was commanded by G.M. Roper. The camp was located 38 miles outside of Tucson in Puma County. Enrolles were racially mixed and came from Texas and Arizona. 
Project Supervisor W.H. Hughes oversaw 180 enrollees and 25 LEM's. Hughes directed work on 144 square miles. The work consisted of soil erosion control; fence building; road construction; recreational work; and construction of a septic tank, toilets, and fireplace.  Enrollees finished work on the Box Canyon Road, which had been started by Camp F-11-A. The road officially opened on May 6, 1935, with a special motorcade from Tucson. 
The camp was located in a wooded canyon in the Santa Rita Mountains 12 miles off the main highway. It was situated on a slope that had a 300-foot difference in elevation from one end to the other. Plant growth in the area included scrub oak, cedar, and mesquite; landscaping around the camp included cultivated flowers, vines, shrubs, and cacti gardens. There was 18-inch masonry curbing. The curbing's top was decorated with white granite bordering the walks, driveways, and gardens. The grounds were graveled.  Much of the original camp burned May 9, 1934; however, it was promptly rebuilt. 
In November 1935, the Madera Canyon Camp was occupied by Company 1826, a veterans' camp of racially mixed recruits from Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Arizona. Commander Alva E. Lindsay was in charge, and Hughes continued to supervise work projects. Projects similar to those worked on by the earlier company and included even more water development projects for recreation, livestock, and wildlife. Side camps were maintained at Sabino Canyon and for recreational improvements in the Catalinas.  Company strength was 234 men; there were no LEM's. 
The larger than average company necessitated building a fifth barracks to relieve overcrowding. Permission was granted by the district commander for its immediate construction. All other buildings and services were rated excellent. 
By October 1936, Veterans Company 1826 was commanded by Captain Joseph W. Rogers. The 196-man company was made up of enrollees from Arizona and New Mexico. Satisfaction was expressed by enrollees regarding nearly all camp conditions. Recreational activities included athletics, such as volleyball, croquet, and horseshoes, and liberty parties to various places for rodeos, barbecues, sightseeing, and athletic contests. Two complaints were registered at F-30 in 1936. The first dealt with a skunk infestation under the buildings, which was remedied by placing screens around the base of the buildings. The second involved removal of beer from CCC camps; enrollees had to walk three-fourths of a mile to the nearest source and then pay high prices. 
Recent repair work on camp buildings gave them a well-maintained appearance. Each of the four barracks had showers and washrooms. Technical service buildings were most in need of rehabilitation. The forestry garage-workshop was described as "so crowded a stove cannot be installed this winter." Forestry quarters were described as very poor, with two small rooms for seven men. 
Madera Canyon's work projects during the period covered approximately 100 square miles. Projects involved maintenance of truck trails, pipelines, and recreation areas as well as construction of water reservoirs, bridges, cattle guards, boundary fences, and recreation areas. A side camp of 10 men was established 8 miles from camp on Mount Baldy at an elevation of 8,500 feet. 
During the winter of 1937, Camp F-30 was occupied by enrollees predominantly from ranching and farming families in eastern Texas. Morale was described as high. Enrollees seemed especially interested in education classes. Facilities for the education program were inadequate, however; there was no separate education building. The rear of the officers' quarters was used as a classroom instead. Natural deterioration of camp buildings was evident, although repairs and maintenance had been kept up. 
Work projects during that period were varied and included construction of roads, pipelines for stock watering, fence for the Santa Rita Range boundary, stock tanks and steel rims for stock watering, spring development for campground use, moisture pits for experimental purposes, movable panel plots for experimental purposes, experimental plots for the Florida Station, and quail plots for wildlife protection, as well as surveys for fence line, revegetation, and fire control. 
By February 1938, the Madera Canyon Camp was occupied by Company 2848, composed of white junior enrollees from Texas and Arizona. First Lieutenant R.B. Thornal was the company commander. The technical service supervisor was F.G. Hanna. Company strength was 174 enrollees and 17 LEM's. Camp conditions and services were rated good. 
The Madera Canyon CCC Camp closed on May 28, 1938. In September 1941, a permit to use the site as a recreation and rest camp for enlisted Army personnel from Tucson Air Base was approved. 
In addition to a variety of other projects, the Madera Canyon Camp was responsible for major recreational developments in both the Santa Rita and Santa Catalina areas, including the Madera Canyon Upper and Lower Campgrounds. On the Santa Rita Experimental Range Reserve, the Madera Canyon Camp worked extensively at the Florida Station. Projects included boundary fencing, grounds maintenance, and stream control dams (fig. 119).
Camp F-30 was the primary CCC camp assigned to work at Sabino. During the fourth enrollment period of November 1934 to March 1935, the camp rebuilt 14 fireplaces and constructed 1 table, 2 flush toilets, sixty 18-inch culverts, 3 septic tanks, 1 garbage pit, a rubble masonry bridge of 60 feet by 5 feet, 2 rubble masonry registry booths, one 33-foot rock settee, and a well. A 1,650-foot-long rock wall was also rebuilt.
Prior to 1934, the Tanque Verde (F-42) camp did maintenance work at the Sabino Canyon Recreation Area. Coronado's "Forest Recreation Plan" states that "since 1933, the emergency period, the Forest Service, in cooperation with various other government agencies, has done a substantial amount of recreational improvement work in the lower portions of Sabino Canyon. The entire development was designed for public use."  Much of the CCC's work in the Sabino Canyon Recreation Area still remains, including part of a dam made of smooth riverbed rock. Drinking fountains made of smooth riverbed stone also remain (fig. 120). Rock steps, built of rough-cut stone taken from nearby hillsides, lead up to picnic areas and down to the river (fig. 121). Picnic tables have legs made of rough-cut stone; table tops and seats are made of concrete slabs (fig. 122).
About 10 CCC-built bridges are found in the canyon; no two exactly alike. Some are constructed completely of rounded riverbed rock, some are rough-cut stone, and some are a mixture of both. It should be noted that the WPA helped build these bridges, as is evident by the metal marker placed on a few of the bridge posts (fig. 123).
The caretaker's residence and garage were constructed of rough-cut stone rubble gathered from the area. Framing was most likely wood with a stone veneer. Shape and style were similar to the Lowell Ranger Station buildings, the residence being most like the ranger station office. Both buildings have been demolished.
The residence had two entrances and two rooms, plus a bath and a kitchen. There were an open front porch and a flat roof with castellated or parapet type projections. An addition was made to the back of the building at a later date.
Many of the CCC-constructed firepits at Sabino still remain. As simple as they look, pages were devoted to their design in the Forest Service Recreation Handbook and Acceptable Building Plans.
Located on top of Mount Lemon, this lookout was constructed of wood (fig. 124). It is a square building with windows on all four sides. Wooden flaps were made to be raised or lowered over the windows. Steel cords helped to stabilize the lookout. This tower was probably built by the Madera Canyon Camp or one of its side camps. Available data are inconclusive.
Tanque Verde Camp, F-42-A, was first occupied on November 17, 1933, by a company from Wyoming's Medicine Bow National Forest. Tanque Verde Camp was said to be at the lowest elevation of any CCC camp in the region. At 2,700-foot elevation, 90 °F temperature, and a cactus desert environment, men of the Tanque Verde Camp found themselves in quite different circumstances from their previous camp's 9,000-foot elevation, -7°F temperature, and lodgepole pine environment.
Carl Masters was an enrollee at the Tanque Verde Camp. He enrolled at Fort Francis E. Warren in Cheyenne, WY, and was first assigned to the Chimney Park Camp that moved to Tanque Verde.
Masters says Tanque Verde was also responsible for building picnic areas at Sabino Canyon, an adobe building at the Lowell Ranger Station, and the present adobe headquarters building at Saguaro National Monument. 
The Lowell Ranger Station was built by the CCC in 1934. It was constructed by enrollees from Tanque Verde Camp, F-42-A. As noted, Camp F-42-A was also involved in development of the Sabino Canyon Recreation Area. The ranger station is located below the Sabino Canyon Recreation Area and includes a residence, office, garage, barn, and workshop (fig. 125).
The residence at Lowell Ranger Station faces east and is 33 feet 8 inches wide (fig. 126). The west, or back, end is 29 feet 7 inches wide, and the sides measure 43 feet 8 inches. There are front and back porches, now screened, although the front porch was originally open and had a wooden railing. Another enclosed porch or greenhouse was removed from the south side, leaving a 30-inch-high concrete wall.
The residence's interior contains two bedrooms, bathroom, living room, dining room, and kitchen. Both bedrooms have double French doors leading to the south porch. The ceiling is made of thin wooden slats approximately 2 inches wide and peeled log beams that extend the length of the building.
The exterior of the residence building is a 1-inch layer of stucco covering adobe bricks. The adobe walls are about 13 inches thick. The stucco is painted sage green. The residence roof is flat with small vents or drains added to allow water to drain off. There are metal gutter spouts on each side of the building. Windows are deeply set and are six-over-one, double-hung sash type in sets of two, with sets of three on the front. The building is in excellent condition and has had little or no alteration.
The Lowell Ranger Station office is 30 by 31 feet (fig. 127). The building faces north. There is an open front porch with four square posts and concrete floor. Two front doors open into separate rooms. A 7- by 11-foot bathroom projects from the rear of the building. Inside the office there are wooden floors and a woodburning stove. The office walls are adobe covered with stucco. Windows are six-over-one, double-hung sash type and are deeply set.
The garage is a large, south-facing building, 32 feet across. The east and west sides are 16 feet wide. On the east side is an attached barn measuring 12 by 12 feet. The garage building is divided into three sections, the 10 by 16 garage, the 10 by 16 machine shed, and the 16 by 16 storeroom. There are two large garage doors and a front door on the south side of the storeroom. Sets of two windows are on the north and south sides. These were originally six-over-one, double-hung sash windows, but have been replaced by multipaned casement windows. A door and overhang have been added to the east side of the building. The barn has a 4- by 5-foot grain bin, a hay window, manger, feed box, and a shed roof supported by brackets.
Except for the unmaintained grounds, this complex is in excellent condition and remains closer to its original plan than any other ranger station examined.
Camp F-47 was occupied on August 21, 1935, by Company 2870 consisting of junior enrollees from Texas, Oklahoma, and Arizona. One "colored" person was reported in the company. The camp was located in Turkey Creek Canyon, outside Douglas, in Cochise County "on the floor of a canyon surrounded by large pine trees." 
Work projects were located within 50 square miles and included road and trail construction and improvement, construction of cattle guards and bridges, development of a recreational area, and telephone line and range fence construction. "The outstanding accomplishment of the first year was the completion of mountain trails, in which work it was necessary to use dynamite and tractors, all of which was accomplished without a serious accident."  A total of 148 men were assigned to the forest projects, while another 25 were detailed to camp work. Sixteen men were locally enrolled. 
An inspection report dated October 31, 1935, gave the camp a less positive rating than for most other Coronado camps. Sanitation required immediate attention. Enrollee morale was only fair. Buildings and supplies were rated primarily good rather than excellent. Two discharges due to venereal disease had occurred in the recent enrollment period.  The major work project was the building of a permanent powder magazine for the Chiricahua Division. 
A year later, Company No. 2870 was commanded by First Lieutenant Stanley L. Stewart of the Cavalry Reserve. D.H. Whitlow was project supervisor. The company had 163 men, all from Arizona. Contemplated work projects were the construction of a new bridge, boundary fences, horse trails, and road drainage work. 
Three fly or side camps were established outside the Turkey Creek camp site. One of these was at Crown King where a stone ranger station dwelling, office, and landscaping were being worked on.  Another side camp from F-47 was at Bonita Canyon and operated during the third period. This camp's projects included construction of the Cima Park administration camp, house, barn, and corral; the Rustler Park storeroom and campgrounds; and the Fly Peak camp, cistern, and trail.  Camp F-47 closed on May 15, 1937, when the camp moved to F-18-A, Groom Creek, on the Prescott National Forest. 
The Fly Peak Lookout is an example of a steel tower lookout with an accompanying log cabin. The tower is simple and functional. It is made of steel with a wooden cab. It is uncertain if the log cabin and lookout at Fly Peak were built by the CCC, but if so, they were probably constructed by Camp F-47. The cabin was of notched log construction and made to blend with the wooded surroundings. The structure no longer stands but was probably one room.
The Ash Canyon CCC Camp was occupied only during the second enrollment period. Not much information on it has been recorded. It was first occupied on November 3, 1933, by a company from Glade, CO. It closed April 30, 1934. In June 1934, the site was reoccupied by a transient camp from the 80 Ranch in the Huachuca foothills. The transients were employed primarily on the Montezuma Pass truck trail. 
Camp Pena Blanca, F-64-A, was originally occupied on December 7, 1935. The camp was located in Walker Canyon, approximately 14 miles outside Nogales, AZ, in Santa Cruz County. The camp was 9 miles down a dirt road off the main highway, in an area . . .
The following October, Company 2847, a company of white junior enrollees from Texas and Oklahoma, was stationed at Pena Blanca. The 148-man company was commanded by First Lieutenant J. Arnold van Hardeveld. An October 19 inspection report refers to problems with a previous commander who, as a result, had been "boarded" and relieved from service.  First Lieutenant van Hardeveld was described as a veteran of 15 CCC camps and a troubleshooter who possessed the "ability to restore, promote, and maintain morale." 
Ernest White was F-64's project supervisor in 1936. A total of 124 enrollees and 12 LEM's were engaged on projects covering 100 square miles. Projects included construction, maintenance, and improvement of roads, fire trails, and recreational areas and water development.  The camp was responsible for building the Nogales Ranger Station in 1937-38 and also built the storage house at the Patagonia Ranger Station.
Satisfaction was expressed by a camp inspector with the portable style camp buildings. Nearly all were rated excellent. A root cellar for storing smoked meats vegetables, and fruits was in the planning stages.  Camp sanitation was rated satisfactory. There was plentiful well water, a sewage water system, grease traps and soakage pits, a pit latrine for enrollees and flush toilets in the infirmary as well as the officers' and technical service quarters. Garbage was taken away daily by a local rancher. 
A complete recreation program was provided at Pena Blanca. Within-camp athletic facilities were available for baseball, volleyball, basketball, croquet, boxing, and horseshoes. Athletic competitions were held with other CCC camps and the Nogales high school teams. Camp entertainment on Friday nights offered prizes for outstanding entertainers. Trucks were provided for liberty parties every Saturday and for special events on Fridays and Sundays. The citizens of Nogales were frequently contributors to camp entertainment and chapel activities.  Enrollee morale at that time was generally good. "The conduct of enrollees as a whole is exemplary when they are in Nogales, and citizens there welcome them in a civic, social, and athletic way." 
As different groups of enrollees moved in and out of the camp every 6 months, the buildings and grounds came to require maintenance and renovation. The Live Oak, Pena Blanca's camp newspaper, reported in November 1936 that:
On March 15, 1937, the company of Pena Blanca moved to the Prescott National Forest for the summer. It returned in the fall, only to abandon the camp once again on December 15. On October 17, 1938, the Los Burros Camp on the Sitgreaves began occupation of the Pena Blanca site and retained the F-64 designation. A side camp was then set up at Madera Canyon. 
On February 8, 1939, a special investigation was ordered at Pena Blanca to determine facts concerning the discharge of nine enrollees from Company 3348, occupants of the camp at that time. The men had been dishonorably discharged for refusing to work in order to gain their release from the CCC.  The investigation concluded the charges against the nine enrollees were sustainable. It was found that a number of the men in the company, which had originated a month earlier in New Cumberland, PA, had enrolled in the CCC for the sole purpose of getting free transportation west. 
An inspection of F-64-A on February 24, 1939, noted that camp administrators were still encountering problems with enrollee attitudes of being along "for the ride." Company commander was Captain Hugh O. Seager; subordinate officer was Second Lieutenant John F. Sanchez.  The administration of these officers was reportedly "superior in all respects, especially in view of the fact it is one of the III Corps companies sent to VIII Corps . . . under so many handicaps." 
In February, company strength was 183 men. Some 143 men worked under Camp Superintendent Franklin G. Hanna. Projects were watershed erosion work and fire protection and control work on the Mexican border. Several other enrollees were detailed to special training schools; e.g., cook's school or camp construction and rehabilitation. Completion of an education building was reported. A 50-man side camp was located in Madera Canyon, 51 miles from the base camp. 
Recreational activities at the camp included intracamp basketball and volleyball tournaments, weekly motion pictures, and speakers and entertainers from Nogales. The terrain precluded having a baseball field. Swimming was available in Nogales on a limited basis.  The educational program included literacy education, elementary and high school classes, arts and crafts, and vocational courses. Courses, ranging from reading to citizenship, advanced Spanish, and forestry, were taught by the educational advisor, camp officers, and technical service personnel. A 24- by 20-foot library was stocked with numerous books, magazines, and newspapers. A report by the education advisor stated the program's achievements:
On May 13, 1939, personnel of Camp F-64 left for the Kaibab National Forest. They returned to occupy the Pena Blanca site on October 20 and then left again the following May for the Kaibab. 
A June 4, 1941, camp inspection report indicated that Pena Blanca's Company 4812 had a strength of 135 men. Commander Gorodezky was still in charge. Work projects consisted largely of cleanup activities due to the imminent disbandment of the company. Morale was described as fair, but declining because of disbandment. The camp was said to have operated only during winter periods since its establishment in 1935. The camp's portable buildings were being properly maintained, with coal used for heating fuel and three 5-kilowatt lighting units installed. 
According to Dennis Kieffer, a volunteer on the Coronado who researched the Pena Blanca camp, all that remains of the camp are the remnants of concrete building foundations. 
4. Harrison D. Burrall, Forest recreation plan for Coronado National Forest. 1930. Extensively revised by Samuel P. Snow in 1939. Located at: Forest Supervisor's Office, Coronado National Forest, Tucson, AZ.
6. Adobe information taken from preservation brief no. 5, "Preservation of historic adobe buildings" and "Adobe worker specifications, for CCC enrollees." Located at: National Archives and Record Service, Washington, DC; Record Group 35.
41. Robert Lenon. Letter to William Piper, range technician, Patagonia Ranger Station, Coronado National Forest, Patagonia, AZ. November 9, 1982. Supplied to the authors by William Piper, Coronado National Forest, Tucson, AZ.
42. Henry Dojaquez. Interviewed by Alison Otis and Kimberly Lakin for Pacific Crest Research and Services Corporation, Corvallis, OR, at Patagonia, AZ. Located at: History Section, USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC.
43. Louis Valenzuela. Interviewed by Alison Otis and Kimberly Lakin for Pacific Crest Research and Services Corporation, Corvallis, OR, at Patagonia, AZ. Located at: History Section, USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC.
45. A.W. Stockman. CCC camp inspection report, Camp F-12-A. October 26, 1937: p. 1. Located at: National Archives and Record Service, Washington, DC; Record Group 35-115, 973. Also: Coronado Bulletin. May 4, 1934. Located at: Forest Supervisor's Office, Coronado National Forest, Tucson, AZ.
60. Alex Gonzales. Interviewed by Alison Otis at Canelo Ranger Station, Canelo, AZ, for Pacific Crest Research and Services Corporation, Corvallis, OR. Located at: History Section USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC.
94. Coronado Bulletin. May 15, 1937. Located at: Forest Supervisor's Office, Coronado National Forest, Tucson, AZ. Also: See reference note 100. Although dates differ, the camp moved either on May 15, 1936, or May 15, 1937.
95. Coronado Bulletin. October 27, 1933, and June 15, 1936. Located at: Forest Supervisor's Office, Coronado National Forest, Tucson, AZ. Also: CCC camp directory. 1941-42. Located at: National Archives and Record Service, Washington, DC; Record Group 35-115, 889.
96. A.W. Stockman. CCC camp inspection report, F-64-A. October 19, 1936. p. 1. Located at: National Archives and Record Service, Washington, DC; Record Group 35-115, 974. The opening date conflicts with the Coronado Bulletin of October 25, 1935, which says the camp opened then, a more realistic date.
115. Dennis Kieffer. Report to Don Wood, archaeologist, Coronado National Forest, Tucson, AZ. Located at: Forest Supervisor's Office, Coronado National Forest, Tucson, AZ. Kieffer interviewed several informants while preparing his report. The informants included Gilbert Sykes, former forest ranger; Tommy Bell and William "Sonny" Clark, ranchers in the Walker Canyon area; Fred Noon; and Horton Noon.
Last Updated: 07-Jan-2008