The Valley of Opportunity: A History of West-Central Colorado
BLM Cultural Resource Series (Colorado: No. 12)
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Chapter I:

1. Duane A. Smith, "A Land Unto Itself: The Western Slope," The Colorado Magazine 55 (Spring 1978): 181-183.

2. Carl Abbott, Colorado, (Boulder: Associated University of Colorado Press, 1976), p. 3.

3. LeRoy Hafen, Colorado and Its People, 4 vols., (New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., 1948), v.2, p. 10.

4. Ibid., and Ferdinand V. Hayden, Tenth Annual Report of the Survey of the Territories, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1878), p. 163., hereafter cited: Hayden, Tenth Annual, and Willis T. Lee, Coal Fields of Grand Mesa and the West Elk Mountains, Colorado, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1912), pp. 8-9., hereafter cited: Lee, Coal Mesa.

5. Wilson Rockwell, Sunset Slope, True Epics of Western Colorado, (Denver: Big Mountain Press, 1956), p. 55., hereafter cited: Rockwell, Sunset Slope., and Lee, Coal Mesa, p. 9., and Richard P. Fischer, Vanadium-Uranium Deposits of the Rifle Creek Area, Garfield County, Colorado, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1960), pp. 1, 3, 17., hereafter cited: Fischer, Vanadium., and Dean E. Winchester, Oil Shale of the Rocky Mountain Region, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1923), p. 41., hereafter cited: Winchester, Rocky Mountain Oil Shale.

6. Al Look Interview, Colorado National Monument., hereafter cited: CNM., and Al Look, In My Back Yard, (Denver: University of Denver Press, 1951), pp. 19 and 126., hereafter cited: Look, Back Yard., and Pat H. Miller and Burton V. Coale, Colorado National Monument: A Fantastic Landscape Sculptured by Erosion, (n.c.: The Colorado-Black Canyon of the Gunnison Nature Association, 1969), p. 20., hereafter cited: Miller and Coale, Fantastic Landscape.

7. Look, Back Yard, p. 126.

8. Ferdinand V. Hayden, Ninth Annual Report of the Survey of the Territories, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1877), pp. 58-59., hereafter cited: Hayden, Ninth Annual.

9. Ibid.

10. Robert J. Weimar and John D. Haun, Guide to the Geology of Colorado, (Denver: Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists, 1961), p. 82., hereafter cited: Weimer and Haun, Colorado Geology.

11. Ibid., p. 83, and Norman Wengert, Oil Shale Country Fact Book, (Boulder: Colony Development Operation, n.d.), p. 1-6., and Fischer, Vanadium, p. 3.

12. Jack Hurley Smith, "The Economic Impact of the Development of the Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado" (M.A. thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, 1949), pp. 1-5, hereafter cited: Smith, "Colorado River M.A."

13. Hayden, Tenth Annual, p. 163., and No Author, Description of Glenwood Springs, Garfield County, Colorado, (Denver: Defiance Town and Land Company, 1883), p. 7., and Frank L. Wentworth, Aspen on the Roaring Fork, (Denver: World Press, 1950), p. 95., hereafter cited: Wentworth, Aspen Roaring., and Robert F. Bartlett, "The Early History of Aspen", (M.A. thesis, University of Denver, 1951), pp. 14-15., hereafter cited: Bartlett, "Early Aspen."

14. Weimar and Haun, Colorado Geology, pp. 84-87., and Lee, Coal Mesa, p. 11., and Smith, "Colorado River M.A.", p. 5.

15. Robert L. Miller and Grover A. Choate, The Forest Resource of Colorado, (Ft. Collins, CO.: U.S. Forest Service, 1964), p. 2., hereafter cited: Miller and Choate, Forest Resource., and Mary Rait, "Development of Grand Junction and the Colorado River Valley to Palisade From 1881 to 1931" (M.A. thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, 1931), pp. 1-5, hereafter cited: Raid, "Development, Grand Junction".

16. Miller and Choate, Forest Resource, pp. 2-3.

17. Rait, "Development, Grand Junction", pp. 1-5., and No Author, Fruita, Colorado, (Fruita, CO.: Fruita Board of Information, 1910), p. 55., and No Author, The Colorado River, "A Natural Menace Becomes a National Resource", (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1946), p. 41., hereafter cited: No Author, Natural Menace.

18. Smith, "Colorado River M.A.", pp. 15, 171.

19. Ibid, pp. 10-11, and Rait, "Development, Grand Junction", p. 3., and Don and Mary Roth Interview, CNM.

20. J. Donald Hughes, American Indians in Colorado, (Boulder: Pruett Publishing Co., 1977), pp. 9-11., hereafter cited: Hughes, American Indian., and Miller and Coale, Fantastic Landscape, p. 63., and Look Interview, CNM.

21. Hughes, American Indian, pp. 12, 14-20., and National Park Service, A Survey of the Recreational Resources of the Colorado River Basin, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1950), p. 91., hereafter cited: NPS, Survey Recreate.

22. Hughes, American Indian, pp. 13-20., and Al Look, Grand Junction, 1881-1972, (Grand Junction, Sentinel Printers, 1972), p. 1., hereafter cited: Look, Grand Junction., and H. M. Wormington, Prehistoric Indians of the Southwest, (Denver: Museum of Natural History, 1948), pp. 23-26.

23. Hughes, American Indian, pp. 20 and 26., and NPS, Survey Recreate, pp. 96-99.

24. Hughes, American Indian, pp. 20, 29-32., and James Grady, Environmental Factors in Archaeological Site Locations, Piceance Basin, Colorado, (Denver: Bureau of Land Management, Colorado State Office, 1980), pp. 247-249., hereafter cited: Grady, Piceance Basin.

25. Hughes, American Indian, pp. 20, 26., and Marshall Sprague, Massacre, Tragedy at White River, (Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1957), p. 62., hereafter cited: Sprague, Tragedy.

26. Hughes, American Indian, p. 73.

27. Ibid., pp. 18, 22., and Grady, Piceance Basin, pp. 246-249., and Look, Back Yard, p. 130., and Carl Ubbelohde, Maxine Benson and Duane A. Smith, A Colorado History, (Boulder: Pruett Press, 1976), p. 25., hereafter cited: Ubbelohde, Benson and Smith, Colorado History.

28. Robert Emmitt, The Last War Trail; The Utes and the Settlement of Colorado, (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954), pp. 31-32., hereafter cited: Emmitt, Last War., and Herbert E. Bolton, Pageant in the Wilderness, The Story of the Escalante Expedition to the Interior Basin, 1776, (Salt Lake City: Utah State Historical Society, 1950), p. 45., hereafter cited: Bolton, Pageant., and Roth Interview, CNM.

29. Wilson Rockwell, The Utes: A Forgotten People (Denver: Sage Books, 1956), p. 21., hereafter cited: Rockwell, Forgotten Utes., and Emma Horman Thayer, A Legend of Glenwood Springs, (Chicago: Colvin Publishing Co., 1900), pp. 16-17., and Clark C. Ewing, Pamela Berude and Margaret C. Ewing, Early McCoy, A Hundred Years Perspective, (Glenwood Springs: Raymond's Printing Co., 1976), p. 6.

30. Hughes, American Indian, p. 27., and Rockwell, Forgotten Utes, pp. 14-15., and Sprague, Tragedy, pp. 64-65.

31. Eugene E. Parsons, "The Development of Colorado", The Trail 16 (November 1923): 18., and E.M. Harmon, "The Story of the Indian Fort Near Granby, Colorado, The Colorado Magazine 4 (November 1939): 167., and Emmitt, Last War, p. 40., and Hughes, American Indian, pp. 35-36., and John B. Lloyd, "The Uncompahgre Utes" (M.A. thesis, Western State College, n.d.). pp. 3-4 Part 2.

32. Hughes, American Indian, p. 27., and Omer C. Stewart, "Ute Indians: Before and After Contact", Utah Historical Quarterly 34 (Winter 1966): 49., hereafter cited: Stewart, "Utes Contact".

33. Hughes, American Indian, p. 29.

34. Rockwell, Forgotten Utes, p. 12.

35. Herbert E. Bolton, Spanish Exploration in the Southwest, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1925), pp. 200-203., hereafter cited: Bolton, Spanish Exploration.

36. Ibid, p. 317., and Robert G. Ferris, ed., Explorers and Settlers, Historic Places Commemorating the Early Exploration and Settlement of the United States, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1969), p. 11.

37. Ubbelohde, Benson and Smith, Colorado History, pp. 10-11., and Arthur L. Campa, "Early Spanish Contacts With Colorado" in The Hispanic Contribution to the State of Colorado, p. 3, edited by Jose de Onis, (Boulder: Westview Press, 1976).

38. Robert L. Brown, Holy Cross—The Mountain and the City, (Caldwell, ID.: The Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1970), p. 52., and MacDonald Knight and Leonard A. Hammock, Early Days on the Eagle, (Eagle, CO.: n.p., 1965), p. 3.

39. Bolton, Spanish Exploration, p. 137.

40. Ibid, pp. 137-139.

41. Ibid, pp. 138-140, 199.

42. Ibid., pp. 201-210, 313., and Ubbelohde, Benson and Smith, Colorado History, pp. 13, 18., and Frederic James Athearn, "Life and Society in Eighteenth Century New Mexico", (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas, Austin, 1974), is especially valuable for descriptions of life in colonial New Mexico.

43. Warren L. d'Azevedo, ed., The Current Status of Anthropological Research in the Great Basin: 1964, (Reno, NV.: Desert Research Institute, 1966), p. 173.

44. Hughes, American Indian, pp. 42, 43., and Stewart, "Utes Contact", p. 49.

45. Stewart, "Utes Contact", p. 49., and Ralph Moody, The Old Trails West, (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1963), pp. 154-157.

46. LeRoy Hafen, The Old Spanish Trail, (Glendale, CA.: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1954), p. 52., hereafter cited: Hafen, Old Spanish.

47. Hughes, American Indian, p. 46., and Bolton, Pageant,p. 17..

48. Rockwell, Forgotten Utes, p. 53 and Wilson Rockwell, Uncompahgre Country, (Denver: Sage Books, 1965), p. 13., hereafter cited: Rockwell, Uncompahgre., and William H. Goetzman, Exploration and Empire; The Explorer and Scientist in the Winning of the West, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966), p. 68., hereafter cited: Goetzman, Exploration and Empire.

49. Goetzman, Exploration and Empire, p. 68.

50. Bolton, Pageant, pp. 6, 8.

51. Ibid., pp. 2, 10.

52. Ibid., p. 9.

53. Ibid.

54. Angelico Chavez, The Dominguez-Escalante Journal, (Provo, UT.: BYU Press, 1976), p. 37.

55. Ibid., p. 38., and Hafen, Old Spanish, p. 101, which gives a detailed description of the Padres' route in the area.

56. Rockwell, Uncompahgre, p. 16., and see also: Cecil J. Alter, "Father Escalante and the Utah Indians," Utah Historical Quarterly 1: 75-113 and 2: 18-54, and Herbert Auerbach, "Father Escalante's Itinerary," Utah Historical Quarterly 9: 109-128., an Herbert Auerbach, "Father Escalante's Journal and Related Documents and Map," Utah Historical Quarterly 11: 1-142.

57. Goetzman, Exploration and Empire, p. 69.

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Last Updated: 31-Oct-2008