1 "An Act To Establish A National Park Service, And For Other Purposes," Approved August 25, 1916 (39 Stat. 535)," cited in Lary M. Dilsaver, ed, America's National Park System: The Critical Documents (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1994), 46.
2 Arthur R. Gomez, A Most Singular Country: A History of Occupation in the Big Bend (Provo, UT: Charles Redd Center for Western Studies, Brigham Young University, 1990), 1; Frank Deckert, Big Bend: Three Steps to the Sky (Big Bend National Park, TX: Big Bend Natural History Association, 1981), 4, 7.
4 Deckert, Big Bend, 13, 15-16, 26, 33-34. For a discussion of the mercury mines in the Big Bend area, see Kenneth B. Ragsdale, Quicksilver: Terlingua and the Chisos Mining Company (College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1995, third printing).
6 For an analysis of the folk tales of the Chisos, see Ron C. Tyler, The Big Bend: A History of the Last Texas Frontier (College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1996, first printing of 1975 edition by the National Park Service),1-20.
8 Memorandum of Ross Maxwell, Superintendent, Big Bend National Park, Texas (BIBE), to the Regional Director, NPS, Region Three, Santa Fe, NM, February 18, 1948, Record Group (RG) 79, National Park Service (NPS), Southwest Region Office (SWRO), Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 20, Folder: 731.01 Place Names, National Archives and Records Administration, Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, Colorado (DEN NARA).
9 Ibid.; Memoranda of Erik K. Reed, Regional Archaeologists, NPS, Santa Fe, for the Superintendent, BIBE, March 4, 25, 1948, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 20, Folder: 731.01 Place Names, DEN NARA.
10 A good source using recent scholarship about the Spanish in the Southwest is David J. Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North America, 1513-1821 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992). For analysis of the complexity and challenge of Indian-Spanish relations, see Ramon A. Gutierrez, When Jesus Came, The Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500-1846 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1991).
15 Ibid., 19-20; Michael Welsh, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: Albuquerque District, 1935-1985 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1987), 4-5. For a good discussion of the Royal Corps of Engineers, see Janet R. Fireman, The Spanish Royal Corps of Engineers in the Western Borderlands, 1764-1815 (Glendale, CA: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1970).
19 A good introduction to the issues pertaining to the War with Mexico is Robert W. Johannsen, To the Halls of the Montezumas: The Mexican War in the American Imagination (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985).
20 Gomez, A Most Singular Country, 46, 67. Also see "The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848," in Richard N. Ellis, ed., Historic Documents of New Mexico (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1975), 10-20.
22 Gomez, A Most Singular Country, 48-51, 53, 55. For a discussion of the early journeys of the U.S. Army into the Davis Mountains, see Michael Welsh, A Special Place, A Sacred Trust: Preserving the Fort Davis Story (Santa Fe: National Park Service, 1996), 1-10. Also valuable is Robert M. Utley, Fort Davis National Historic Site, Texas (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1965).
27 Gomez, A Most Singular Country, 72-75, 77. A good treatment of the black Seminoles is Kevin Mulroy, Freedom on the Border: The Seminole Maroons in Florida, the Indian Territory, Coahuila, and Texas (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 1993).
33 Eleventh Census of the United States, 1890. For a discussion of Frederick Jackson Turner and his "frontier thesis," see William N. Cronon, "Turner's First Stand: The Significance of Significance in American History," in Richard W. Etualin, ed., Writing Western History: Essays on Major Western Historians (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991), 73-101.
44 Arthur R. Gomez, "Mariscal Quicksilver Mine and Reduction Works," Historic American Engineering Record, HAER No. TX-72, August 1997, Office of History, Southwest Support Office, National Park Service, Santa Fe (cited as SSO History Office); Interview with Jose A. Cisneros, Superintendent, Big Bend National Park, Texas, April 23, 1998.
Last Updated: 03-Mar-2003