Big Bend
Administrative History
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CHAPTER 10:
Endnotes

1 Simonian, Defending the Land of the Jaguar, 68-69, 76-77.

2 Ibid., 79, 81, 83-84.

3 Ibid., 87, 90, 93-94; Meyer and Sherman, The Course of Mexican History, 596, 600.

4 Simonian, Defending the Land of the Jaguar, 94-100.

5 Jameson, The Story of Big Bend National Park, 104. For additional information about Ickes, see Richard Lowitt, The New Deal and the West (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1984).

6 Josephus Daniels, U.S. Ambassador to Mexico, Mexico City, to the Secretary of State, Washington, DC, August 16, 1935,RG 79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 94, Folder: Big Bend Correspondence (Folder 1), DEN NARA.

7 Maier to L.R. Fiock, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, El Paso, TX, October 9, 1935, RG 79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 94, Folder: Big Bend Correspondence (Folder 1), DEN NARA.

8 Fiock to Maier, October 16, 1935, RG 79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 94, Folder: Big Bend Correspondence (Folder 1), DEN NARA.

9 Ibid.

10 Maier to Wirth, October 21, 1935, RG 79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 94, Folder: Big Bend Correspondence (Folder 1), DEN NARA.

11 LM. Lawson, American Commissioner, International Boundary Commission, El Paso, to Maier, October 23, 1935, RG 79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 94, Folder: Big Bend Correspondence (Folder 1), DEN NARA.

12 Ibid.

13 Maier to Wirth, November 5, 1935, RG 79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 94, Folder: Big Bend Correspondence (Folder 1), DEN NARA.

14 Maynard Johnson and Walter McDougall to Maier, November 9, 1935, Daniel F. Galicia to Maier, November 12, 1935, RG 79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 94, Folder: Big Bend Correspondence (Folder 1), DEN NARA.

15 A.E. Demaray, Acting Director, NPS, Washington, DC, to Juan Zinser, Chief, Departmento Forestal y Caza y Pesca, Care of Mr. George B. Shaw, American Consul, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, November 19, 1935, RG 79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 94, Folder: 4th Progress Report on Big Bend - Region III, DEN NARA; Simonian, Defending the Land of the Jaguar, 101.

16 Maier, "Report on the Conference with Mexican Representatives Relative to the Proposed Big Bend National Park and Other Border Areas," El Paso, TX, November 24, 1935, RG 79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 1, Folder: 0-30 (NPS) Big Bend International Park, DEN NARA. Frank Pinkley supervised a group of small NPS sites in Arizona and New Mexico that focused upon cultural resources like Indian ruins and Spanish missions; hence the generic term "Southwestern National Monuments," or SWNM.

17 Ibid.

18 Ibid.

19 Ibid.

20 Ibid.

21 Ibid.

22 Ibid.

23 Maxwell, "Summary of Events That Led to the Establishment of the Big Bend National Park," n.d. (1949?): 6, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments, and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 2, Folder: 101 NPS History; Telegram of Thomason to Townsend, February 10, 1936, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments, and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Folder: 4th Progress Report on Big Bend — Region III, Box 94, DEN NARA.

24 Maxwell, "Summary of Events That Led to the Establishment of the Big Bend National Park," 7.

25 Jameson, The Story of Big Bend, 109; Sellars, Preserving Nature in the National Parks, 101.

26 Maier to Juan Thacker, El Paso, TX, March 8, 1936, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments, and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Folder: 4th Progress Report on Big Bend — Region III, Box 94, DEN NARA.

27 Mrs. Roger Toll, Denver, Colorado, to McClatchy, April 6, 1936; McClatchy to Mrs. Toll, April 9, 1936, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments, and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 9, Folder: 503 (NPS) Pictures (General) [Folder 2], DEN NARA.

28 Galicia to McClatchy, March 25, 1936, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments, and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 7, Folder: 501 Publicity; Galicia to Wirth, April 3, 1936, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments, and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 1, Folder: 0-30 (NPS) Big Bend International Park, DEN NARA.

29 Wirth to Regional Officer, Region III, NPS, Oklahoma City, June 29, 1936; Maier to Wirth, July 3, 1936, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments, and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Folder: General April 1, 1936-July 30, 1936, Box 94, DEN NARA.

30 J.T. Roberts, Associate Landscape Architect, NPS, Bureau of Planning and State Cooperation, Austin, TX, "Special Report on Investigation of Proposed Mexican Big Bend National Park," September 9, 1936, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to CCC, ECW, and ERA Work in National Parks, Forests and Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1933-1934, Box 96, Folder: General Pt. 2, DEN NARA.

31 Ibid.

32 Quevedo to Maier, September 14, 1936, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 1, Folder: 000 General Big Bend, DEN NARA; "Big Bend International Park," Fort Worth Star-Telegram, November 4, 1936.

33 Memorandum of Maier to the NPS Director, November 13, 1936, "Notes on Texas Meetings, November 6th to 9th," RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Folder: Big Bend General, Box 94, DEN NARA.

34 Ibid.

35 Ibid.

36 Ibid.

37 Ibid.

38 McColm to Arthur Brisbane, King Features Syndicate, Inc., New York City, December 1, 1936, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 7, Folder: 501 Publicity, DEN NARA.

39 H. Conger Jones, "El Parque de la Paz de Mexico," trans. Carmen Reyes Arroyo, American Forest, December 1936, Box 9, Wallet 28, Folder 1, Townsend Collection, Archives of the Big Bend, SRSU; Morelock to the Honorable R.A. Bandeen, Stamford, TX, February 8, 1937; Townsend to Morelock, February 11, 1937, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Folder: Big Bend General, Box 94, DEN NARA.

40 Telegram of Ayers to Maier, April 16, 1937, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Park, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 1, Folder: 0-30 Big Bend International Park Pt. 2, DEN NARA; Maxwell, "Summary of Events That Led to the Establishment of the Big Bend National Park," 8.

41 Maier to Departemento Forestal, Caza y Pesca, Mexico City, May 26, 1937; Quevedo to P. L. Boal, Charge d'Affaires ad interim, Embassy of the United States of America, Mexico City, June 4, 1937; Boal to the Secretary of State, Washington, DC, June 7, 1937; Josephus Daniels, U.S. Ambassador to Mexico, Raleigh, NC, to Cammerer, June 21, 1937; Memorandum of the Secretary of State to the Secretary of the Interior, June 22, 1937, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 2, Folder: 120-01 House Bills Big Bend, DEN NARA.

42 Memorandum of Boal to the Secretary of State, "National Parks declared Ineffectable for Dotations or Restitutions," June 11, 1937, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 2, Folder: 120 (NPS) Legislation (General), DEN NARA.

43 William P. Bowen, "Mexican National Parks Declared Inaffectable For Ejidial Dotations And Restitutions," n.d., RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 2, Folder: 120 (NPS) Legislation (General), DEN NARA.

44 Ibid.

45 Ibid.

46 Leland D. Case, Editor, The Rotarian, Chicago, IL, to McClatchy, October 19, 1937; McClatchy to Case, October 23, 1937, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 8, Folder: 501.02 Magazine Articles, DEN NARA.

47 Friedrich E. Schuler, Mexico Between Hitler and Roosevelt: Mexican Foreign Relations in The Age of Lazaro Cardenas, 1934-1940 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1998), 63, 84, 89, 92; Meyer and Sherman, The Course of Mexican History, 604.

48 Memorandum of Wirth to Cammerer, November 21, 1938, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 2, Folder: 120-07 (NPS) Proposed Legislation Big Bend; Maier to Galicia, January 11, 1939, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 11, Folder: 610.01 Purchasing of Lands #1 Big Bend; Memorandum of Maier to Maxwell, April 15, 1939, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 1, Folder: 0-30 (NPS) Big Bend International Park; Memorandum of Maxwell to Maier, April 17, 1939, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 11, Folder: 602 (NPS) Boundaries (General), DEN NARA.

49 Memorandum of Wirth for Acting Regional Director, Region III, May 3, 1939; Memorandum of Maxwell for Regional Director, Region III, Attn: Mr. Herbert Maier, May 22, 1939, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 11, Folder: 602 (NPS) Boundaries (General), DEN NARA.

50 Memorandum of Maxwell for Maier, May 22, 1939, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 11, Folder: 602 (NPS) Boundaries (General), DEN NARA.

51 Ibid.

52 Memorandum of Maier for the NPS Director, May 27, 1939; Memorandum of Demaray for the Regional Director, Region III, July 1, 1939, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments, and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 11, Folder: 602 (NPS) Boundaries (General), DEN NARA.

53 Ibid.; Memorandum of Maier for the NPS Director, August 3, 1939, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 8, Folder: 501.01.1 Roadside Advertising and Road Signs, DEN NARA.

54 Schuler, Mexico Between Hitler and Roosevelt, 161-62, 207; Simonian, Defending the Land of the Jaguar, 107, 109; Meyer and Sherman, The Course of Mexican History, 606

55 Memorandum of George L. Collins, Acting Chief, Land Planning Division, NPS, Washington, DC, for Wirth, January 6, 1940, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 11, Folder: 602 (NPS) Boundaries (General); Acting Secretary of the Interior to the Secretary of State, Washington, DC, June 1, 1940, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 1, Folder: 000 General Big Bend, DEN NARA.

56 Horace Morelock, Austin, TX, to Ickes, August 10, 1940, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 12, Folder: 610.01 Purchasing of Lands #2 [Folder 2] Big Bend, DEN NARA.

57 Ibid.

58 Alvin J. Wirtz, Undersecretary of the Interior, Washington, DC, to H.W. Morelock, Austin, TX, August 20, 1940, RG79, NPS, SWRO, Santa Fe, Correspondence Relating to National Parks, Monuments and Recreational Areas, 1927-1953, Box 12, Folder: 610.01 Purchasing of Lands #2 [Folder 2] Big Bend, DEN NARA; Memorandum of McDougall for the Regional Director, Region III, December 18, 1940, Townsend Collection, Folder 4, Archives of the Big Bend, SRSU.

59 J. Pedrero Cordova, Commissioner, International Boundary Commission, El Paso, TX, to Townsend, December 21, 1940, Townsend Collection, Folder 4, Archives of the Big Bend, SRSU.


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