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Education Division Publications
of the National Park Service
in the 1930s

the "Berkeley Collection"

To support and encourage these park programs, Director Mather made Ansel Hall chief naturalist of the National Park Service in 1923. Organizationally, Hall became chief of the Service's Education Division, headquartered at the University of California at Berkeley with the forestry school there. At the Eighth National Park Conference, held at Mesa Verde in October 1925, Mather voiced strong support for interpretation and made the Education Division one of three equal units--with Landscape Architecture and Engineering--in the Service organization.

Barry Mackintosh,
Interpretation in the National Park Service: A Historical Perspective

Yosemite NP
Forest S.Townsley, Daniel Hull, Washington B. Lewis, Stephen T. Mather, Ansel Hall, Earnest P. Leavitt, Horace M. Albright, and Alexander, Yosemite NP, ca. 1926
National Park Service Historic Photograph Collection

And so was born the Field Division of Education of the National Park Service. While its main goal was to hire and train park naturalists (then called Ranger-Naturalists), this office also produced a number of reports which were useful for park naturalists and superintendents in developing interpretive programs or museum displays. What we loosely refer to here as "the Berkely Collection", these publications set the stage for more in-depth studies of the parks in subsequent years. Many of these publications were prepared by a special research group employed under the Civil Works Program of 1933-34. Long out-of-print and, admittedly a bit dated, it is hoped that the on-line editions of these publications will give the viewer a sense of the early days of National Park Service interpretation (additional on-line titles will be added at a later date). As Barry Mackintosh wrote: "...from the 1930s few doubted the importance of interpretation to the Service mission, as a significant part of what the bureau was about."


The Blackfoot, Julian Steward. Berkeley, Calif.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, Field Division of Education, 1934.

Preliminary Report on the Ethnography of the Southwest, Ralph L. Beals. Berkeley, Calif.: U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service, Field Division of Education, 1935.

Chronology for Tumacacori National Monument, with bibliography, H. E. Rensch. Berkeley, Calif.: U.S. Dept. of Interior, National Park Service, Field Division of Education, 1934.

A Brief Report on the Historical and Archeological Aspects of the Missions of Northern Sonora : made October 12-29, 1935, Arthur Woodward. Berkeley, Calif.: National Park Service, Field Division of Education, 1935.

A Report on the Geology of Devils Tower National Monument, William L. Effinger. Berkeley, Calif.: U.S. Department of the interior, National Park Service. Field Division of Education, 1934.

Tuzigoot, Louis R. Caywood and Edward H. Spicer. Berkeley, Calif.: National Park Service, Field Division of Education, July 1935.

The History of Scotts Bluff, Nebraska, Donald D. Brand. Berkeley, Calif.: Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, Field Division of Education, 1934.

History of Glacier National Park : with particular emphasis on the northern development, Ralph L. Beals. Berkeley, Calif.: U.S. Dept. of Interior, National Park Service, Field Division of Education, 1935.

Mount Rainier : Its Human History Associations, H.E. Rensch. Berkeley, Calif.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1935.

Historical Background for the Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, H.E. Rensch. Berkeley, Calif.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1935.

The Zoology of Rocky Mountain National Park (pdf), Baxter L. Smith. Berkeley, Calif.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, Field Division of Education, 1935.

A Report on the Geology of Rocky Mountain National Park, William L. Effinger. Berkeley, Calif.: Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, Field Division of Education, 1935.

Ethnology of Rocky Mountain National Park: The Ute and Arapaho, Ralph L. Beals, Berkeley, Calif.: Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, Field Division of Education, 1935.

A Report on the Geology of the Southwestern United States (pdf), William L. Effinger. Berkely, Calif.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, 1935.

Material Culture of the Pima, Papago, and Western Apache, Ralph L. Beals, Berkeley, Calif.: Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, Field Division of Education, 1934.

Navaho Life of Yesterday and Today, Katharine Luomala, Berkeley, Calif.: Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, Western Museum Laboratories, 1938.

Indian Tribes of Sequoia National Park Region, Julian H. Steward, Berkeley, Calif.: Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, Field Division of Education, 1935.

Outline of the Geology and Paleontology of Scotts Bluff National Monument, William L. Effinger. Berkeley, Calif.: Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, Field Division of Education, 1934.







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