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Historic Roads in the National Park System





Raynold Expedition

Barlow Expedition

Jones Expedition

Ludlow Reconnaissance

Dan C. Kingman

Hiram M. Chittenden




1. Quoted in Freeman Tilden, The National Parks (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1951), p. 117.

2. Quoted in Hiram Martin Chittenden, The Yellowstone National Park: Historical and Descriptive, 2d rev. ed. (Cincinnati: Stewart & Kidd Company, 1915), p. 42.

3. For the early history of Yellowstone Park, see in addition to Chittenden and Tilden: Louis C. Cramton, Early History of Yellowstone National Park and Its Relation to National Park Policy (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1932); H. Duane Hampton, How the U. S. Cavalry Saved Our National Parks (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1971); W. Turrentine Jackson, "The Creation of Yellowstone National Park," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, XXIX (September 1942), 187-206; Nathaniel P. Langford, The Discovery of Yellowstone Park (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1972); Merrill J. Mattes, "Behind the Legend of Colter's Hell: The Early Exploration of Yellowstone National Park," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, XXXVI (September 1949), 251-282.

4. F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby (New York: Scribner's, 1925, rpt. 1953), p. 182.

5. Joshua C. Taylor, "Introduction," National Parks and the American Landscape (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1972), p. 7.

6. William H. Goetzmann, Exploration and Empire: The Explorer and the Scientist in the Winning of the American West (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1967), pp. 329, 330, by permission of Alfred A. Knopf. Copyright © 1966 by William H. Goetzmann.

7. Tilden, The National Parks, p. 123.

8. Chittenden, Yellowstone National Park, pp. 87-88; Hampton, U. S. Cavalry, p. 56; and Philip H. Sheridan, Report of an Exploration of Parts of Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana in August and September 1882, with the Itinerary of James F. Gregory (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1882).

9. Engineer officers in charge of improvements at Yellowstone were: Capt. Dan C. Kingman, 1883-1887; Capt. Clinton B. Sears, 1887-1888; Maj. Charles D. Allen, 1888-1890; Maj. William A. Jones, 1890-1894; Capt. Hiram M. Chittenden, 1899-1906; 1st Lt. Ernest D. Peek, 1906-1908; 1st Lt. Wildurr Willing, 1909-1910; Capt. Clarence H. Knight, 1911-1917; Capt. John W. N. Schulz, July-November 1917; and Maj. George E. Verrill, November 1917-June 1918.

10. William F. Raynolds, "Report on the Exploration of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers, in 1859-'60." S. Exec. Doc. 77, 40th Cong., 1st sess. (1868).

11. Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army, 1876 (Washington: 1876). Part 3, pp. 595-596. Cited hereinafter as ARCE.

12. ARCE, 1887, Part 4, p. 3139.

13. Raynolds, op. cit., p. 11.

14. From 1838 to 1863 the Corps of Topographical Engineers was a separate branch of the Army.

15. Chittenden, Yellowstone National Park, pp. 51 and 53.

16. Chittenden, Yellowstone National Park, pp. 70-71.

17. 17 Stat. 32.

18. Ltr, Ludlow to Brig. Gen. A. A. Humphreys, 1 Mar 1876. In ARCE, 1876, III, p. 570.

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