Discovery and Re-Discovery in the White River Badlands
Historic Resource Study
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Cover (HTML)

Cover (PDF)

Contents (PDF)

Chapter 1: Introduction (PDF)

What is a Historic Resource Study?
What are "badlands"?
White River Badlands
Badlands National Park
HRS Report Organization

Chapter 2: Historical Overview of Geological and Paleontological Studies within the White River Badlands (PDF)

Summary of Previous Paleontological Investigations (1846-1950)
University and Museum Contributions to Badlands Geology and Paleontology (ca. 1892-1950)
Geological and Paleontological Studies Meet the Modern World (1950 to Present)

Chapter 3: Prehistoric and Protohistoric Overview of the White River Badlands (PDF)

White River Badlands as an Archeological Region
Previous Investigations in the White River Badlands
Prehistoric Cultural Context

Chapter 4: Siouan and Other American Indian Occupation of the White River Badlands (AD 1770-1891) (PDF)

Arrival of Siouan Tribes in South Dakota (AD 1700-1830)
Lakota (Teton) in the White River Badlands Region (1760-1840)
Non-Siouan Tribes in the Vicinity of the Badlands (1750-1850)
American Expansionism, Broken Promises and the Beginning of Indian Wars on the Plains (1840-1864)
Deterioration of Lakota and American Relations and War on the Plains (1864-1880)
Failure of the Reservation System, the Ghost Dance Religion, and the End of the Indian Wars (1880-1891)
Sacred Sites in the Vicinity of the Badlands

Chapter 5: Native American/Euro-American Relations on the Upper Missouri from 1744 to the 1820s and in the Badlands Area from 1822 to 1910 (PDF)

Initial Explorations and Trade in the Upper Missouri Region by Imperial Powers (1744-1803)
Opening of the American Fur Trade Era on the Upper Missouri and Trading Activities in the Vicinity of the White River Badlands (1803-1866)
Establishment of and Euro-American Expansion into the Dakota Territory (1858-1865)
Laramie Treaty of 1868 and Its Consequences (1868-1876)
The Great Sioux Reservation (1877-1889)
The Pine Ridge Reservation Sioux and Their Neighbors (1890-1910)

Chapter 6: Development and Patterns of Euro-American Settlement in the White River Badlands (AD 1880s-1960s) (PDF)

Pre-Settlement Euro-American Activity and Interest in the White River Badlands and Western Dakota (to ca. 1885)
Permanent European Settlement in the White River Badlands: Nineteenth Century Ranching (ca. 1885-1906)
The Arrival and Significance of the Railroads (1885-1907)
The White River Badlands and the Homestead Boom (1906-1918)
Homestead Life in the Badlands (1906-1918)
The Badlands Homestead Towns (1906-1940)
The End of the Homestead Era (1918-1940)
World War II and Beyond (1941-2006)
Postscript: Homestead-era Cultural Resources

Chapter 7: Case Studies of Agricultural Use of the White River Badlands (AD 1900-1950s) (PDF)

Case Histories, Subject Selection, and Study Methodology
Far West Badlands and Cuny Table
Miller Basin (Imlay Area)
Sage Creek Basin
Conata Basin
Upper Big Buffalo Creek

Chapter 8: Twentieth Century Economic Development and Tourism (PDF)

Pioneers in the Preservation of Natural Landscapes and the Promotion of Travel (ca. 1830-1907)
Promoting Travel and Tourism (ca. 1890s-1939)
Railroad Development (ca. 1889-1907)
Local Recreation as Tourism (1909-1941)
The Coming of the Automobile (1908-1940)
The Role of Government in Developing Infrastructure (ca. 1910-1942)

Chapter 9: The Development of Badlands National Park (PDF)

Early Attempts to Attract Recognition (1909-1929)
Private Development (1927-1929)
State and Federal Highway Partnerships (1929-1976)
Federal Land Programs (1933-1936)
The New Deal Era (1929-1941)
World War II and the Monument as a Bombing Range (1942-1968)
Mission 66 (1956-1966)
Re-Designation of the Monument to National Park Status (1952-1985)
Relations with American Indian Populations (1976-2006)
Recognizing the Historic Significance of Badlands National Park (1993-2006)

Chapter 10: Selected Bibliography (PDF)

Published Documents
Unpublished Documents
Government Documents
Online Resources

Appendix A: Land Patents Issued in the Vicinity of Badlands National Park (1900-1955) (PDF)


Figure 1, Map of Badlands National Park Showing Units and Geographical Boundaries
Figure 2, Map showing location of selected homesteads mentioned in text
Figure 3, Ernest Bormann stacking sod around base of his tar-paper homestead shack in 1912
Figure 4, Edgar and Alice Brown sod homestead house (at left) and another shack attached (at right), both buildings with wood lap siding. Alice and son Charles standing in front of house, photo from early 1930s
Figure 5, Pioneer Hotel, typical early twentieth century tourism accommodation
Figure 6, Ca. 1917 Driving in the Badlands
Figure 7, Promoting tourism in the Badlands, ca. 1920
Figure 8, National Register Eligible Resources

Table 1. Summary of Pre-1978 Archeological Surveys In or Adjacent to Badlands National Monument
Table 2. Summary of Selected 1978 and Post-1978 Archeological Surveys in or Adjacent to Badlands National Park
Table 3. Summary of NRHP Eligible Sites in Badlands National Park
Table 4. Population Growth in the Missouri River-Rapid City Corridor, 1900-1910
Table 5. Population Trends of Incorporated Townsites in the White River Badlands Area, 1910-1950
Table 6. Population Trends of Incorporated Townsites in the White River Badlands Area, 1960-2000
Table A-1. Jackson County Homestead Patents to 1955
Table A-2. Pennington County Homestead Patents, to 1955

Last Updated: 05-Jan-2007