Publications

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The NPS Climate Change Response Program (CCRP) provides expert knowledge, integrated support, and decision making frameworks that inform park management at all 419 NPS units and NPS programs. This overview summarizes published works featuring significant contributions from CCRP. You can also search publications by topic or other criteria on the NPS Data Store.

Publications are grouped by year, and each panel can be expanded with a click. Names emphasized in bold are current CCRP employees (or were employees at the time of preparation).

Weltzin, J. F., J. L. Betancourt, B. I. Cook, T. M. Crimmins, C. A. F. Enquist, M. D. Gerst, J. E. Gross, G. M. Henebry, R. A. Hufft, M. A. Kenney, J. S. Kimball, B. C. Reed, and S. W. Running. 2020. Seasonality of biological and physical systems as indicators of climatic variation and change. Climatic Change.

Perez, L., and M. Holly. 2020. How to counter Debbie Downer. Legacy 31(4): 13–15.

Thurman, L. L., B. A. Stein, E. A. Beever, W. Foden, S. R. Geange, N. Green, J. E. Gross, D. J. Lawrence, O. LeDee, J. D. Olden, L. M. Thompson, B. E. Young. 2020. Persist in place or shift in space? Evaluating the adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.

Battaglin, W., L. Hay, D. J. Lawrence, G. McCabe, P. Norton. 2020. Baseline conditions and projected future hydro-climatic change in national parks in the conterminous United States. Water 12(6): 1704.

Van Dusen, P., B. Rajagopalan, D.J. Lawrence, L.E. Condon, G. Smillie, S. Gangopadhyay, T. Pruitt. 2020. 21st Century flood risk projections at select sites for the U.S. National Park Service. Climate Risk Management 28: 100211.

Gonzalez, P. 2020. Human-caused climate change in United States national parks and solutions for the future. Parks Stewardship Forum 36(2): 188–210.

Littell, J. S., J. H. Reynolds, K. K. Bartz, S. A. McAfee, and G. Hayward. 2020. So goes the snow: Alaska snowpack changes and impacts on Pacific salmon in a warming climate. Alaska Park Science 19(1): 62-75.

Perez, L., A. Delorey, M. Nelson, R. Stubblebine, and M. Holly. 2020. Every Kid in a Park Climate Change Academies: Notes from the field. Parks Stewardship Forum 36(2): 226-232.

Runyon, A. N., A. R. Carlson, J. E. Gross, D. J. Lawrence, & G.W. Schuurman. 2020. Repeatable approaches to work with scientific uncertainty and advance climate change adaptation in US national parks. Parks Stewardship Forum, 36(1).

Schmitt, C., C. Brigham, N. Fisichelli, A. J. Miller-Rushing, K. Nydick, T. Watkins, & M. A. Wood. 2020. National park research fellowships increase capacity and creativity in responding to climate change. Parks Stewardship Forum, 36(1).

Barnett, D. T., P. A. Duffy, D. S. Schimel, R. E. Krauss, K. M. Irvine, F. W. Davis, J. E. Gross, E. I. Azuaje, A. S. Thorpe, D. Gudex-Cross, M. Patterson, J. M. McKay, J. T. McCorkel, and C. L. Meier. 2019. The terrestrial organism and biogeochemistry spatial sampling design for the National Ecological Observatory Network. Ecosphere 10(2):e02540.10.1002/ecs2.2540

Lawrence, D. J., and A. N. Runyon. 2019. Implications of climate change for the water supply of the Chisos Mountains developed area: Big Bend National Park technical assistance request 4945. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/CCRP/NRR—2019/2045. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Ricci, G., D. Robadue, Jr., P. Rubinoff, A. Casey, and A. L. Babson. 2019. Integrated coastal climate change vulnerability assessment: Colonial National Historical Park. Natural Resource Report NPS/COLO/NRR—2019/1945. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Ricci, G., D. Robadue, Jr., P. Rubinoff, A. Casey, and A. L. Babson. 2019. Method for integrated coastal climate change vulnerability assessment. Natural Resource Report NPS/NER/NRR—2019/1933. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Roberts, R., L. Perez, and M. Wood. 2019. Climate Change Response Program internship assessment. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Schuurman, G. W., A. Symstad, B. W. Miller, A. N. Runyon, and R. Ohms. 2019. Climate change scenario planning for resource stewardship: Applying a novel approach in Devils Tower National Monument. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/CCRP/NRR—2019/2052. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Gonzalez, P., F. Wang, M. Notaro, D.J. Vimont, and J.W. Williams. 2018. Disproportionate magnitude of climate change in United States national parks. Environmental Research Letters 13: 104001. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aade09.

Gonzalez, P., G.M. Garfin, D.D. Breshears, K.M. Brooks, H.E. Brown, E.H. Elias, A. Gunasekara, N. Huntly, J.K. Maldonado, N.J. Mantua, H.G. Margolis, S. McAfee, B.R. Middleton, and B.H. Udall, 2018: Southwest. In Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II [Reidmiller, D.R., C.W. Avery, D.R. Easterling, K.E. Kunkel, K.L.M. Lewis, T.K. Maycock, and B.C. Stewart (eds.)]. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 1101–1184. doi: 10.7930/NCA4.2018.CH25

Hollesen, J., M. Callanan, T. Dawson, R. Fenger-Nielsen, T. M. Friesen, A. M. Jensen, A. Markham, V. V. Martens, V. V. Pitulko & M. Rockman. Climate change and the deteriorating archaeological and environmental archives of the Arctic. Antiquity 92(363): 573-586.

Lempert, R., J. Arnold, R. Pulwarty, K. Gordon, K. Greig, C. Hawkins Hoffman, D. Sands, and C. Werrell, 2018: Reducing Risks Through Adaptation Actions. In Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II [Reidmiller, D.R., C.W. Avery, D.R. Easterling, K.E. Kunkel, K.L.M. Lewis, T.K. Maycock, and B.C. Stewart (eds.)]. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 1309–1345. doi: 10.7930/NCA4.2018.CH28

Wu, J.X., C. Wilsey, L. Taylor, and G.W. Schuurman. 2018. Projected avifaunal responses to climate change across the U.S. National Park System. PLOS ONE.

Ackerly, D., J. Battles, V. Butsic, P. Gonzalez, M. Kelly, W. Silver, D. Saah, S. Di Tommaso, A. Mayer, D. Moanga, I. Schroeter, and B. Riordan. 2018. Land Acquisition and Ecosystem Carbon in Coastal California. California Fourth Climate Change Assessment report CCCA4-EXT-2018-003. Climate Readiness Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

D. Hardy, H. Lazrus, M. Mendez, B. Orlove, I. Rivera-Collazo, J. T. Roberts, M. Rockman, K. Thomas, B. P. Warner, R. Winthrop. (2018). Social vulnerability: Social science perspectives on climate change, part 1. Washington, DC: USGCRP Social Science Coordinating Committee.
Barnosky, A.D., E.A. Hadly, P. Gonzalez, J. Head, P.D. Polly, A.M. Lawing, J.T. Eronen, D.D. Ackerly, K. Alex, E. Biber, J. Blois, J. Brashares, G. Ceballos, E. Davis, G.P. Dietl, R. Dirzo, H. Doremus, M. Fortelius, H. Greene, J. Hellmann, T. Hickler, S.T. Jackson, M. Kemp, P.L. Koch, C. Kremen, E.L. Lindsey, C. Looy, C.R. Marshall, C. Mendenhall, A. Mulch, A.M. Mychajliw, C. Nowak, U. Ramakrishnan, J. Schnitzler, K.D. Shrestha, K. Solari, L. Stegner, M.A. Stegner, N.C. Stenseth, M.H. Wake, and Z. Zhang. 2017. Merging paleobiology with conservation biology to guide the future of terrestrial ecosystems. Science 355: 594. doi:10.1126/science.aah4787.

Gonzalez, P. 2017. Climate change trends, impacts, and vulnerabilities in US national parks. In Beissinger, S.R., D.D. Ackerly, H. Doremus, and G.E. Machlis (eds.) Science, Conservation, and National Parks. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

Ricci, G., D. Robadue, Jr., and A. L. Babson. 2017. Designing and scoping climate change vulnerability assessments for coastal national parks in the northeast region: Guidance and lessons learned. Natural Resource Report NPS/NER/NRR—2017/1426. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Symstad, A.J., N.A. Fisichelli, B.W. Miller, E. Rowland, and G.W. Schuurman. 2017. Multiple methods for multiple futures: strengthening the integration of qualitative scenario planning with quantitative simulation modeling. Climate Risk Management 17:78-91.

Hambrecht, G., & Rockman, M. (2017). International Approaches to Climate Change and Cultural Heritage. American Antiquity, 82(4), 627-641. doi:10.1017/aaq.2017.30

Rockman, M. and J. Maase. 2017. Every Place has a Climate Story: Finding and Sharing Climate Change Stories with Cultural Heritage. Pages 107-114 in Dawson, T., C. Nimura, E.L. Romero and M. Daire (editors), Public Archaeology and Climate Change. Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK.

Miller, B., A.J. Symstad, L. Frid, N.A. Fisichelli, and G.W. Schuurman. 2017. Co-producing simulation models to inform resource management: a case study from southwest South Dakota. Ecosphere 8(12):e02020. 10.1002/ecs2.2020.

Paloski, R.A., E.T. Hileman, G.C. Mayer, and G.W. Schuurman. 2017. Geographic distribution: Thamnophis radix. Herpetological Review 48:591-592.
Badje, A.F., T.J. Brandt, T.L. Bergeson, R.A. Paloski, J.M. Kapfer, and G.W. Schuurman. 2016. Blanchard’s cricket frog Acris Blanchardi overwintering ecology in southwestern Wisconsin. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 11:101-111.

Early, R., B.A. Bradley, J.S. Dukes, J.J. Lawler, J.D. Olden, D.M. Blumenthal, P. Gonzalez, E.D. Grosholz, I. Ibañez, L.P. Miller, C.J.B. Sorte, and A.J. Tatem. 2016. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities. Nature Communications 7: 12485. doi:10.1038/ncomms12485.

Fisichelli, N.A., G.W. Schuurman, and C. Hawkins Hoffman. 2016. Is 'resilience' maladaptive? Towards an accurate lexicon for climate change adaptation. Environmental Management 57:753-758.

Guay, K., P. Jantz, J.E. Gross, B.M. Rogers, S.J. Goetz. 2016. Historical and projected climates as a basis for climate change exposure and adaptation potential across the Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperative. Pages 78-94 in A. Hansen, D. Theobald, T. Olliff, and W.B. Monahan (editors), Climate change in Wildlands: Pioneering approaches to science and management. Island Press, Covelo, CA.

Gross, J.E., and B.R. Noon. 2015. Application of surrogates and indicators to monitoring natural resources. Pages 169-178 in D.B. Lindenmayer, J.C. Pierson, and P. Barton, P. (editors). Indicators and surrogates of biodiversity and environmental change. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Gross, J.E., and T. Olliff. 2016. Linking climate science with management. Pages 17-32 in A. Hansen, D. Theobald, T. Olliff, and W.B. Monahan (editors), Climate change in Wildlands: Pioneering approaches to science and management. Island Press, Covelo, CA.

Gross, J.E., M. Tercek, K. Guay, M. Talbert, T. Chang, A. Rodman, D. Thoma, P. Jantz, J.T. Morisette. 2016. Historical and projected climate analyses to support climate adaptation in the northern Rocky Mountains. Pages 55-77 in A. Hansen, D. Theobald, T. Olliff, and W.B. Monahan (editors), Climate change in Wildlands: Pioneering approaches to science and management. Island Press, Covelo, CA.

Gross, J.E., S. Woodley, L. Welling, and J.E.M. Watson. 2016. Adapting to climate change: Guidance for protected area managers and planners. IUCN World Commission for Protected Areas, Best Practice Guidelines No. 24.

A. Hansen, D. Theobald, S. T. Olliff, and B. Monihan. 2016. Conclusion: Synthesis, Lessons Learned, Next Steps Pages 354-367 in A. Hansen, D. Theobald, T. Olliff, and W.B. Monahan (editors), Climate change in Wildlands: Pioneering approaches to science and management. Island Press, Covelo, CA.

Hellmann, J.J., R. Grundel, C. Hoving, and G.W. Schuurman. 2016. A call to insect scientists: challenges and opportunities of managing insect communities under climate change. Current Opinion in Insect Science 17:92-97.

Hunter, Jr., M, P. Barton, A. Calhoun, and 15 others (incl. J.E. Gross). 2016. Two roles for ecological surrogacy: indicator surrogates and management surrogates. Ecological Indicators 63:121-125.

Monahan, W.B., A. Rosemartin, K. Gerst, N. Fisichelli, T. Ault, M. Schwartz, J Gross, J Weltzin. 2016. Climate change is advancing spring onset across the US national park system. Ecosphere, 7:e01465.

Olliff, S.T. and A. Hansen. 2016. Challenges and approaches for integrating climate science into federal land management Pages 33-52 in A. Hansen, D. Theobald, T. Olliff, and W.B. Monahan (editors), Climate change in Wildlands: Pioneering approaches to science and management. Island Press, Covelo, CA.

Olliff, S.T., B. Monahan, V. Kelly and D. Theobald. 2016. Approaches, Challenges, and Opportunities To Achieving Climate Smart Adaptation Pages 259-278 in A. Hansen, D. Theobald, T. Olliff, and W.B. Monahan (editors), Climate change in Wildlands: Pioneering approaches to science and management. Island Press, Covelo, CA.

Olliff, S.T., R. Mordecai, J. Cakir, B.S. Thatcher, G.M. Tabor, S.P. Finn, H. Morris, Y. Converse, A. Babson, B. Monahan, and E. Haubold. 2016. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives: Working beyond boundaries to tackle large-scale conservation challenges. Invited paper, The George Wright Forum Special Issue on Landscape Conservation. Volume 33:2.

Theobald, D.M., W.B. Monahan, D. Harrison-Atlas, A.J. Hansen, P. Jantz, J.E. Gross, and S.T. Olliff. 2016. Assessing vulnerability to land use and climate change at landscape scales: landforms and physiographic diversity as coarse-filter targets representing species and processes. Pages 95-115 in A. Hansen, D. Theobald, T. Olliff, and W.B. Monahan (editors), Climate change in Wildlands: Pioneering approaches to science and management. Island Press, Covelo, CA.
Beever, E.A., J. O’Leary, C. Mengelt, J. West, S. Julius, N. Green, D. Magness, L. Petes, B. Stein, A.B. Nicotra, J. Hellmann, A.L. Robertson, E. Babij, J. Brennan, G.W. Schuurman, and G.E. Hofmann. 2015. Improving conservation outcomes with a new paradigm for understanding species’ Fundamental and Realized Adaptive Capacity. 2015. Conservation Letters 9:131-137.

Betts, R.A., N. Golding, P. Gonzalez, J. Gornall, R. Kahana, G. Kay, L. Mitchell, and A. Wiltshire. 2015. Climate and land use change impacts on global terrestrial ecosystems and river flows in the HadGEM2-ES Earth system model using the representative concentration pathways. Biogeosciences 12: 1317-1338.

Eigenbrod, F., P. Gonzalez, J. Dash, and I. Steyl. 2015. Vulnerability of ecosystems to climate change moderated by habitat intactness. Global Change Biology 21: 275-286.

Fisichelli, N.A., G.W. Schuurman, W.B. Monahan, and P.S. Ziesler. 2015. Protected area tourism in a changing climate: will visitation at US national parks warm up or overheat? PLOS ONE 10.

Fisichelli, N.A., G.W. Schuurman, and E. Sharron. 2015. Climate change: responding to the crisis portended by George Perkins Marsh. The George Wright Forum 32:276-289.

Gonzalez, P., J.J. Battles, B.M. Collins, T. Robards, and D.S. Saah. 2015. Aboveground live carbon stock changes of California wildland ecosystems, 2001-2010. Forest Ecology and Management 348: 68-77.

Lindenmayer, D., and 16 others (incl. J.E. Gross). 2015. A new framework for selecting environmental surrogates. Science of the Total Environment 538:1029-1038.

Sepulveda, A.J., M. Tercek, R. Al-Chokhachy. A. Ray, D. Thoma, B. Hossack, G. Pederson; A. Rodman, T. Olliff. 2015. The shifting climate portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area. PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0145060.

Tweiten, M.A., R.R. Calcote, E.A. Lynch, S.C. Hotchkiss, and G.W. Schuurman. 2015. Geophysical features influence the climate change sensitivity of northern Wisconsin pine and oak forests. Ecological Applications 25:1984-1996.

Rockman, M. 2015. An NPS Framework for Addressing Climate Change with Cultural Resources. George Wright Forum 32(1): 37-50.
Garfin, G., G. Franco, H. Blanco, A. Comrie, P. Gonzalez, T. Piechota, R. Smyth, and R. Waskom. 2014. Southwest. In U.S. Global Change Research Program (Melillo, J.M., T.C. Richmond, and G.W. Yohe (Eds.)) Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC.

Niang, I., O.C. Ruppel, M.A. Abdrabo, A. Essel, C. Lennard, J. Padgham, and P. Urquhart. 2014. Africa. In Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. [P. Gonzalez one of 55 Contributing Authors.]

Settele, J., R. Scholes, R.A. Betts, S. Bunn, P. Leadley, D. Nepstad, J.T. Overpeck, and M.A. Taboada. 2014. Terrestrial and inland water systems. In Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. [P. Gonzalez one of 30 Contributing Authors.]

Gross, J.E., K. Johnson, P. Glick, and K. Hall. 2014. Understanding climate change impacts and vulnerability. Pp. 87-108 in B. Stein et al. (editors), Climate-Smart conservation: putting adaptation principles into practice. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

Gross, J.E., and E. Rowland. 2014. Tracking action effectiveness and ecological response. Pp. 165-174 in B. Stein et al. (editors), Climate-Smart conservation: putting adaptation principles into practice. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

Gonzalez, P., B. Kroll, and C.R. Vargas. 2014. Tropical rainforest biodiversity and aboveground carbon changes and uncertainties in the Selva Central, Peru. Forest Ecology and Management 312: 78-91.

Guntenspergen, G.R, and J.E. Gross. 2014. Threshold concepts: implications for the management of natural resources. Pages 1-8 in: Guntenspergen, G.R (editor): Application of threshold concepts in natural resource decision making. Springer Science.

Hansen, A.J., N. Piekielek, C. Davis, J. Haas, D. Theobald, J.E. Gross, W.B. Monahan, T. Olliff, S. W. Running. 2014. Exposure of US National Parks to land use and climate change 1900-2100. Ecological Applications 24: 484-502.

Hoffman, J.E. Rowland, C Hawkins Hoffman, J. West, S. Herrod-Julius, and M. Hayes. 2014. Managing under uncertainty. pp. 177-187 in B. Stein et al. (editors), Climate-Smart conservation: putting adaptation principles into practice. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

Lydersen, J.M., B.M. Collins, C.M. Ewell, A.L. Reiner, J.A. Fites, C.B. Dow, P. Gonzalez, D.S. Saah, and J.J. Battles. 2014. Using field data to assess model predictions of surface and ground fuel consumption by wildfire in coniferous forests of California. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 119: 223–235.

Monahan W.B., Fisichelli N.A. 2014. Climate Exposure of US National Parks in a New Era of Change. PLoS ONE 9(7): e101302.

Stein, B.A., C Hawkins Hoffman, and P. Glick, and K. Hall. 2014. Reconsidering conservation goals in light of climate change. pp. 109-117 in B. Stein et al. (editors), Climate-Smart conservation: putting adaptation principles into practice. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.
Caffrey, M. and R.L. Beavers. 2013. Forecasting the impact of sea level rise in the U.S. Park Science, 30(1): 6–13.

Pipatti, R., P. Munishi, P. Gonzalez, and P.M. Wade. 2013. Cross-cutting issues and reporting. In Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva, Switzerland.

Grimm, N.B., F.S. Chapin, B. Bierwagen, P. Gonzalez, P.M. Groffman, Y. Luo, F. Melton, K. Nadelhoffer, A. Pairis, P.A. Raymond, J. Schimel, and C.E. Williamson. 2013. The impacts of climate change on ecosystem structure and function. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11: 474-482.

Gonzalez, P. 2013. Energy use, Human. In S.A. Levin (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition). Academic Press, Waltham, MA.
Amberg, S., K. Kilkus, S. Gardner, J. E. Gross, M. Wood, and B. Drazkowski. 2012. Badlands National Park: Climate change vulnerability assessment. Natural Resource Report NPS/BADL/NRR—2012/505. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. 304 pages.

Gonzalez, P., C.J. Tucker, and H. Sy. 2012. Tree density and species decline in the African Sahel attributable to climate. Journal of Arid Environments 78: 55-64.

Gross, J.E. 2012. Ecological consequences of climate change: mechanisms, conservation, and management. Journal of Wildlife Management 76:1102-1103.

Monahan, W.B., and J.E. Gross. 2012. Upstream landscape dynamics of US national parks with implications for water quality and watershed management. In: Sustainable Natural Resources Management, Abiud Kaswamila (ed.), InTech.

Monahan, W.B., J. E. Gross, L. K. Svancara, and T. Philippi. 2012. A guide to interpret­ing NPScape data and analyses. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NRSS/NRTR—2012/578. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Monahan, W.B., D.E. Swann, J.A. Hubbard, and J.E. Gross. 2012. Monitoring park landscape dynamics through NPScape: Saguaro National Park. Park Science, 29(1).

Schwartz, M.W., J.J. Hellmann, J.M. McLachlan, D.F. Sax, J.O. Borevitz, J. Brennan, A.E. Camacho, G. Ceballos, J.R. Clark, H. Doremus, R. Early, J.R. Etterson, D. Fielder, J.L. Gill, P. Gonzalez, N. Green, L. Hannah, D.W. Jamieson, D. Javeline, B.A. Minteer, J. Odenbaugh, S. Polasky, D.M. Richardson, T.L. Root, H.D. Safford, O. Sala, S.H. Schneider, A.R. Thompson, J.W. Williams, M. Vellend, P. Vitt, and S. Zellmer. 2012. Managed relocation: Integrating the scientific, regulatory, and ethical challenges. BioScience 62: 732-743.
Gonzalez, P. 2011. Science for natural resource management under climate change. Issues in Science and Technology 27(4): 65-74.

Hayhoe, K., K.B. Jones, and J.E. Gross. 2011. Peering into the future: climate and ecological models. Pages 51-67 in: P. Glick, B.A. Stein, and N.A. Edelson (editors), Scanning the conservation horizon: A guide to climate change vulnerability assessment. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

Miller-Rushing, A., A Evenden, J.E. Gross, B. Mitchell, and S. Sachs. 2011. Parks use phenology to improve management and communicate climate change. Park Science 28: 65-71.

Gonzalez, P. 2011. Climate change impacts and carbon in U.S. national parks. Park Science 28(2): 10-15.
Belant, J. L., E. A. Beever, J. E. Gross, and J. J. Lawler. 2010. Ecological responses to contemporary climate change within species, communities, and ecosystems. Conservation Biology 24:7-9.

Gonzalez, P., R.P. Neilson, J.M. Lenihan, and R.J. Drapek. 2010. Global patterns in the vulnerability of ecosystems to vegetation shifts due to climate change. Global Ecology and Biogeography 19: 755-768.

Gross, J.E., I.J. Gordon, and N. Owen-Smith. 2010. Irruptive dynamics and vegetation interactions. Pages 117-140 in: N. Owen-Smith (editor), Dynamics of large herbivore populations in changing environments: Shifting paradigms. Wiley-Blackwell.

Haugo, R.D., S.A. Hall, E.M. Gray, P. Gonzalez, and J.D. Bakker. 2010. Influences of climate, fire, grazing, and logging on woody species composition along an elevation gradient in the eastern Cascades, Washington. Forest Ecology and Management 260: 2204-2213.

Last updated: November 5, 2020

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