After attempts to remain neutral, a minority of the Cherokee, under Stand Watie, pledged themselves to the Confederacy. In 1861, Watie raised a company and later he was appointed colonel of the 1st Cherokee Mounted Rifles. In May 1864, he was advanced to brigadier general. He participated in the battles of Wilson's Creek and Elkhorn in Missouri. In July 1863 he distinguished himself by attacking a Union supply train from Fort Scott, Kansas, to Fort Gibson, Oklahoma. He was in command of the Confederate forces in the battle that ensued at Cabin Creek, Oklahoma. He did not surrender until June 23, 1865.