This overview of montane forests is based on the research of many scientists. However, the frequent, necessary inclusion of equivocating words such as “likely”, “may”, and “appears” indicates that additional research is needed. This is especially true in light of an uncertain future in which climate change, exotic invasive species, and other stressors may have increasingly large effects.
Series: Montane Forests of the Southwest
Conclusions and Literature Cited
While this overview of montane forests is based on the research of many scientists, additional research is still needed.
Allen, C. D. 2002. Lots of lightning and plenty of people: an ecological history of fire in the upland Southwest. Pages 143-193 in T. R. Vale, editor. Fire, Native Peoples, and the Natural Landscape, Island Press, Covelo, CA.
Beale, E. F. 1858. Wagon Road from Fort Defiance to the Colorado River. 35th Congress, 1st Session, Senate Executive Document 124, Washington, D.C.
Breshears, D. D., N. S. Cobb, P. M. Rich, K. P. Price, C. D. Allen, R. G. Balice, W. H. Romme, J. H. Kastens, M. L. Floyd, J. Belnap, J. J. Anderson, O. B. Myers, and C. W. Meyer. 2005. Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102:15144-15148.
Cole, K. L. 1985. Past rates of change, species richness, and a model of vegetational inertia in the Grand Canyon, Arizona. American Naturalist 125:289-303.
Crawford, J. A. 2008. Five years of vegetation change following high-severity fire and fire-fighting activities in Grand Canyon National Park. Pages 271-286 in C. van Riper III and M. K. Sogge, editors. The Colorado Plateau III: Integrating Research and Resources Management for Effective Conservation. Proceedings of the 8th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
Dahms, C. W. and B. W. Geils, technical editors. 1997. An assessment of forest ecosystem health in the Southwest. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service General Technical Report RM-GTR-295, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Fulé, P. Z., W. W. Covington, and M. M. Moore. 1997. Determining reference conditions for ecosystem management of southwestern ponderosa pine forests. Ecological Applications 7:895-908.
Fulé, P. Z., W. W. Covington, M. M. Moore, T. A. Heinlein, and A. E. M. Waltz. 2002. Natural variability in forests of the Grand Canyon, USA. Journal of Biogeography 29:31- 47.
Fulé, P. Z., J. E. Crouse, T. A. Heinlein, M. M. Moore, W. W. Covington, and G. Verkamp. 2003a. Mixed-severity fire regime in a high-elevation forest of Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA. Landscape Ecology 18:465-486.
Fulé, P. Z., T. A. Heinlein, W. W. Covington, and M. M. Moore. 2003b. Assessing fire regimes on Grand Canyon landscapes with fire-scar and fire-record data. International Journal of Wildland Fire 12:129-145.
Grissino-Mayer, H. D. and T. W. Swetnam. 2000. Centuryscale climate forcing of fire regimes in the American Southwest. The Holocene 10:213-220.
Hendricks, D. M. 1985. Arizona Soils. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
Klemmedson, J. O. and E. L. Smith. 1979. Vegetation-soil relations of forests, woodlands, and grasslands of Arizona and New Mexico. Pages 42-67 in C.T. Youngberg, editor. Forest Soils and Land Use. Department of Forest and Wood Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.
Lang, D. K. and S. S. Stewart. 1910. Reconnaissance of the Kaibab National Forest. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, unpublished report. (http://www.nau.edu/ library/speccoll/manuscript/kaibab_recon/)
Laughlin, D. C., J. D. Bakker, M. T. Stoddard, M. L. Daniels, J. D. Springer, C. N. Gildar, A. M. Green, and W. W. Covington. 2004. Toward reference conditions: wildfire effects on flora in an old-growth ponderosa pine forest. Forest Ecology and Management 199:137-152.
Maker, H. J. and L. A. Saugherty. 1986. Soils. Pages 64-66 in J.L. Williams, editor. New Mexico in Maps. 2nd edition. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM.
Margolis, E. Q., T. W. Swetnam, and C. D. Allen. 2007. A stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests of the southern Rocky Mountains. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37:2227-2241.
Moir, W. H. 1993. Alpine tundra and coniferous forest. Pages 47-84 in W.A. Dick-Peddie. New Mexico Vegetation: Past, Present, and Future. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM.
Rejmánek, M. and J. M. Randall. 1994. Invasive plants in California: 1993 summary and comparison with other areas in North America. Madroño 41:161-177.
Savage, M. and J. N. Mast. 2005. How resilient are southwestern ponderosa pine forests after crown fires? Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35:967-977.
Swetnam, T. W. and C. H. Baisan. 1996. Historical fire regime patterns in the southwestern United States since AD 1700. Pages 11-32 in C.D. Allen, technical editor. Fire Effects in Southwestern Forests: Proceedings of the Second La Mesa Fire Symposium, Los Alamos, New Mexico, March 29-31, 1994. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service General Technical Report RM-GTR-286, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.
Vankat, J. L. 2005. Montane and subalpine terrestrial ecosystems of the southern Colorado Plateau – literature review and conceptual models (revised version). Pages 1-100 (of Supplement II) in L. Thomas, M. Hendrie (editor), C. Lauver, S. Monroe, N. Tancreto, S. Garman, and M. Miller. Vital Signs Monitoring Plan for the Southern Colorado Plateau Network: Phase III Report, National Park Service, Southern Colorado Plateau Network, Flagstaff, AZ. (https://www1.nature.nps.gov/im/units/scpn/Documents/ Supplements/SupplementII_Montane_Model.pdf)
Vankat, J. L. 2011a. Post-1935 changes in forest vegetation of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA: Part 1 – ponderosa pine forest. Forest Ecology and Management 261:309-325.
Vankat, J. L. 2011b. Post-1935 changes in forest vegetation of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA: Part 2 – mixed conifer, spruce-fir, and quaking aspen forests. Forest Ecology and Management 261:326-341.
Westerling, A. L., H. G. Hildalgo, D. R. Cayan, and T. W. Swetnam. 2006. Warming and earlier spring increase western U.S. forest wildfire activity. Science 313: 940- 943.
White, A. S. 1985. Presettlement regeneration patterns in a southwestern ponderosa pine stand. Ecology 66:589-594.
White, M. A. and J. L. Vankat. 1993. Middle and high elevation coniferous forest communities of the North Rim region of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA. Vegetatio 109:161-174.
Worrall, J. J., L. Egeland, T. Eager, R. A. Mask, E. W. Johnson, P. A. Kemp, and W. D. Shepperd. 2008. Rapid mortality of Populus tremuloides in southwestern Colorado, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 255:686-696.
Prepared by John L. Vankat, Northern Arizona University, 2011
Series: Montane Forests of the Southwest
Last updated: October 5, 2016