Adirondacks: Bibliography

General Sources


Adirondack Journal of Environmental Studies.

Hudson River Valley Review (formerly published as Hudson Valley Regional Review).

New York History (formerly published as Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association and The Quarterly Journal of the New York State Historical Association).

New York State Conservationist.

Northeast Anthropology (formerly published as Man in the Northeast).

Voices: The Journal of New York Folklore (formerly published as New York Folklore and New York Folklore Quarterly).

Fulton History: Old New York State Historical Newspapers.

NYS Historic Newspapers.

Aagaard, Peter. “The Rewilding of New York’s North Country: Beavers, Moose, Canines and the Adirondacks.” M.A. thesis, University of Montana, 2008.

This thesis examines the human impact upon the animal populations of the Adirondack region. Beaver were decimated by trappers for trade, and moose nearly disappeared due to overhunting. While wolves were also eliminated, their populations returned with the introduction of hybrid wolf-coyotes from the Great Lakes region.

Aber, Ted and Stella King. The History of Hamilton County. Lake Pleasant, NY: Great Wilderness Books, 1965.

Aber, Ted and Stella King. Tales from an Adirondack County. Prospect, NY: Prospect Books, 1961.

Adirondack Experience Collections Database. Adirondack Experience: The Museum on Blue Mountain Lake, Blue Mountain Lake, NY.

Adirondack Mountain Club Bibliography Committee. Adirondack Bibliography; A List of Books, Pamphlets and Periodical Articles Published through the Year 1955. Gabriels, NY: Adirondack Mountain Club, 1958.

The Adirondack Mountain Club created this bibliography in fulfillment of the organization’s stated mission: “particular attention to be given to collecting data concerning scenery, history, botany, geology, forestry, fish and game of the Adirondacks” (xviii). A supplement was published later to include additional sources published through 1965. This resource is organized by the following topics: History of the Adirondack Region; Geography; The Adirondack Preserve, The Adirondack Park, Conservation; Natural History; Social and Economic History; Health and Medicine; Religious History; Education; Recreation in the Adirondacks; Clubs and Private Preserves; Biography; The Adirondacks in Art and Literature; and Juvenile Works. While this book was published nearly sixty years ago, it may be useful in researching topics not covered in this document.

Barlow, Jane A., ed. Big Moose Lake in the Adirondacks: The Story of the Lake, the Land, and the People. Syracuse, NY: Big Moose Lake History Project, Syracuse University Press, 2004.

Benton, Nathaniel Soley. A History of Herkimer County, Including the Upper Mohawk Valley from the Earliest Period to the Present Time. Albany, NY: J. Munsell, 1856.

Bernstein, Burton. The Sticks: A Profile of Essex County, New York. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1972.

Carpenter, Warwick Stevens. The Summer Paradise in History: A Compilation of Fact and Tradition Covering Lake George, Lake Champlain, the Adirondack Mountains, and Other Sections Reached by the Rail and Steamer Lines of the Delaware and Hudson Company. Albany, NY: A. A. Heard, 1914.

This promotional booklet was produced by the General Passenger Department of the Delaware and Hudson Company, which operated rail and steamer transport in the Hudson River Valley. It is essentially an encyclopedia to historic persons, locations, and events in the Adirondack region. There are some nice graphics which may be useful.

Coughlin, Richard. The Adirondack Region: History and Adventures of Early Times. Watertown, NY: Santway Photo-craft Co., Inc., 1921.

De Sormo, Maitland C. The Heydays of the Adirondacks. Saranac Lake, NY: Adirondack Yesteryears, Inc., 1974.

Donaldson, Alfred Lee. A History of the Adirondacks. 2 vols. New York: Century Co., 1921.

Early, Eleanor. Adirondack Tales. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1939.

Folwell, Elizabeth and Amy Godine. Adirondack Odysseys: Exploring Museums and Historic Places from the Mohawk to the St. Lawrence. New York: Norton, 1997.

Hardin, George A., ed. History of Herkimer County, New York, Illustrated with Portraits of Many of Its Citizens. Syracuse, NY: D. Mason and Co., 1893.

Harris, Glenn. "The Hidden History of Agriculture in the Adirondack Park, 1825-1875." New York History 83, no. 2 (2002): 165-202.

Headley, J. T. The Adirondack; or, Life in the Woods. New York: Scribner, Armstrong & Company, 1875.

Headley, J. T. Letters from the Backwoods and the Adirondack. New York: John S. Taylor, 1894.

Horrell, Jeffrey L. Seneca Ray Stoddard: Transforming the Adirondack Wilderness in Text and Image. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1999.

Ives, Martin V. B. Through the Adirondacks in Eighteen Days. New York: Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford Co., 1899.

Jenkins, Jerry with Andy Keal. The Adirondack Atlas: A Geographic Portrait of the Adirondack Park. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2004.

Keller, Jane Eblen. Adirondack Wilderness: A Story of Man and Nature. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1980.

Keller synthesizes the works of other historians of the Adirondack region, with heavy influence from an unpublished manuscript by Norman Van Valkenburgh and Adirondack Country by William Chapman White. The book examines the tenuous relationship between the Adirondack wilderness and civilization, specifically man’s conflicting interests in harvesting and preserving the area’s resources. There are three sections, divided chronologically: The First Wilderness, to 1830; Wilderness in Transition, 1830-1885; and Contemporary Wilderness, 1885 to present.

Lonergan, Carroll Vincent. The Northern Gateway: A History of Lake Champlain and Guide to Interesting Places in the Great Valley. Burlington, VT: Free Press Print Co., 1941.

McMartin, Barbara. Hides, Hemlocks, and Adirondack History: How the Tanning Industry Influenced the Region’s Growth. Utica, NY: North Country Books, 1992.

Raymond, Henry W. The Story of Saranac: A Chapter in Adirondack History. New York: Grafton Press, 1909.

Schaefer, Paul. Adirondack Explorations: Nature Writings of Verplanck Colvin. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2000.

Schneider, Paul. The Adirondacks: A History of America's First Wilderness. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998.

This book may be evaluated as a biography of the Adirondacks rather than a history. The timeline spans from the entry of European explorers to the area to the time of publication. Each chapter is presented as a story, with many focusing on contemporary interviews. Several chapters are relevant to the various subject areas of this project. Chapter 2 (Mohawks and Missionaries) covers the Native American people who lived in the park area and their contact with European explorers and is full of quotes from primary sources. Chapter 3 (Dances of War) follows William Johnson and his alliance with the Iroquois during the French and Indian War. Chapter 12 (The Mother Lode) describes the initial mining activities in the Adirondacks. This subject will fit nicely with discussion of the lumber industry (natural resources). Chapter 14 (The Romantics' Arrival) describes the influx of writers and artists as well as their guides that lead them beginning in the 1830s—the romanticism of the wilderness. Chapter 15 (At Play in the Great Longhouse) outlines the recreational tourists that flowed into the area, and their effect on the wilderness. Chapter 18 (Logs!) covers the lumber industry in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Chapter 19 (Forever Wild) describes the beginning of conservation in the late 1800s and eventual founding of Adirondack Park. Chapter 21 (Birth of a Great Camp) describes the growth of camps in the Adirondacks from smaller family camps to the Great Camp compounds of the wealthy. Chapter 22 (Haute Rustic) explores the happenings at the Great Camps.

Sherman, Gordon C. and Elsie L. Sherman. An Illuminating History of the Champlain Valley and Adirondack Mountains: Nine Hundred and Twenty-Nine Years of History. Elizabethtown, NY: Denton Publications, 1976.

Sylvester, Nathaniel Bartlett. Historical Sketches of Northern New York and the Adirondack Wilderness: Including Traditions of the Indians, Early Explorers, Pioneer Settlers, Hermit Hunters, &c. Troy, NY: William H. Young, 1877.

Terrie, Philip G. "The New York Natural History Survey in the Adirondack Wilderness, 1836-1840." Journal of the Early Republic 3, no. 2 (1983): 185-206.

Welch, Douglas B. Adirondack Books, 1966-1992: An Annotated Bibliography with a Partial Listing of Book-Length Materials for the Years 1993. Utica, NY: North Country Books, 1994.

Williams, Donald R. Adirondack People and Places. Mount Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2012.

Native Americans

The Mohawk people of the Iroquois Confederacy resided in the Adirondack region of New York. While the Oneida did reside in this region, much of their territory that overlaps with the North Country Trail region falls within Central New York, and those relevant sources have been placed under that section of this bibliography. Also included in this region are the Mahicans, who resided in the Hudson River Valley and were forced east by the Mohawk in the mid-seventeenth century.

Bonvillain, Nancy and Beatrice Francis. Mohawk-English Dictionary. Albany: University of the State of New York Press, 1971.

Brandão, José António and William A. Starna. “From the Mohawk-Mahican War to the Beaver Wars: Questioning the Pattern.” Ethnohistory 51, no. 4 (Fall 2004): 725-750.

Brasser, Ted J. Riding on the Frontier’s Crest: Mahican Indian Culture and Culture Change. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1974.

Broderick, Warren. “New York State’s Mohicans in Literature.” Hudson Valley Regional Review 19, no. 2 (2002): 1-20.

Campbell, William J. Empire: Iroquoia and the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2012.

Cross, Wasontiio S. “Louis Karoniaktajeh Hall and the Art of Resistance.” M.A. thesis, Concordia University, 2011.

Curtis, Anthony Patrick. “Warriors of the Skyline: A Gendered Study of Mohawk Warrior Culture.” M.A. thesis, Marshall University, 2005.

Day, Gordon M. "The Indian as an Ecological Factor in the Northeastern Forest." Ecology 34, no. 2 (1953): 329-346.

Dunn, Shirley W. The Mohican World, 1680-1750. Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain Press, 2000.

Dunn, Shirley W. The Mohicans and Their Land, 1609-1730. Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain Press, 1994.

Dunn, Shirley W. The River Indians: Mohicans Making History. Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain Press, 2009.

Feister, Lois M. “Linguistic Communication between the Dutch and Indians in New Netherland 1609-1664.” Ethnohistory 20, no. 1 (Winter 1973): 25-38.

Fitz, Caitlin A. “Suspected on Both Sides: Little Abraham, Iroquois Neutrality, and the American Revolution.” Journal of the Early American Republic 28, no. 3 (Fall 2008): 299-335.

Flexner, James Thomas. Mohawk Baronet: A Biography of Sir William Johnson. Reprint. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1989.

Gehring, Charles T. and William A. Starna, trans. and eds. A Journey into Mohawk and Oneida Country, 1634-1635: The Journal of Harmen Meyndertsz van den Bogaert. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1991.

George-Kanentiio, Douglas. Iroquois on Fire: A Voice from the Mohawk Nation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2008.

Guldenzopf, David B. “The Colonial Transformation of Mohawk Iroquois Society.” Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Albany, 1986.

Guldenzopf, David B. “Frontier Demography and Settlement Patterns of the Mohawk Indians.” Man in the Northeast 27 (1984): 79-94.

Hamilton, Milton W. Sir William Johnson: Colonial American, 1715-1763. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1976.

Hill, Esther V. “The Iroquois Indians and Their Lands Since 1783.” Quarterly Journal of the New York State Historical Association 11, no. 4 (October 1930): 335-353.

Hodge, Frederick Webb, ed. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Part I: A-M. Smithsonian Institute Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 30. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1907.

Hodge, Frederick Webb, ed. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Part II: N-Z. Smithsonian Institute Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 30. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1910.

An anthropologist at the Bureau of American Ethnology (today the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology), Hodge (1864-1956) was responsible for collecting and compiling the known writings about Native Americans into comprehensive volumes. These books serve as an encyclopedia of Indian culture, and among the information which may be useful in research are the estimated sizes and locations of various tribes. He also includes a listing of the sources from where he draws this information.

Houghton, Gretchen M. “History of Indian Lake.” Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association 16 (1917): 268-275.

Jennings, Francis. The Ambiguous Iroquois Empire: The Covenant Chain Confederation of Indian Tribes with English Colonies from Its Beginnings to the Lancaster Treaty of 1744. New York: Norton, 1984.

Kelsay, Isabel Thompson. Joseph Brant, 1743-1807: Man of Two Worlds. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1986.

Kern, Benjamin David. “An Iroquois Woman between Two Worlds: Molly Brant and the American Revolution.” M.A. thesis, Miami University, 2013.

Kern states this thesis “asserts that Molly Brant was an important historical figure because she exemplifies the power and significance of the various relationships in Iroquoia” (abstract). He explores her place in Iroquois society through female identity within the tribe, her relationship with Englishman Sir William Johnson, and her role as a British ally in the American Revolution.

Landsman, Gal. Sovereignty and Symbol: Indian-White Conflict at Ganienkeh. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1988.

Lydekker, John Wolfe. The Faithful Mohawks. London: Cambridge University Press, 1938.

Meuwese, Mark. “From Intercolonial Messenger to ‘Christian Indian’: The Flemish Bastard and the Mohawk Struggle for Independence from New France and Colonial New York in the Eastern Great Lakes Borderland, 1647–1687.” In Karl S. Hele, ed., Lines Drawn upon the Water: First Nations and the Great Lakes Borders and Borderlands, (Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2008): 43-63.

Morgan, Lewis H., with Herbert M. Lloyd, ed. League of the Ho-Dé-No-Sau-Nee or Iroquois. New edition. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1922.

Morgan (1818-1881) was an anthropologist noted for his groundbreaking work on Native American origins and Iroquois society. He first published this work in 1851 with much help from Ely S. Parker, a Seneca Indian to whom the book is dedicated. Morgan proposed that early humans formed matrilineal clans rather than patrilineal ones. The book is divided into three sections: the formation and structure of the Iroquois League, the religious and societal practices of the tribes, and their material culture, language, and geographic considerations.

Oberg, Michael Leroy. Uncas: First of the Mohegans. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006.

Otis, Melissa. “At Home in the Adirondacks: A Regional History of Indigenous and Euroamerican Interactions, 1776-1920.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto, 2013.

Otis argues that the Adirondacks were not just a neutral hunting ground but were considered an integral part of Native American territory. This dissertation goes outside New York to New England and southern Quebec and Ontario since today’s geographical boundaries were not imposed until the early nineteenth century. Chapter 1 describes the Adirondacks as an indigenous homeland before European arrival to the North American continent. The next chapter explores the Iroquoian and Algonquian peoples in the Adirondacks from contact with Samuel de Champlain in 1609 to 1840. The third chapter covers Indian guides and the development of the Adirondack wilderness tourism from 1840 to 1920. Chapter 4 explores native entrepreneurship in the Adirondacks., and the final chapter examines nature culture as tourist attractions.

O’Toole, Fintan. White Savage: William Johnson and the Invention of America. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2005.

Preston, David L. "’We Intend to Live Our Lifetime Together as Brothers’: Palatine and Iroquois Communities in the Mohawk Valley." New York History 89, no. 2 (Spring 2008): 179-89.

Pound, Arthur. Johnson of the Mohawks. New York: Macmillan, 1930.

Prince, J. Dyneley. “Some Forgotten Indian Place-Names in the Adirondacks.” Journal of American Folklore 13, no. 49 (April-June 1900): 123-128.

Ritchie, William A. The Archaeology of New York State. Garden City, NY: Natural History Press for the American Museum of Natural History, 1969.

Ritchie, William A. Indian History of New York State. Part 1: Pre-Iroquoian Cultures. Albany: New York State Museum, ca. 1969.

Ritchie, William A. Indian History of New York State. Part 2: The Iroquoian Tribes. Albany: New York State Museum, ca. 1969.

Ritchie, William A. Indian History of New York State. Part 3: The Algonkian Tribes. Albany: New York State Museum, ca. 1969.

Ritchie served as chief archaeologist of the New York State Museum and Science Service. He was an expert on Indian cultural history in New York. These three publications are focused on a more technical discussion of archaeological finds, but more historical information is also included. Ritchie traces the temporal movement of the peoples and the development of their culture and society. This source is a good basis from which to begin research on prehistoric peoples in New York.

Ruttenber, Edward M. History of the Indian Tribes of Hudson’s River: Their Origins, Manners and Customs, Tribal and Sub-Tribal Organizations, Wars, Treaties, Etc. Albany, NY: J. Munsell, 1872.

Shannon, Timothy. “Dressing for Success on the Mohawk Frontier: Hendrick, William Johnson, and the Indian Fashion.” The William and Mary Quarterly 53, no. 1 (January 1996): 13-42.

Smoyer, Stanley C. “Indians as Allies: In the Intercolonial Wars.” New York History 17, no. 4 (October 1936): 411-422.

Snow, Dean R. "Mohawk." In Encyclopedia of North American Indians, ed. Frederick E. Hoxie. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1996.

Starna, William A. From Homeland to New Land: A History of the Mahican Indians, 1600-1830. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2013.

The book covers the history of the Mahican Indians essentially from European contact to their relocation from New York to Wisconsin. Starna focuses on Mahican culture and history rather than an empirical study of European interaction through tribal leadership.

Starna, William A. “Mohawk Indian Populations: A Revision.Ethnohistory 27, no. 4 (Autumn 1980): 371-382.

Starna, William A. and José António Brandão. “From the Mohawk-Mahican War to the Beaver Wars: Questioning the Pattern.” Ethnohistory 51, no. 4 (2004): 725-750.

Sulavik, Stephen B. Adirondack: Of Indians and Mountains, 1535-1838. Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain Press, 2005.

Todd, John. “Old Sabael—The Indian of a Century.” In Summer Gleanings, or Sketches and Incidents of a Pastor’s Vacation, (Northampton, MA: Hopkins, Bridgman, & Co. 1852): 261-266.

Trigger, Bruce G. “The Mohawk-Mahican War (1624-1628): The Establishment of a Pattern.” Canadian Historical Review 52, no. 3 (September 1971): 276-286.

Wallace, Paul A. W. Conrad Weiser, 1696-1760: Friend of Colonist and Mohawk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1945.

Weintraub, Aileen and Shirley W. Dunn. The Mohicans. Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain Press, 2008.

Europeans and American Colonists

This section covers the colonial period in North America from European contact with Indians through the end of the Revolutionary War. Topics and major events include the French and Indian War, naval activity on Lake Champlain and the Hudson River, and various frontier skirmishes between colonists and Native Americans.

Allen, Gardner W. A Naval History of the American Revolution. 2 vols. Cambridge, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1913.

Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War: The Seven Years War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766. London: Faber and Faber Limited, 2000.

Anderson, Fred. The War That Made America. New York: Viking, 2005.

Ashton, Charles H. and Richard W. Hunter. “Fort Ticonderoga/Mount Independence National Historic Landmark.” National Register of Historic Places Nomination. October 1983.

Barranco, Peter A. Lake Champlain, Lake George, and the Upper Richelieu River Naval and Military Vessel Inventory, 1742-1836. Basin Harbor, VT: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, 1999.

Bellico, Russell P. Chronicles of Lake George: Journeys in War and Peace. Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain Press, 1995.

Bellico, Russell P. Empires in the Mountains: French and Indian War Campaigns and Forts in the Lake Champlain, Lake George, and Hudson River Corridor. Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain Press, 2010.

Bellico, Russell P. Sails and Steam in the Mountains: A Maritime and Military History of Lake George and Lake Champlain. Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain Press, 1992.

Berleth, Richard. Bloody Mohawk: The French and Indian War and American Revolution on New York’s Frontier. Hensonville, NY: Black Dome Press, 2009.

Bilharz, Joy Ann and Trish Rae. Oriskany: A Place of Great Sadness: a Mohawk Valley Battlefield Ethnography. Northeast Region Ethnography Program, National Park Service, 2009.

Bird, Harrison. Navies in the Mountains: The Battles on the Waters of Lake Champlain and Lake George, 1609-1814. New York: Oxford University Press, 1962.

Bonney, Orrin E. “The Battle at Nichols Pond: Champlain and His Force of French and Hurons against the Oneida Indians.” New York History 19, no. 2 (April 1938): 140-143.

Bradfield, Gerald E. and Stan Werner. Fort William Henry: Digging Up History. Lake George, NY: French and Indian War Society, 2001.

Bratten, John R. The Gondola Philadelphia and the Battle of Lake Champlain. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 2002.

Bridge, B. M. “The Influence of the Iroquois on the Development of New France, 1603-1663.” M.A. thesis, University of Saskatchewan, 1938.

Burgoyne, John. Orderly Book of Lieut. Gen. John Burgoyne: From His Entry into the State of New York Until His Surrender at Saratoga, 16th Oct., 1777. Edited by E. B. O’Callaghan. Albany, NY: J. Munsell, 1860.

Butler, B. C. Lake George and Lake Champlain: From Their First Discovery to 1759. Albany, NY: Weed, Parsons and Co., 1868.

Chartrand, René. Montcalm’s Crushing Blow: French and Indian Raids along New York’s Oswego River 1756. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014.

Chidsey, Donald Barr. The War in the North: An Informal History of the American Revolution in and near Canada. New York: Crown, 1967.

Committee on Historical Documents and Lake George Memorial Committee. Account of the Battle of Lake George, September 8th, 1755. New York: Society of Colonial Wars in the State of New York, 1897.

Crisman, Kevin James and Giovanna Peebles. Of Sailing Ships and Steamers: The History and Nautical Archaeology of Lake Champaign. Montpelier, VT: Division for Historic Preservation, Agency of Development and Community Affairs, 1986.

Crockett, Walter Hill. A History of Lake Champlain; The Record of Three Centuries, 1609-1909. Burlington, VT: H. J. Shanley & Co., 1909.

This empirical history of Lake Champlain primarily focuses upon the military activity around the lake—chapters 2, 4, 5, 7-14. There also is discussion of European settlement in the region—chapters 3 (French), 7 (English), and 12 (American). The timeframe of this book could more accurately be considered between 1609 and 1815, with the greatest attention given to describing battles and other military action. Crockett later published an updated version in 1936, which extended the history of the area to that year.

Cutting, Elizabeth. “Samuel de Champlain and His Lake.” New York History 15, no. 2 (April 1934): 175-183.

DeCosta, B. F. The Fight at Diamond Island, Lake George. New York: J. Sabin, 1872.

DeCosta, B. F. A Narrative of Events at Lake George, from the Early Colonial Times to the Close of the Revolution. New York: [publisher not identified], 1868.

This history of the Lake George region almost exclusively focuses on military activity.

DeCosta, B. F. Notes on the History of Fort George During the Colonial and Revolutionary Periods: With Contemporaneous Documents and an Appendix. New York: J. Sabin & Sons, 1871.

Elting, John R. The Battles at Saratoga. Monmouth Beach, NJ: Phillip Freneau Press, 1977.

Ferling, John E. Almost A Miracle: The American Victory in the War of Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Foote, Allan D. Liberty March, The Battle of Oriskany. Utica, NY: North Country Books, 1998.

Fowler, William M. Jr. Rebels Under Sail: The American Navy During the Revolution. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976.

Furneaux, Rupert. The Battle of Saratoga. New York: Stein and Day, 1971.

Gallay, Alan, ed. Colonial Wars of North America, 1512-1763: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, 1996.

Gipson, Lawrence H. The British Empire before the American Revolution. 15 vols. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Printers, 1936 (Vol. 1-3); New York: Knopf, 1961-1970 (Vol. 4-15).

Glover, Michael. General Burgoyne in Canada and America: Scapegoat for a System. London: Atheneum Publishers, 1976.

Greenwood, Richard. “Fort St. Frederic.” National Register of Historic Places Nomination. February 20, 1976.

Hagerty, Gilbert. "Fort Bull." Northeast Historical Archaeology 2, no. 1 (2014): 20-28.

Hamilton, Edward P. Fort Ticonderoga: Key to a Continent. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1964.

Hill, Ralph Nading. Lake Champlain, Key to Victory. Taftsville, VT: Countryman Press, 1977.

Ketchum, Richard M. Saratoga: Turning Point of America’s Revolutionary War. New York: Henry Holt, 1997.

Lake Champlain Tercentenary, 1909. Albany, NY: New York State Education Dept., 1909.

Laramie, Michael G. By Wind and Iron: Naval Campaigns in the Champlain Valley, 1665-1815. Yardley, PA: Westholme Publishing, 2015.

Laramie, Michael G. The European Invasion of North America: Colonial Conflict along the Hudson-Champaign Corridor, 1609-1760. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger/ABC-CLIO, 2012.

Lonergan, Carroll Vincent. Ticonderoga, Historic Portage. New York: Fort Mount Hope Society Press, 1959.

Luzader, John F. Saratoga: A Military History of the Decisive Campaign of the American Revolution. New York: Savas Beatie, 2008.

Luzader, John F. and William Lang. Fort Stanwix: Construction and Military History. Rev. ed. New Hartford, NY: Presto Print, 2001.

Mabie, Hamilton Wright. The Story of Lake Champaign. New York: [publisher not identified], 1909.

Mante, Thomas. The History of the Late War in North America, and the Islands of the West-Indies, including the Campaigns of MDCCLXII and MDCCLXIV against His Majesty’s Indian Enemies. London: [n.p.], 1772; New York: Research Reprints, 1970.

Marvin, Henry. A Complete History of Lake George: Embracing a Great Variety of Information and Compiled with an Especial Reference to Meet the Wants of the Travelling Community, Intended as a Descriptive Guide Together with a Complete History and Present Appearance of Ticonderoga. New York: Sibells and Maigne, 1853.

Millard, James P. Lake Passages: A Journey Through the Centuries, the Lake Champlain, Lake George and Richelieu River History Timelines. South Hero, VT: America's Historic Lakes, 2007.

Miller, Nathan. Sea of Glory: The Continental Navy Fights for Independence. New York: David McKay, 1974.

Murray, W. H. H. Lake Champlain and Its Shores. Boston: De Wolfe, Fiske & Co., 1896.

Nare, Joshua Ross. “Fort Stanwix: Untenable, or the Key to Defending the Mohawk Valley?” M.A. thesis, Liberty University, 2010.

Nelson, James L. Benedict Arnold's Navy: The Ragtag Fleet That Lost the Battle of Lake Champlain but Won the American Revolution. Camden, ME: International Marine/McGraw-Hill, 2006.

Nester, William. The Epic Battles of the Ticonderoga, 1758. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2008.

Palmer, Peter Sailly. History of Lake Champlain: From It First Exploration by the French in 1609, to the Close of the Year 1814. Albany, NY: J. Munsell, 1866.

Parker, Wilmond W. “The Migration from Vermont to Northern New York.” New York History 15, no. 4 (October 1934): 398-406.

Parkman, Francis. France and England in North America: A Series of Historical Narratives. Part Seven: Montcalm and Wolfe. Vol. 2. 6th ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1884.

Pell, Stephen. Fort Ticonderoga: A Short History. Ticonderoga, NY: Fort Ticonderoga Museum, 1966.

Porter, Linda Drake. “Fur Trade in New York, 1609-1688.” M.A. thesis, Oklahoma State University, 1964.

Radford, Harry V. “History of the Adirondack Beaver: Its Former Abundance, Practical Extermination, and Reintroduction. In Harry V. Radford, Artificial Preservation of Timber and History of the Adirondack Beaver, State of New York Forest, Fish and Game Commission (Albany, NY: J. B. Lyon and Company, 1908): 389-419.

A reprint from an annual report of the state Forest, Fish and Game Commission, this article traces the history of the beaver in the Adirondacks from the fur trade boom of the 1600s, its near extinction by the nineteenth century, and conservation efforts to bring back the animal to the region by 1900.

Reid, W. Max. Lake George and Lake Champlain: The War Trail of the Mohawk and Battle-Ground of France and England in Their Contest for the Control of North America. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1910.

Reid, W. Max. The Story of Old Fort Johnson. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1906.

Roberts, Robert B. New York’s Forts in the American Revolution. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1980.

Royce, Caroline Halstead. The First Century of Lake Champaign. New York: The Miller Press, 1909.

Sarles, Frank B. Jr. and Charles E. Shedd, Jr. Development of the English Colonies, 1700-1775. National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1960.

Sarles, Frank B. Jr. and Charles E. Shedd, Jr. English Exploration and Settlement to 1700. National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1959.

Schroeder, John H. The Battle of Lake Champlain: A "Brilliant and Extraordinary Victory". Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2015.

Scott, John Albert. Fort Stanwix and Oriskany: The Romantic Story of the Repulse of St. Legers British Invasion of 1777. Rome, NY: Rome Sentinel Company, 1927.

Seelye, Elizabeth Eggleston. Lake George in History. Lake George, NY: Elwyn Seelye, 1897.

Seelye, Elizabeth Eggleston. Saratoga and Lake Champaign in History. Lake George, NY: Elwyn Seelye, 1898.

Silverstone, Paul H. The Sailing Navy, 1775-1854. New York: CRC Press, 2006.

Smith, Justin Harvey. Our Struggle for the Fourteenth Colony: Canada, and the American Revolution. 2 vols. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1907.

Snell, Charles W. “Fort Crown Point (Amherst).” National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings. October 25, 1967.

Starbuck, David R. Excavating the Sutlers’ House: Artifacts of the British Armies in Fort Edward and Lake George. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 2010.

Starbuck, David R. The Legacy of Fort William Henry: Resurrecting the Past. Lebanon, NH: University Press of New England, 2014.

Starbuck, David R. Massacre at Fort William Henry. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 2002.

Steele, Ian K. Betrayals: Fort William Henry and the “Massacre.” New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Taylor, Alan. The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006.

Tesdahl, Eugene Richard Henry. “The Price of Empire: Smuggling between New York and New France, 1700-1754.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Colorado, 2012.

Van de Water, Frederic F. Lake Champlain and Lake George. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1946.

Van Rensselaer, Cortlandt. An Historical Discourse on the Occasion of the Centennial Celebration of the Battle of Lake George, 1755: Delivered at the Court-House, Caldwell, N.Y., September 8, 1855. Philadelphia: [publisher not identified], 1856.

Watson, Winslow C. The Military and Civil History of the County of Essex, New York: And a General Survey of Its Physical Geography, Its Mines and Minerals, and Industrial Pursuits, Embracing an Account of the Northern Wilderness; and Also the Military Annals of the Fortresses of Crown Point and Ticonderoga. Albany, NY: J. Munsell, 1869.

Watt, Gavin K. The Burning of the Valleys: Daring Raids from Canada Against the New York Frontier in the Fall of 1780. Tonawanda, NY: Dundurn Press, 1997.

Winsor, Justin, ed. Narrative and Critical History of America: The English and French in North America, 1689-1763. New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1887.

The Lumber Industry and Forest Conservation

Due to its treacherous terrain, the Adirondack region was one of the last areas explored in the contiguous United States. Thus, it retained its virgin timber growth long after other forests in New York had been cleared. Its timber was highly sought after during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This section includes sources on lumber companies, logging camps and labor conditions, and forest conservation efforts that culminated in the creation of Adirondack Park.

Adirondack Mountain Club Conservation Committee. Shall the Forest Preserve Be Lumbered? Albany, NY: The Club, ca. 1945.

Adirondack Experience: The Museum on Blue Mountain Lake Collections. Blue Mountain Lake, NY.

The Adirondack Experience opened in 1957 on the site of the former Blue Mountain Hotel. Today, the museum boasts a collection of over 30,000 objects, 70,000 photographs, books, and manuscripts. These manuscript collections may be relevant to research on the lumber industry in the Adirondack region, with finding aids available at

Adirondack Lumbering -- The Jessup Operation. MS 65-13.

Barbara McMartin Papers, 1729-2004. MS 10-01.

Big Moose Lake Lumber Mill, 1918, 1998. MS 09-47.

Brandreth Remembered, 1981. MS 91-3.

Department of Forestry students at the New York State College of Agriculture papers on Lumber companies, 1925. MS 70-09.

Logging and labor in northern New York: work culture among Adirondack lumberjacks. MS 09-96. (Graduate-level class paper by Thomas H. Gladd, school not listed.)

Gould Paper Company Records, 1865-1983. MS 09-06.

Memories of One Lumber Camp Cook. MS 92-4.

Santa Clara Lumber Co., 1888-1938. MS 67-14.

Thanksgiving Story, 1975, 1987. MS 09-51.

Allen, Richard Sanders. Rails in the North Woods: Histories of Nine Adirondack Shortlines. Sylvan Beach, NY: North Country Books, 1978.

Bethke, Robert D. Adirondack Voices: Woodsmen and Woods Lore. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981.

Bird, Barbara Kephart. Calked Shoes: Life in Adirondack Lumber Camps. Prospect, NY: Prospect Books, 1952.

This book is a first-person account of life in lumber camps. Bird’s husband was a forester in the Adirondacks. They married in 1920 and moved to the Tug Hill area the following year.

Defebaugh, James Elliott. History of the Lumber Industry in America. 2 vols. Chicago: The American Lumberman, 1906-1907.

This book presents a definitive history of the lumber in the United States. Volume 1 covers forestry in Canada (chapters 3-25) and the resources, legislation, and production in the United States (chapters 26-31). Chapter 26 describes the geography of United States forest resources and the species of trees. Defebaugh also includes quotes from early observers about the environment they found. Chapter 27 discusses public land policy related to the lumber industry. Chapter 28 explains the use of professional foresters to manage timber lands and conservation efforts leading to the establishment of state forest preserves. Chapters 29 and 31 focus upon tariffs and foreign trade. Finally, chapter 30 consists of lumber production statistics largely drawn from the U. S. Census starting in 1810. Volume 2 focuses on specific states and regions of the lumber industry, with chapters 21-27 about New York and chapters 30-29 about Pennsylvania.

Fountain, Lawrence F. “Human Geography of the Upper Sacandaga River Valley.” Bachelor’s thesis, Syracuse University, 1927.

Fox, William F. History of the Lumber Industry in the State of New York. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Forestry, Bulletin 34. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1902.

Gove, Bill. Logging Railroads of the Adirondacks. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2006.

Harris, Phillip J. Adirondack, Lumber Capital of the World. Baltimore: PublishAmerica, 2008.

Harvey, Mark. Wilderness Forever: Howard Zahniser and the Path to the Wilderness Act. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005.

Hochschild, Harold K. Lumberjacks and Rivermen in the Central Adirondacks, 1850-1950. Blue Mountain Lake, NY: Adirondack Museum, 1962.

Hyde, Floy S. Adirondack Forests, Fields, and Mines: Brief Accounts and Stories Concerning Lumbering, Forest-Related Products, Farm Specialties, and Mining, Yesterday and Today. Lakemont, NY: North Country Books, 1974.

This book covers the forestry, agriculture, and mining industries in the Adirondack region, with the majority concerning forestry. The narrative hops around temporally and is difficult to follow in that regard. Topics of discussion in logging include log driving, companies in the region, life in the lumber camps, and reforestation.

Jacobsen, Edna L. “Franklin B. Hough, A Pioneer in Scientific Forestry in America.” New York History 15, no. 3 (July 1934): 311-325.

Ketchledge, Edwin H. "Born-again Forest." Natural History 5 (1992): 92.

Marsh, George Perkins. Man and Nature: Or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action. New York: Charles Scribner, 1865.

Marsh may be considered the first American environmentalist. While serving as a diplomat stationed in Europe, he studied the long-term effects of environmental degradation on civilizations. This book, which includes the Adirondack region as an example of human overconsumption and destruction of natural resources and habitats, was an important influence in the creation of Adirondack Park and the American conservation movement.

Mazel, David, ed. A Century of Early Ecocriticism. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001.

McMartin, Barbara. The Great Forest of the Adirondacks. Utica, NY: North Country Books, 1994.

McMurry, Sally. “Evolution of a Landscape: From Farm to Forest in the Adirondack Region, 1857-1894.” New York History 80, no. 2 (April 1999): 117-152.

New York State Education Department and New York State Archives. Preliminary Guide to Environmental Documentary Sources in New York State. Publication No. 71. New York Heritage Documentary Project. August 2000.

This document provides further information on environmental policy and activism which may not be covered in this bibliography.

O’Donnell, Thomas C. Thomas C Donnell’s Life in a North Woods Lumber Camp. Edited by William J. O’Hern. Cleveland, NY: Forager Press, 2012.

Omohundro, John and Glenn R. Harris. An Environmental History of New York's North Country: The Adirondack Mountains and the St. Lawrence River Valley: Case Studies and Neglected Topics. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2012.

Parsons, George. Logging and Milling in the Adirondacks. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Forestry Camp, 1931.

Plumley, L. P., comp. It's Been 100 'Dam' Years of Cranberry Lake, 1867-1967. Gouverneur, NY: Ferguson Printing, 1967.

Podskoch, Martin and David Hayden. Adirondack Fire Towers: Their History and Lore: The Northern Districts. Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain Press, 2005.

Podskoch, Martin and David Hayden. Adirondack Fire Towers: Their History and Lore: The Southern Districts. Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain Press, 2003.

Reynolds, Cuyler. “Forest Preservation in the State of New York.” New England Magazine 19, no. 2 (October 1898): 203-215.

Sampson, Nelson T. “Woods Labor in the Adirondacks.” Ph.D. thesis, State University of New York College of Forestry, 1952.

Smesby, Susan Thomas. Cranberry Lake and Wanakena. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2002.

Stoll, Mark. Inherit the Holy Mountain: Religion and the Rise of American Environmentalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Terrie, Phillip G. Contested Terrain: A New History of Nature and People in the Adirondacks. 2nd edition. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2008.

Van Valkenburgh, Norman J. America’s First Wilderness: New York’s State Forest Preserves. Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain Press, 2008.

Van Valkenburgh, Norman J. The Forest Preserve of New York State in the Adirondack and Catskill Mountains: A Short History. Schenectady, NY: Adirondack Research Center, 1983.

This book is a tedious but thorough empirical history of the creation of forest preserves in the Adirondacks and Catskills. It provides a clear outline of the legislative action leading to Adirondack Park.

Welsh, Peter C. Jacks, Jobbers, and Kings: Logging the Adirondacks, 1850-1950. Utica, NY: North Country Books, 1995.

Great Camps and Outdoor Recreationalists

Located a short train ride from New York City, the Adirondack region became a romanticized getaway to the wilderness for the city’s upper class in the late nineteenth century. Numerous private residence compounds were constructed by wealthy businessmen, politicians, and socialites. Tourism in the area became more democratized in the early twentieth century with the growth of state parks, campsites, and alpine ski resorts.

Ackerman, David H. Lake Placid Club: An Illustrated History, 1895-1980. Lake Placid, NY: Lake Placid Education Foundation, 1998.

Adirondack Forty-Sixers. Heaven up-h’isted-ness!: The History of the Adirondack Forty-Sixers and the High Peaks of the Adirondacks. Cadyville, NY: Adirondack Forty-Sixers, 2011.

Allen, E. John B. From Skisport to Skiing: One Hundred Years of an American Sport, 1840-1940. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993.

This book is divided into two parts: development of the skisport, which includes all types of ski activities, from 1840 to 1920, and the mechanization and modernization of skiing beginning in 1920, namely the introduction of downhill skiing. While the book primarily focuses on the development of skisports in the Great Lakes region and New England, its attention to New York is mostly on the Lake Placid Club, which hosted the 1932 Winter Olympics.

Allen, E. John B. The Culture and Sport of Skiing: From Antiquity to World War II. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2007.

Allen, E. John B. “Winter Culture: The Origins of Skiing in the United States.” Journal of American Culture 6 (Spring 1983): 65-68.

Anzalone, Jonathan David. “Creating a Modern Wilderness Playground: The Transformation of the Adirondack State Park, 1920-1980.” Ph.D. dissertation, Stony Brook University, 2012.

Anzalone argues that the development of Adirondack Park was an intrusion of urban planning principles into the wilderness instead of a protective strategy to preserve the region. The examples he gives for this transformation are the 1932 and 1980 Winter Olympics at Lake Placid, development of campgrounds during the Great Depression, the construction of a ski resort at Whiteface Mountain, highway construction, and the land management policies of the Adirondack Park Agency.

Beach, Henry M. Adirondack Camp Photographs. Syracuse University Special Collections, Syracuse, NY.

Henry M. Beach (1863-1943) was a prolific and accomplished upstate New York photographer who documented the North Country during the first quarter of the twentieth century. This collection consists of 53 photographs of camps in the Adirondacks region, including Saranac Lake, Old Forge, Utica, and more. The photos are panoramic prints approximately 9" by 36". These photographs have also been reproduced in Adirondack Vernacular: The Photography of Henry M. Beach, published by Syracuse University Press in 2003.

Betts, J. R. America’s Sporting Heritage: 1850-1950. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1974.

Bramhall, Laurence H. “The History of Skiing in New England and the Lake Placid, New York Region.” M.Ed. thesis, Boston University, 1947.

This thesis covers the time period from the early 1800s to the time of publication. It is divided into two sections: an introduction to skiing history up to the early 1900s, and the development of organized skiing in New England and the Lake Placid area. These contemporary topics include the Eastern (United States Eastern Amateur Ski Association), snow trains, and the commercial aspects of the skisports industry.

Bridger, Beverly. Great Camp Sagamore: The Vanderbilts’ Adirondack Retreat. Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2012.

Brockman, C. Frank. Recreational Use of Wild Lands. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959.

Clawson, Marion and Jack L. Knetch. The Economics of Outdoor Recreation. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1966.

Cohen, Stan. A Pictorial History of Downhill Skiing. Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, 1985.

Cronon, William, ed. Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1995.

Davis, Jeremy K. Lost Ski Areas of the Northern Adirondacks. Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2014.

Davis, Jeremy K. Lost Ski Areas of the Southern Adirondacks. Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2012.

Davis first created a website that traced the former ski areas in New England. Over time he expanded his scope to include New York, in which he identified approximately 350 former ski areas. These two publications feature his research on former ski areas in the Adirondack region.

Dudley, Charles M. Sixty Centuries of Skiing. Brattleboro, VT: Stephen Daye Press, 1935.

Dyreson, Mark. “The Emergence of Consumer Culture and the Transformation of Physical Culture: American Sport in the 1920s.” Journal of Sport History 16 (Winter 1989): 261-281.

Edington, John. Ecology, Recreation, and Tourism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Engel, Robert. “A History of Camp Santanoni, The Adirondack Retreat of Robert C. Pruyn.” M.A. thesis, State University of New York Oneonta-Cooperstown, 1996.

Engel, Robert, Howard Kirschenbaum, and Paul Malo. Santanoni: From Japanese Temple to Life at an Adirondack Great Camp. Keesville, NY: Adirondack Architectural Heritage, 2000.

Fay, Charles E. “The Appalachian Mountain Club.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 35, no. 2 (March 1910): 177-184.

Fry, John. The Story of Modern Skiing. Lebanon: University Press of New Hampshire, 2006.

Gassan, Richard H. The Birth of American Tourism: New York, the Hudson River Valley, and American Culture: 1790-1830. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008.

Gassan argues that the shift of American leisure tourism from Europe to upstate New York in the early nineteenth century indelibly shaped American culture economically and artistically. The first two chapters of the book, “Laying the Foundation” and “Inventing the Resort: Saratoga Springs,” chronicle the development of Ballston Spa in Saratoga Springs. The spa would be the first major tourist attraction in the United States.

Gilborn, Craig. Adirondack Camps: Homes Away from Home, 1850-1950. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2000.

This book covers development of recreational activity in the region which became the camp movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Gilborn traces the growth of the camps in size and stature, from the primitive log cabins of the wilderness guides in the 1840s to the clubs of the 1870s and finally the family camps in the 1890s. Chapters 10 and 11 discuss the noted architects and designers of the camps.

Gilborn, Craig. Durant: Fortunes and Woodland Camps of a Family in the Adirondacks. Utica, NY: North Country Books, 1981.

Gonino, Vincent. The Story of Huntington Memorial Camp. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1974.

Haynes, Wesley. “Santanoni Preserve.” National Historic Landmark Nomination. July 30, 1999.

Haynes, Wesley and James Jacobs. “Adirondack Camps National Historic Landmarks Theme Study: The Adirondack Camp in American Architecture.” National Register of Historic Places Nomination. March 28, 2000; updated 2007.

This report provides a historic context for Adirondack camps in New York. Subject areas include the development of northeastern tourism, human residence in the Adirondack region and its development into a resort area, and architecture of the camps. Because the primary criteria for historic designation for most Adirondack camps are their architectural integrity, the report also identifies architects and builders, evaluates property types, and names specific properties which best contribute to the establishment of an Adirondack Camps National Historic Landmark. A comprehensive listing of bibliographic sources also makes this report a valuable resource for Adirondack camp research.

Heald, Bruce B. A History of Dog Sledding in New England. Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2011.

Hooker, Mildred Phelps Stokes. Camp Chronicles. Blue Mountain Lake, NY: Adirondack Museum, 1964.

Jensen, Clayne R. Outdoor Recreation in America: Trends, Problems, and Opportunities. Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Company, 1977.

Johnsen, Theo A. The Winter Sport of Skeeing. Portland, ME: Theo A. Johnsen, 1905.

Johnson, Phil. “How New York Lost Its Marble.” Skiing History (May-June 2015): 26-29.

This article is a summation of the history of Marble Mountain ski area near Lake Placid. Planned in the 1930s and opened in 1948, the ski area was operational for approximately a decade before being replaced by Whiteface Mountain Ski Area due to poor site choice and weather conditions.

Kaiser, Harvey. Great Camps of the Adirondacks. Boston: David R. Godine, 1982.

Kirschenbaum, Howard. Story of Sagamore. Utica, NY: North Country Books, 2001.

Krattinger, William E. “Camp Pine Knot.” National Historic Landmark Nomination. October 2002.

Lake Placid Club. Lake Placid, NY: Lake Placid Club, 1920.

This promotional booklet was given to prospective members of the Lake Placid Club. It outlines the amenities offered by the club and membership rates. There are also many pictures of the club and members taking part in activities.

Malo, Paul. “Inventing the Adirondack Log Villa: From Woodsman’s Cabin to Rustic Lodge.” Association for Preservation Technology Bulletin 21 (1998): 27-34.

McMartin, Barbara. The Adirondack Park: A Wildlands Quilt. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1999.

McMartin, Barbara, James McMartin Long, and Karen Reid, eds. Celebrating the Constitutional Protection of the Forest Preserve, 1894-1994: Papers Presented at the Silver Bay Symposium, Lake George, September 30, 1994. Booklet.
This publication of the symposium includes five papers and presentations from a panel discussion. While most articles take a reflective stance on the legal and political aspects of the park, especially relevant to Gilded Age research is “Constitutionalizing Wilderness: Preservation in the Gilded Age” by Louise A. Halper, pp. 11-26.

Montgomery, Gladys. An Elegant Wilderness: Great Camps and Lodges of the Adirondacks, 1855-1935. New York: Acanthus Press, 2011.

Morgan, Bret. Rustic: Country Houses, Rural Dwellings, Wooded Retreats. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 2009.

Mulvey, Christopher. Anglo-American Landscapes: A Study of Nineteenth-Century Anglo-American Travel Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Needham, Richard. Ski: Fifty Years in North America. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc., 1987.

Northrup, Ansel Judd. Camps and Tramps in the Adirondacks, and Grayling Fishing in Northern Michigan: A Record of Summer Vacations in the Wilderness. Second edition. Syracuse, NY: C. W. Bardeen, 1882.

Northup documents his summer fishing excursions to the Adirondacks and northern Michigan. Most of the book focuses on his activities in New York, with the final three chapters in Michigan. The New York locations include Jock’s Lake (Honnedaga Lake), St. Regis Lakes, Saranac Lakes, Beaver River, Oswegatchie River, and various lakes between Boonville, Oneida County and Saratoga.

Ortloff, George C. and Stephen C. Ortloff. Lake Placid, the Olympic Years, 1932-1980: A Portrait of America’s Premier Winter Resort. Hollywood: Macromedia, 1977.

Parnes, Brenda. “Trespass: A History of Land Use Policy in the Adirondack Forest Region of Northern New York State, 1789-1905.” Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 1989.

Rowland, Tim. High Peaks: A History of Hiking in the Adirondacks. Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2008.

Sears, John F. Sacred Places: American Tourist Attractions in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Skiing Heritage Journal/Skiing History.

Stansfield, Dean. Images of America: Lake Placid. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2002.

Stedman, Irving L. Lake Placid Club. Fulton, NY: Morrill Press, 1924.

Wallace, E. W. Descriptive Guide to the Adirondacks, Land of the Thousand Lakes. 14th ed. Syracuse, NY: Bible Publishing House, 1889.

This source provides various guided tours through the Adirondack region. These include the John Brown Tract (namesake of Brown University in Rhode Island), Oswegatchies, and Grass River Regions; Chateaugay and St. Regis Woods; Saranac Region; Adirondack, Hudson River, Raquette, and Long Lake Regions; Garoga, Pleasant, and Piseco Lakes Regions; and Raquette Waters. The appendix includes suggested outfits for men and women to wear during their excursions, recipes for insect repellants, and needed supplies.

Watson, Winslow Cossoul. A Descriptive and Historical Guide to the Valley of Lake Champlain and the Adirondacks. Burlington, VT: R. S. Styles' Steam Printing House, 1871.

Watson describes the geographic locations and features of the Adirondack region and Lake Champlain Valley during the 1870s. This guide is intended as an advertisement to draw tourists to the area. There are numerous illustrations of Adirondack hotels and resorts, and the appendix in the back features advertisements for these businesses.

Weber, Sandra. Adirondack Roots: Stories of Hiking, History, and Women. Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2011.

White, Carol Stone. Women with Altitude: Challenging the Adirondack High Peaks in Winters. Utica, NY: North Country Books, 2005.

Wicks, William S. Log Cabins: How to Build and Furnish Them. 6th ed. New York: Forest and Stream Publishing Co., 1908.

Wilkinson, Paul F. Environmental Impact of Recreation and Tourism: A Bibliography. Monticello, IL: Vance Bibliographies, 1978.

Worster, Donald. The Wealth of Nature: Environmental History and the Ecological Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Last updated: November 21, 2018