• Wind Cave National Park - Two Worlds

    Wind Cave

    National Park South Dakota

Alvin McDonald's Diary (Text) 1891

Here follows the diary of Alvin McDonald. Apart from correcting the spelling and formatting the text, everything remains as the author wrote it. Use the links below to jump within the diary.

1891
January | February | March | April |
May | June | July | August |
September | October - December

Jump to 1892 - 1893
January | February | March | April |
May | June | July | August |
September | October | November | December

 

PRIVATE ACCOUNT OF A.F. McDONALD

Permanent Guide of Wind Cave

January 1st, 1891
Have been working all day on the narrow passage between the Church Steeple and the Camel's Back. Discovered a fine moss agate crystal after second shot. And got a piece of it out, too.

January 2nd, 1891
Worked on the narrow place between the Church Steeple and Camel's Back in the forenoon and took a tour in the cave in the afternoon. At 12:30 PM I started for Monument Hall with Alfred Matt of Hill City S.D. and Frank Lally of Chamberlain S.D. as follows. After arriving at the room of the petrified swan, we tried the Volcanic chimney to the left and came unexpectedly on the rope. After leaving the White Elephant we determined to explore the Volcanic Crevice leading N.W. After a healthy climb we found the skeleton of a mountain rat and then discovered the first giant coral I ever saw in the cave. After capturing a couple of good pieces we returned to our comrade who was sitting in the dark. From there we found a place near Lover's Retreat that needs exploring. After stopping a few minutes to examine it, we ploded on to Monument Hall and returned Via Sampson's Palace.

January 3rd, 1891
Have been to Hot Springs today. Sold a few specimens and had a pleasant chat with friends. Started an itemized map of Wind Cave this (today) evening.

Sunday January 4th
It has been a dull day today. With no visitors except J.C. West, Will Jones and Boone Willard. I and Elmer took a trip in the cave at 7:15 P.M. and got out at 11:30 P.M. We discovered a lot of Black Diamond work on the Snow Ball Route to the right of the Camel's Back and a good bit of Box Work South East of the Fair Maids pathway. I brought a big piece of Black Diamond work and will most likely keep it as it hard to get any more like it in size or shape.

Monday, Jan 5th
I have been working out of doors today. I and Elmer started in the cave at 5:15 P.M. And returned to the entrance at 9:31 P.M. We put a shot in a small hole in the snow ball route and after getting through, I found a beautiful purple crystal. After bringing two pieces of it out, I traded heaviest one to Mary for a strange fossil that father brought out and gave to her that was worth a good deal more to me than the crystal. The fossil goes in my private collection.

Tuesday, Jan. 6th
I have been working near the Camel's Back today and worked on the map this evening. Two visitors came in now, but I do not know their names yet.

Wednesday Jan 7th
Started in the Cave (Moss's Palace) this morning at 6:30 A.M. and returned at 11:45 with E. Senechal of Chamberlain S.D. and J.J. Rafferty of Hill City as follows. I and Father fired two shots in the narrow passage between Sparkling Alley and the Camel's Back, but without much effect. I started in the cave at 8:40 P.M. and

Thursday Jan 8th
Returned at 1:40 A.M. with R.B. Moss, Mrs R.B. Moss, Josie Moss, Chas. Ostrum, J.L. Downs, W. S. Bisbee, Isaac J. Williams, Custer, S.D. We all got as far as Moss Palace and I found a place that needs exploring at the North East corner of Moss's Palace. I went to bed at 5:50 A.M. and got up at 9:00 A.M. I and W.S. Bisbee started in the cave at 9:30 A.M. and returned at 10:15 AM after taking in the Crystal Palace circuit. Moss' folks started home at l:00 P.M. and took Mary with them.

Friday Jan 9th
I and Elmer put in four shots near the Camel's Back with good effect and broke three drills in the action. Elmer went over to Willards to stay tonight.

Saturday Jan 10th
I went to Hot Springs with Abe West this morning and will not return to the cave tonight. Father received a letter from Crawford, Neb. today.

Sunday, Jan 11th
I rode out from Hot Springs this morning with Melvin A. Moore. We started in the cave at 5:50 P.M. and

Monday Jan 12th
returned at 12:15 A.M. We explored on the Sampson's Palace Route to the left of Moss' Palace. The principal room we found was Mound Builders Rest. We explored about a half mile in three different chambers. The general formation is crystalization and geodes.

Tuesday January 13
Melvin A. Moore and I took a trip in the cave at 11:40 A.M. and returned at 2:00 P.M. Went to the old frost chambers on the cataract route. Elmer and I worked on the Camel's Back today but we have not broke it yet. I discovered quartz crystal (native) this morning that has very much the appearance of a calcite pyramid crystal. I have come to the conclusion that the Camel's Back is made of quartzite.

Wednesday Jan 14th
I started to Hot Springs about 10:30 A.M. and arrived at the Springs at 1:30 P.M. Put the horse in Mr. Brown's stable. I took Mrs. Brown's specimens to her and took 3.00 worth to Mr. Sidey, the specimen dealer of hot Springs. He paid me two dollars and promised me the rest. He gave me two tickets for the Socials for which I was of course very much obliged. I took supper at Mrs. Browns and accompanied Miss Ada Brown to the social and then started to the Soldiers home. We got there with both feet after encountering an embankment 12 or 12 feet high. We had a good time at the Home and then returned with no accidents. Had a good time for nothing and stayed at Moore's till morning.

Thursday Jan 15th
I started out of town this morning at 9:30 and arrived at the cave at 1:00 P.M. Mr. Belfrige Kingbolt of Chadron Neb rode out with me on the way to C.H. Roe's. When I arrived Melvin A Moore had just got his team put in the barn. I and Melvin took a trip in the Cataract Route tonight and got a good load of frost and popcorn work.

Friday Jan 16th
I and Melvin A. Moore fixed up a load of tools and grub and went to Hot Springs this afternoon. We are getting ready to start to the bad lands tomorrow.

Saturday Jan 17th
We got to the Bad lands at 10:00 A.M. and broke one geode before noon. It contained silver spar. In the afternoon we dug out one geode down the river from the camp that had yellow crystals in it. We rolled it down the bank and then went up the river and dug out another geode that had white crystals and then returned.

Sunday Jan 18th
Melvin worked on a geode that had yellow crystals in it this forenoon while I prospected around through the hills. In the afternoon, we put in a shot in the first gulch but found nothing. I dug out a geode across the gulch from it but found nothing.

Monday Jan 19th
Melvin found white crystals in the geode this morning that we dug out Saturday afternoon and took us all the forenoon. I worked out a geode this afternoon that had dark yellow crystals in it. We made up our mind about 6:30 P.M. to 'pull out' and we packed up and pulled out for hot Springs. We reached the Springs at 10:15 P.M. So ended our trip to the Bad Lands.

Tuesday Jan 20th
I got up late this morning and I guess everybody else did too because I went over to Mrs. Browns and they either wasn’t up yet or locked the doors on me. I couldn't get in any how. (I got there with both feet after while) I run my face for a sack of flour at Aldens this morning because Moss forgot to send us down any money. Mr. Moore had the kindness to haul me and two boxes of specimens out to the cave this forenoon. We arrived about 2:00 P.M. J.B. McDonald told me that two visitors were here from Hill Town Sunday Jan 18th and got $2.50 out of them. Mr. J. B. West came on a visit shortly after I arrived. I and Mr. Moore started in the cave at 7:15 P.M. and returned at 11:20 P.M. We went the Crystal route and by way of Crystal Palace. I brought out 6 geodes to fill John P. Sidey's order of the 16th. Good Night, Lydia.

Wednesday Jan 21st
Mr. Moore left for Hot Springs about 11:00 A.M. and took a good joke wrapped in about 1 pound of paper to my best friend Mrs. Brown. We worked on the road this afternoon and took a trip in the cave this evening. 5:00 P.M. to 11:20 P.M. 6 hours 20 min. We went the Sampson's Palace route to Mound Builders Rest and got some fine geodes and crystallized Box Work.

Thursday Jan 22nd
I got up late this morning and prepared to Start to town (Hot Springs). After packing Sidey's Specimens I got started to Hot Springs at 11:15 A.M. I arrived at town at 1:30 P.M. and put the horse in a livery stable in the lower town. I then went to Mrs. Browns and had to acknowledge that she got the best of me on the joke I tried to play on her yesterday, because she kept the rock that I lapped so much paper around After starting a joke on Miss Ada Brown I got started home about 8:00 P.M. and arrived at 10:30 P.M.

Friday Jan 23rd, 1891
We got up late this morning and I started into the cave at 9:15 A.M. with W Stirling of Hay Springs Neb and Frank Stirling of Sault Ste Marie, Mich. as follows. We started for Mound Builder's Rest and got there at 1:00 P.M. After looking around a while we struck a passage leading to the left and went through a narrow passage for 700 feet before finding anything of interest. We then found a flat room with four passages leading from it. We finally chose the passage that lead south and then East. After following this passage for about a quarter of a mile through open rooms we found a place where there had been a heavy fall some ancient period because the rocks are all stuck together with sediment of some kind. I found a geode with white crystals in it at the bottom of the pile. After running out our string we returned to the flat room with the four passages leading from it. I and Walter left Frank with the string so we couldn't get lost and explored the other passages. I found nothing in the west passage and he found nothing in the East passage. Then we both went the N.E. passage and found a room of beautiful crystallized box, lattice and bracket work together with some fine geodes. After backing up in good shape we started for the entrance and arrived at 6:30 P.M. after 9 hr 15 minute trip. Were plenty tired when we got out and.....supper ..... folks went to bed and left me at 9:00 P.M. and I think I will get to bed at 10:00 P.M. Have given up the idea of finding the end of Wind Cave. Good night, Cora.

Saturday January 24th
I got up at 6:30 this morning and father went to Hot Springs with Mr. J.C. West of Beaver Valley. I and Elmer worked on the road this fore noon. Levi Crumm came from the lime kiln about 11:00 A.M. with four pieces of log chain that he wanted welded together. C.H. Roe (the man that Roe's misery was named after) and Belfrige Kingbolt came about 11:30 A.M. and left about 12:P.M. Father got home about 4:00 P.M. and brought an answer to the note I wrote to him this morning. Mrs. Brown said that she wasn’t coming out to the cave tomorrow but I think she is getting off one of her jokes on me. I will try to keep even with her this time. Good night, (Ida?)

Sunday January 25th, 1891
Mrs Brown did not come out today, but plenty of others did. About 8:A.M. Mr. Willard of Rapid Creek and a friend came and started in the cave at 8:45 A.M. At 11:35 A.M. Mr. Alden of Hot Springs came with his father and two friends to go in the cave. At 11:50 A.M. a crowd of 15 came from Hot Springs and started in the cave at 12:25 P.M. At 12:50 PM I started in the cave with Mr. Aldens crowd and returned at 3:30 P.M. (Was surprised to see M.A. Moore there when I got out) We took the Crystal Palace Circle via Stalactite Route. M.A. Moore, Elmer and I started in the cave at 6:30 P.M. and returned at 11:07 P.M. Went to the giant Coral of the Monument Hall Route and were successful, considering circumstances. Good Night, ........

Monday January 26th
I shouldered up a pick and shovel and started for Beaver Creek at 9:00 o'clock this morning. I arrived at J.C. West's place about 9:45 a.m. At 10:00 a.m. we started to prospect for mineral. Choosing a place about a quarter of a mile above West's house we began to dig without much encouragement. After an hour's work we found a few pieces of galena mixed through the quartz and mica shist. The farther we dug the more mineral we seemed to find. By 4:00 P.M. we had developed the famous Lost Cabin Lode. I feel good over a days success which will probably bring riches sometime. Good night...

Tuesday, January 27th, 1891
We were surprised to see 4 inches of snow on the ground when we got up this morning, because there was a clear sky when we went to bed. Elmer started to Hot Springs at 8:00 A.M. M.A. Moore and I started in the cave at 8:30 A.M. and returned at 1:00 P.M. 4 hr. 20 min trip. I found a pocket of crystallized Pop Corn work to the right of the second room on the Crystal Palace Circle as we were going in. We then started for the Stalactite room on the North West of the big circle of the Crystal Route. After we got about two thirds of the way, there, we discovered that we had forgotten our extra candles and then we had to hurry through a good bit faster than usual. We returned as soon as possible to Crystal Palace where I left Melvin and went after lights. After getting four candles, I returned and then we filled a can of specimens in Crystal Palace. On the way out I filled my tin basket with crystallized pop corn work. When we got out of the cave we found 3 inches more snow on the ground. Making 7 inches in all. At 7:00 P.M. Melvin and I started for the old frost chamber on the Cataract Route. When we got the Snow Ball route we determined to get some quartz crystals which we got after four hours hard work. We discovered a pocket of black quartz crystals near the Fairy Palace. We loaded up and returned at 11:35 P.M. only to find more snow on the ground. Probably 3 inches more. Another 10 inches of snow fall in 24 hour.. Good night, Minnie. (T1)

Wednesday January 28th, 1891
M.A. Moore started home at 10:30 A.M. Elmer and I started in the cave at 1:00 P.M. to blast the camels back. We put in one 4 inch hole but did no good. We then put a 6 in hole in the middle of the Camel's Back and broke it all to pieces. While we were working it out father came in with Levi Crumm to tell me that supper was ready. We got out at 5:00 P.M. and were surprised to see J. L. Downs here. I then got introduced to Mr......., a U.S. surveyor. Mr. Downs, Mr. Palmer, Elmer and I started in the cave at 7:45 P.M. measured the distance we traveled with a surveyors chain. We named the first large room the other side of Moss's Palace "Monte Cristo's Palace". We arrived at Mound Builder's Rest at 12:00 O'clock.

Thursday January 29, 1891
We rested a while and then chained to the fall that I found on the 23rd .... .after looking around awhile we started back at 1:30 A.M. I loaded up a piece of Crystallized Box Work at Mound Builder's Rest and a geode at Monte Cristo's Palace. We arrived at the entrance at 5:00 A.M. after 9 hrs 15 min trip and went straightway to bed. I got up at 10:00 A.M. and Mr. Downs and Mr. Palmer left for Custer City at 10:30 A.M. We have been resting the most of the day because of our long trip in the cave last night. Good night Minnie . . . . . . . .

Friday January 30th, 1891
Started to town this morning and found the snow drifted plenty. We got stuck in a snow drift near Johnson’s place and had to unhitch and dig the buggy out of the snow. The horse was so tired when I got to town that I thought best to stay all night.

Saturday Jan 31st
Started from town at 11:30 this morning and came up Cold Brook Canon nearly all the way. Elmer and I started in the cave at 6:00 P.M. Elmer returned at 10:20 and I returned at 11:35 P.M. We discovered a fine quartz crystal in specimen route. We got a load apiece of quartz crystals.

Monthly Review

Monument Hall 1 Trip
Crystal Palace 4 "
Giant Coral 2 "
Sampson's Palace 8 "
Sceneries of Wiclow 7 " Mound Builder's Rest 3 "
Monte Cristo's Palace 4 "
Camel's Back 15 "
Cataract Route 2 "
Specimen Route 2 "
Stalactite Route 2 "

Total Number of trips in the Cave 27

 

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February 1891

Sunday Feb 1st, 1891
((hrs in cave) (Snow Ball Route - 2 trips)
I got up at 5:35 this morning (the earliest I have got up for a long while) and found it the coldest morning we have had this winter so far) Took a one candle trip in the cave this afternoon (2:30) and a 2:00 hr trip in the cave this evening. (Both trips were to the Snow Ball Route) I found some decomposed marble that is pretty and got some blue quartz crystals from rat alley.

Monday February 2nd
(5 (hrs in cave) (Monument Hall Route - 2 trips)
Elmer shot 2 rabbit with his rifle this morning when he was hunting up the house (Fred) the last night at Willards. He found the horse in Willard's Barn. At 1:30 P.M. Elmer and I started to our work on the Toboggan Slide. At 3:40 P.M. we had a three foot hole drilled and I came to the entrance. I returned at the Toboggan Slide at 4:10 P.M. We fired the first shot and then drilled 16 inches in another hole we intended to fire tomorrow morning. We got out at 7:30 P.M.

Tuesday February 3rd
(7 hrs in cave) (Monument Hall Route - 2 trips)
Elmer and I got to work on the top of the Toboggan Slide at 9:00 A.M. We put in one shot, got it worked out and got out of the Cave at 12:00 M. Father and I started to work on the Toboggan Slide at 1:30 P.M. We drilled 1 hole 22 inches deep. The first shot sprung the rocks and chambered the bottom of the hole. The second shot in the same hole loosened the top of the Toboggan Slide so that we worked off one rock that weighed about 1200 pounds. I got three pieces of Wind Cave Marble near Snow Ball Room as I came out. We got out at 6:30 P.M. After supper (what was pretty slim) I cut out some pieces of marble and polished one piece

Wednesday February 4th
(4 hrs in cave) (Monument Hall Route - 2 trips)
At 8:30 A.M. I started in the cave to work on the path between the Camel's Back and the Toboggan Slide. I put in one shot in a crack to the left of the path and brought down a rock weighing about 1300 pounds. It lodged on a point opposite and I put in a quarter of a stick of powder as close to the place it was caught as I could get it, but failed to bring it down. After dinner, Father went in the cave and worked the rock loose that I put two shots in this forenoon. At 7:20 P.M. Father and I went in the cave to explore a place near the Brides Chamber. We found nothing there except pipestone. We then climbed up the volcanic crevice between the Devil's Pot Hook and the Prairie Dog Town. We found several geodes and two curiosities, first a calcite nail head crystal, and a crystal point shaped like a dagger.

Thursday Feb 5th, 1891
(9 hrs in cave) (Monument Hall Route - 2 trips)
Elmer and I started to work on Roe's Misery at 7:00 A.M. We put in one shot with good effect. (18 in hole) and drilled 18 inches of another hole before coming out. We came out of the cave at 11:30 A.M. At 12:30 P.M. Elmer and I started back to work on Roe's Misery. We finished the hole we started but the shot did no good, as we drilled through into a pocket of some kind. We then drilled a hole in the upper left corner (as we go in). I fired the shot and then came out for supper arriving at 5:30 P.M. Elmer brought out a fine quartz crystal that the shot knocked down.

Friday February 6th, 1891
(20 minutes in Cave) (Monument Hall Route - 1 trip
At 7:15 A.M., I started for Beaver Valley to work on the Lost Cabin Lode. We found the lode getting richer every inch we dug in it. We got some Galena specimens. I arrived at home at 6:40 P.M. and brought some specimens of Galena out with me. The ledge gets richer the deeper we dig into it. Elmer went into Hot Springs today and he intended to stay at Mores tonight. I went in the cave this morning after a shovel to take a ..... to Beaver Creek with me. Was in 20 minutes. I found that the shot I and Elmer fit in Roe's Misery yesterday tore out the corner that we wanted it to.

Saturday Feb. 7th, 1891
(only 1:55 hrs in cave) (Specimen Route - 1 trip)
Soon after I got up this morning the snow began to fall and it is falling yet (9:15 P.M.) Father went up to dig out a spring that is situated about 50 rods south of Capt. Willard Spring, but the storm got so furious that he had to come home at 11:00 A.M. At 12:45 A.M. I started in the cave with the intention of getting some specimens and went the specimen route. At the far end of the second room, I found some nice geodes and an extra lustrous quartz crystal. After I got a geode that was covered with water formation I started for the entrance, arriving at 2:40 P.M. I discovered that ledge of Wind Cave Marble in the specimen Route, that I found in the monument Hall Route on the 1st inst. It is snowing hard out of doors now and it has snowed 7 inches today, since I got up. Good night, M......

Sunday, February 8th, 1891
(2:15 hrs in cave) (Specimen Route 1 trip)
I found 2 inches of snow on the door step this morning. It has not snowed any more and is clear out of doors now, but cold. When I went to the barn to feed the cow, I found that the snow has drifted badly. After dinner I got enough wood to last tomorrow. At 6:40 P.M. I started in the cave with the intention of following the wind on the specimen route but the holes got too small for me. On the way out I found a beautiful calcite crystal with coral studs of points all through it, but was imbedded in the rock so that I could not get it out whole, but got a piece of it and left it there

Monday February 9th, 1891
(4:20 in cave) (Sampson's Palace Route 1 trip)
I went hunting this morning, up the gulch, and shot one rabbit. Had about an hours work to get it. After dinner I went over to Capt. W's to get some grub. At 6:30 P.M. Elmer and J.M. Moore arrived from Hot Springs. At 7:40 P.M. J.M. Moore and I started in the cave. We went on the M.B.A. Branch of the Sampson's Palace Route. In the North end and East side of Monte Cristo's Palace, we found crystallized gypsum.

Tuesday, February 10th, 1891
(3[?]:20 in cave) (Bee Hive Route 1 trip)
J.M. Moore and I went hunting this morning, but we were not successful. At this end of Mound Builder's Rest we found a passage leading straight ahead and to the left. Our first discovery was some crystallized gypsum and Wind Cave Marble. We went through a long oven leading nearly due East and came into a fine triangular shaped room with flat roof and rough floor. We tried to get straight ahead but failed. We then found a passage leading to the right and came unexpectedly in the room that Walter Starling of Hay Springs Neb and I found on the 23rd day of January 1891. From there we took a north east course through a long oven that came ........ to a stop unless we climbed up, which we did with a will, but could not get far. We then concluded to start for the entrance. I loaded up three pieces of Marble (variegated) to take with me, and a few samples of crystallized gypsum. When we arrived at crystal spring, J.M. Moore got his sack of tobacco that he forgot on our way in. We arrived at the entrance at 2:40 A.M. & went straightway to bed. At 11:20 A.M. I shot a rabbit with the shot gun, back of the house, where we are going to put the wagon bridge on the road. This evening I made a sneak on a rabbit, near the upper entrance, and shot it. At 7:50 P.M. I started on a pleasure trip to the ...... & was gone an hour. The first pleasure trip I have taken this month. Father went over to J.C.West's this morning and returned about 5 minutes after I got out of the cave. I got out at 8:50 P.M. (that is, out of the cave) good night, ..........

Wednesday Feb 11th, 1891
(5:45 in cave) (Monument Hall Route 1 trip)
Father started to Hot Springs this morning at 7:00 o'clock A.M. J.M.Moore and I started for Monument Hall. When we got just this side of Devil's Lookout we found a ledge of Marble about 26 inches thick. On our way to Monument Hall we found several places that we threatened to explore on way back. We explored all the places except the last one, but found nothing. When we got up to the middle of the longest stretch on the rope, I determined to explore that little hole, that I threatened to explore on the 25th day of January 1891, when West, Moore & Elmer were with me. I left J.M. Moore at the top of the crevice & started down It (the crevice) when I got about half way down I met with a bothersome obstacle in the shape of a rock. After hammering it (the rock) out of the way I called for the rope, (because there was a hole below me that I could not see the bottom of) and got it in about a minute. I was surprised to find that the rope would not reach within ten feet of the bottom of the hole, and that was the hardest climbing of the whole business (the bottom of the hole is about level with the bottom of the White Elephants). I found myself in a wonderful place & among the most beautiful scenery in the volcanic part of Wind Cave. From here I found the most dangerous climbing that I ever experienced. In the first place l got into the middle of (as far as I could tell) a place that I could see neither bottom nor top. After I got out of that scrape I found a room about the shape of Monument Hall and about twice as long. At the far end of this room I saw some beautiful bracket work that was crystallized. After I left this room about 400 feet behind I came suddenly & unexpectedly to a stop. On the way back I saw the main passage that I had missed but had not the time to explore it because I thought J.M. Moore was getting anxious about me. I found it a good deal harder climbing to get back than I had at first supposed. When I got up the rope we pulled it out of the place, I had just been in and put it in its old place. When we got back to Devil's Lookout we found that ledge of marble in the south end of it. When we got it to Snow Ball Room we tried to get some Fairy's Palace crystal but with poor success. (J.B. West came on business about sundown or a little after) I and J.M. Moore got out of the cave at 12:45 P.M., the longest trip I have taken on the Monument Hall Route since my first trip to Monument Hall on the 26th day of March 1890.

Thursday Feb. 12th, 1891
(4:10 in cave) (Guide Discovery Route 1 trip)
Father returned from Hot Springs at l:30 P.M. At 6:00 P.M. J.M. Moore, Elmer and I started on an exploring trip on the Guide Discovery Route. Choosing the right wing of the route, we undertook to explore the hole that O.K. Rounds and I found on 26th day of October 1890, and found it hard climbing. When we got to the bottom we found a place that I had been in before, a room with mud in the bottom of it. It was the second room (to the left of the main route) from the bottom of the deep hole near the Guides Discovery. From this room we found our way to the first room, and from there we found a way back to the bottom of the deep hole near the Guide's Discovery. When we was trying to find a way to get down deeper, I found that same ledge of Marble that I found in the Monument Hall & Sampson's Palace Routes. On our way out we determined to explore a deep crevice near the South Dressing Room, and came down near the end of the Oven. We got out of the cave at 10:10 P.M. after seeing lots of cave and making a few important discoveries. It is a clear night and quite a bit of snow thawed today. I took the first trip on the Guide Discovery Route today that I have taken on that route this year. Good night A

Friday, February 13th, 1891
(2:05 in cave) Monument Hall Route 1 trip
(2:45 in cave) Crystal Route 1 trip)
At 9:30 this morning, J.M. Moore, Elmer and I started in the cave to work on Roe's Misery. The first thing we done was to examine the place, to tell where to put the first shot. We decided load and shot the hole that we made a failure of on the 5th day of February 1891. The shot tore out even more rock than we expected of it. I came out of the cave at 11:35 A.M. After dinner I got a good bit of cedar (stove) wood. At 7:45 P.M. J.M. Moore and I started on the crystal Route with the intention of going to crystal Palace. We went to crystal Palace by way of O.K. Round's discovery of 1890 and came back by way of the old Stalactite Rooms. I found an odd shaped mineral crystal near the bottom of the deep hole near the old stalactite rooms. The crystal has at one time been a calcite pyramid, but since has had a coating of Iron, quartz and chert. We arrived at the entrance at 9:30 A.M.

Saturday February 14th, 1891
(9:00 in cave) (Monument Hall Route 2 trips)
At 8:00 A.M. Father and I started in the cave to work on Roe's Misery. We got in the first shot to the left of the misery and about 9 inches deep. It tore out about one tone of rock & broke it up pretty fine We put the second shot, directly behind the place where we put the first shot. The third shot blowed out at top (Boxwork). I put the fourth shot in a hole (already drilled) at the other end of Roe's Misery & tore out about a ton & a half of rock. We came out for dinner at 12:30 P.M. We went in the cave again at 1:30 P.M. & came out at 6:00 P.M. We put in two shots in the forenoon & two shots in the afternoon. J.M. Moore went to Hot Springs this morning to see how his brother was and get some candles. He got back this evening before father and I got out of the cave & reported all well. He brought out a Winchester rifle with him to kill rabbits with, as there is no other game in the country at this time in the year.

 

Sunday February 15th, 1891
(2:03 in cave) (Crystal Route 1 trip)
Father and I packed a box of curiosity this morning. At 10:35 A.M. I started in the cave to get some mineral crystals. I went to the south end of Crystal Palace Via the old stalactite rooms and the deep hole near them. I first worked out the pocket of mineral crystals that I discovered on the 13th, and then went on the circle that I found the last time Brown's folks was in the cave with me. When I got about half way around the circle, I found a mineral crystal that was capped with calcite cut crystals. When I got nearly around circle to the left I discovered a young crystal cave & worked it partly out, but I did not take any of it out of doors. I came back to the mineral crystal I first worked out & loaded up ready to come out of the cave. When I arrived at the entrance, George McManus, (our first neighbor down Wind Canon) took me by surprise. After dinner I went home with him, the first time have been down to his place this year, and came back about dark. The weather was cloudy when I got up this morning and has been getting colder ever since. This is the coldest evening we have had this winter, so far. I got out of the cave today at 12:38 P.M.

Monday February 16th, 1891
(6:22 in cave) (Monument Hall Route 1 trip)
I took a circle around the hiss this morning to get a rabbit but failed. At 1:30 P.M. J.M. Moore Elmer and I started in the cave to work the path between Roe's Misery and Red Hall. J.M. Moore and Elmer put in a shot in Roe's Misery while I worked nearer the Hall with the sledge hammer, fixing the path. I arrived at the entrance at 7:52 P.M. and was plenty tired. The weather has been cloudy and the snow has not thawed a bit today (in this part of the country). Good night (by A.)

Tuesday February 17th, 1891
(2:45 in cave) (Crystal Route 1 trip)
Elmer started to Hot Springs this morning & I don't think he will be back to night, on account of bad roads. At 8:45 A.M. J.M. Moore & I started in the cave with the intention of going to a stalactite room. We took the left wing of the Crystal Route (A.M. Ryan's discovery) & went to the stalactite rooms on the north west end of the big circle (2 miles in circumference). We returned by the North West end of Crystal Palace and O.K. Round's discovery (which will, after this date, be called the "Main passage") We arrived at the entrance at 11:30 A.M. At 1:30 P.M. Mrs. Willard, Miss Gallop, Oscar Hoff & Father came out of the cave having started in the cave while we were in. This afternoon, J.M. Moore took a circle around through the Hills and shot two rabbits.

Wednesday February 18th
(7:05 in cave) (Specimen Route 1 trip)
It has been a clear day and thawed a good bit of snow and ice. At 1:00 P.M. J.M. Moore & I started in the cave to explore for the stream of water that William Davis & Mr. Alltaffer (?) tried to lead me to (but failed). Taking the specimen Route we first began to explore to the right of the deep hole, near the angle of the old part of the route. We started in a small hole, that had, one ... cord, three binding twines & one cotton wrapping twine in it. We stretched a wrapping twine after us, so we could find our way out without getting lost. The farther we went in the larger the hole got, until we got into a fair sized room, about 16 feet x 40 feet x 10 feet high. The west passage we had to go through was uncomfortably small as we could hardly squeeze through it, but after we got through we found a fine (but small) room that was hanging full of brown box & lattice work. From there we climbed up a hole about 30 feet on the angle 45 degrees and found a room that had small stalactites hanging from the ceiling & ....... all over the floor of it. We explored around there a while but found no way out, except the way we came in. Returning to the small rooms that had box & lattice work in it we went down a hole to the left (as we go in) to the depth of 30 feet or more & found ourselves in the room that M.A. Moore discovered on the 14th day of January 1891. After exploring for about half an (?) and finding nothing we returned to the deep hole on the old part of the route different from that which we went, coming back to the string just this side of the hole that we had to squeeze through when we went in. Coming back about 50 feet from the angle in the old part of the route I thought it best to explore the small passage leading at a right angle to the left (as we come out). After we had went about 25 feet we come into the largest room that I ever saw before in the Specimen Route, dimensions about 35 feet x 60 feet x 25 feet high. There are passages leading in every possible direction from it. We took a large passage in the South West corner of the room. The passage kept getting smaller and then opened up into a small stalactite room with dirt floor & red formation in general. From there J.M. Moore found a passage leading to the left & started to explore it for water formation, leaving me to explore another place in a different direction. In about 10 minutes J.M. Moore called me to come to where he was. I started towards him, but got into a hole so tight that I had a hard time getting through, but succeeded after tearing a button of my jacket & found myself into a small stalactite room. From there we crawled into a passage to the left, that kept larger until we got into a room about 12 x 12 feet with 3 or 4 passages leading from it in different directions. I climbed up a hole to the left of the room to the height of 55 feet but found nothing except a little water formation and a good deal of hard climbing. When I got back to where I left J.M. Moore he was not there, but I heard him calling to me to come to him & bring the string, for he had found a place where we would never stop going down when we once got started. When I got to where I could see him, he was about 12 feet below & I had to jump about half that distance but found a soft lighting place. I found myself into a room that was nearly round and about 50 feet in diameter & had a white roof, brown sides and red floor. From there we saw new passages leading in every direction. Our first ball of twine ran out on us in this room & while I was tying the second ball of string to the end of the first, J.M. Moore went on an exploring trip by himself, but not out of hearing. He returned in a few minutes and reported that he had found a few small stalactites. We then stretched the string about 100 feet down the avenue to the east & came to a branch in the passage. Leaving the string at the junction of the passage J.M. Moore took the left and I took the right passage promising not to get out of hearing of ......... . After I went about 25 feet I told J.M. Moore to stay where he was until I got back. I went a short distance and turned to the right coming unexpectedly on the small stalactites that J.M. Moore found a few minutes before. I then returned to the string & we went down into a room that we named "Turtle Room". From there we kept on down to the left until we came into a room that we could not see any way out of except the way we came in. We finally found a hole that we could get down, by breaking a few rocks out of the way. After I broke the rocks out of the hole J.M. Moore went down about 10 feet and found the hole again filled with loose rock. He broke the rocks out of the way and went down as far as he could get, (about 10 feet), making 20 feet in all, & then returned to me. We started out, but found a hole to the left (after we got about 15 feet) that led down. Breaking our way for about 4 feet we climbed down about 20 feet and then had to break out a few more stones. After getting the stones out of our way, we climbed down about 40 feet more & found the passage blocked up again, (so tight that we could not break it out with the hammer), so we returned to "Turtle Room" & found a passage leading down from there. We went down about 50 feet all told & had to Break out 2 holes to get through. We then returned to the room that our first ball of twine ran out in and found a large passage leading to the right, (as we go in) but left it for future exploration, as we had but a little candle & not any string. Elmer was at home when we got out of the cave. (8:05 P.M.)

Thursday February 19th, 1891
(4:05 in Cave) (Monument Hall, Cataract, Specimen & Guide Discovery Routes 1 trip)
Father started to Custer City this morning on business. At 1:10 P.M. J.M. Moore & I started in the cave with the intention of finding the source of Wind River (a thing that I and August Anderson give up more than six months ago). To get to Wind River, we had to go on the Monument Hall Route, as far the Post Office & then take the Cataract Route from the Post Office. To the right of this end of the third division of the Post Office we climbed up about 60 feet (angling) & came into the cataract. In the North East end of the Cataract we crawled into a small passage leading to the left & came into a small room (after going about 25 feet). From here we turned to our left about 50 feet & then to our right into the Wind River chamber. Here we found a heavy quartz wash and a good many big rocks in the bottom of the room. We explored about 20 minutes without favorable results. I finally found a place that I could get through, by breaking a while with the hammer, & had ....... on top & bottom of the hole. After breaking through, we came into a room with no regular shape or dimensions that I could see, (probably 30 yards across). From the West end of this room we found a passage leading to the right & I had the pleasure of being the first human being that ever went through it (because I made the first tracks). After we got through this passage we came into the first natural room that I ever saw in the cave, (there not being any fallen rocks), with dimensions about 17 feet in diameter x 10 feet high. From that we got into a confusion of passages (all natural) leading first to the right and then to the left, about 25 or 30 feet at each angle, & then got into a large room with no regular shape. From there we got into a passage leading to the right & then to the left, but kept getting smaller until we were forced to make our progress on our hands & knees. When we got through we came unexpectedly on a cotton wrapping twine. I recognized the twine as the one we stretched yesterday on the Specimen Route & found that we was near "Turtle Room" (about 25 feet above it). J.M. Moore and I have the honor of, not only connecting the Cataract & Specimen Routes, but finding another way to get to the Post Office without going past the Brides Chamber. We was not satisfied with finding one thing of so much importance, but determined to explore fore more. So we came along the string we had found already stretched until we got even with the stalactites that J.M. Moore found yesterday & then made our string fast to it and left it. We went through a small hole on our hands & knees that led us into a good sized room, (about 30 x 20 feet, irregular), that had quartz wash in the bottom of it; but was nothing like the Wind River wash. From this room we took a small passage leading to the North West that was nearly lined with calcite crystals. The passage kept get larger until it opened up into a larger room with regular dimensions (about 45 x 15 feet). We looked around about 15 minutes before we found the passage that we wanted to take, but I finally found it in the North West Corner of the room. The passage was pretty small at first but there was some wind coming out of it & that inspired us to keep moving on because, in Wind Cave, whenever you find a passage that has wind in it, it shows the passage is of some importance. It was a natural passage & we followed it over a hundred feet before we found the big room we expected to find. The room was very irregular & was about 150 feet across in the shortest place. There was a whole network of passages leading in every direction .... & we found that some one had been in the room before we had because the was tracks in the coft floor. We tried to follow the tracks out of the room, but when we got on the solid rock floor again, there was no tracks, so we gave it up after about half an hours search & returned to the large room again. We took another passage this time from the west end of the room & after we followed it a while, we found tracks in it & then found a beaten trail & things began to look natural to me, as though I had been in that place before. To my surprise and delight, we soon came into the Guide Discovery thus making the largest Circle that I had yet made in Wind Cave. We arrived at the entrance at 5:45 P.M., After getting a few calcite crystals on our way out.

Friday February 20th, 1891
--- not in the cave ----
It has been a quiet day with no visitors & a great deal of snow has thawed with the North West Winds. Father got home from Custer City and reported all well in that place and at Moss City. He said Samuel J. Lowell of New York City was at Moss City on business.

Saturday February 21st, 91
--- not in cave ---
J.M. Moore & Father started for Hot Springs this morning & Father has not got home yet (7:50 P.M.) I have not been in the cave today, on account of not feeling well, more than anything else. I started an itemized map of the Sampson's Palace Route today & got the most of the Geode Hall Branch finished in good colors. The day has been cold but I guess tomorrow will be warmer, because the wheel is giving us music. Am getting homesick after staying out of the cave so long.

Sunday February 22nd
--- not in cave ---
The warmest day we have had since the 26th day of January 1891. At 8:00 A.M. George McManus came on a visit and left at 2:00 P.M. At 11:30 A.M. J.C. West came on a visit and left at 1:30 P.M. At 1:00 P.M. Father returned from Hot Springs and reported all well in that place. I got an answer to the note that I sent Melvin A. Moore yesterday but not satisfactory as I wished him to answer it in person. I wrote a letter to grandmother today but will not get a chance to send it until Tuesday as father is going to town Tuesday if all is well.

Monday February 23rd, 1891
--- not in the cave ---
We got a quarter of beef today of Capt. Willard. It rained about an hour this evening but the drops froze as soon as they struck the ground making everything icy. Father went over to J.C. Wests this evening & Elmer went over to Capt. Willard leaving me alone. Father returned at 10:05 P.M. & we went to bed shortly afterwards. The wind has been going in the cave since morning with unabated fury - (caused by the damp air)

Tuesday February 24th, 1891
--- not in cave
The wind is still going in the cave & sounds like a heavy water falls. The wind always sounds like a water fall when it is going in very hard. Have been to work on the map today. I have completed Map No. 2 as far as the cave is explored on that Route (Sampson's Palace). Worked on the Guide's Discovery Route on Map No. 1 but did not get much done because I was not in a working mood. Elmer went down to George McManus' this afternoon to borrow some powder and shot & got a rabbit on the way home. I expect company of some kind tomorrow.

Wednesday February 25th, 1891
(5:05 in cave) (Sampson's Palace Route 1 trip)
I worked on map No. 1 about 2 hours this morning. At 2:30 P.M. M.A. Moore, J.M. Moore & Father arrived from Hot Springs. After dinner we started in the Cave, but it was 6:55 P.M. when we got ready. We started in the cave with the intention of getting a load of Wind Cave marble and went the Sampson's Palace Route. We went to the marble that was discovered on the 10th day of February 1891. We got some large pieces of cord (fine) on a way in and gathered it up upon our return. Elmer, Melvin, John.

Thursday February 26th, 1891
(6:35 in cave) (Monument Hall Route 1 trip)
I put up 2 stone claim notices this forenoon & started in the cave to work between the Post Office & Red Hall. M.A. Moore & I put in a shot but it did not do much good. At 2:25 this afternoon we returned to the entrance at 6:00 P.M. M.A. Moore & I returned from the Sampson's Palace Route at 3:00 A.M.

Friday February 27th, 1891
(3 hr in cave Snow ball Route 1 trip)
(10 hr in cave Monument Hall Route 2 trip)
(13 hr in Cave) 3 trips)
At 8:30 A.M. M.A. Moore & I started in the cave to work a shot in Roe's misery. We drilled the hole about six inches & then went to got some specimen. I took the sledge with me to work out the passage while M.A. Moore got some specimens near Devil's Lookout. We come out to get some dinner at 1:30 P.M. We went in and finished the hole in Roe's Misery in the afternoon, starting in at 2:00 P.M. and returning at 7:00 P.M. At 9:00 P.M. we started in the cave with the intention of getting come quartz crystals & went on the Snow Ball Route. M.A. Moore discovered a pocket of Fairies Palace Crystals near former discoveries of mine. I discovered three or four blanket ledges of Wind Cave Marble near the bottom of the deep well and got a fine quartz crystal at the right of the path just before we enter Snow Ball Room but about 10 feet below it. The wind started out of the cave this evening, the first time for 5 days.

Saturday February 28th
(3:15 in Cave) (Monument Hall Route 1 trip)
(2:45 in cave) (Snow Ball Route 1 trip)
At 9:30 A.M. M.A. Moore & I started in the cave with the intention of getting specimens & cleaning out the loose rock in Roe's Misery, left from yesterday's shot. When we got to Snow Ball Room M.A. Moore stopped to get some specimens while I went on to clear the loose rock in Roe's Misery. After I got the Misery cleared and was working with the sledge near Red Hall, M.A. Moore came and wanted me to help him get a specimen loose. I went with him of course, but we failed to get the specimen (quartz crystal) loose. We went out for dinner at 12:45 P.M. At 1:40 P.M. M.A. Moore & I went in the cave with the intention of getting some specimens of some kind. M.A. Moore took the right wing of Snow Ball Route & I took the left wing. He made a failure of getting his specimen & I made but partial success, (getting an iron stained calcite pyramid). On our return we went down the Well and got some Wind Cave Marble. We got out of the cave at 4:25 P.M.

Monthly Review
Principal Discoveries & Improvements

Monument Hall Route
17 Trips
From middle of rope I discovered beautiful scenery in the volcanic part of Wind Cave. Elmer and I blasted off the top of the toboggan slide and opened Roe's Misery.

Snow Ball Route
5 Trips
I discovered variegated marble near the bottom of the well & an iron-stained calcite crystal of great value in left wing. M.A. Moore discovered fine quartz crystals in right wing.

Cataract Route - Discoveries
1 Trip
J.M. Moore & I discovered the connection of Wind River Chamber with the Specimen & Guide's Discovery Route. To be known hereafter as the Wind River Circle.

Crystal Route - Discoveries
3 Trips
I discovered mineral crystals in the South end of Crystal Palace & calcite pockets, N.E. of South end of crystal palace, also Wind Cave Marble in Crystal Palace.

Sampson's Palace Route -
2 Trips
J.M. Moore & I discovered a way to get to the Natural Dump without going through Mound Builders Last Resting Place & also discovered the first Wind Cave marble and crystallized gypsum that was found in the Sampson's Palace Route

Specimen Route
3 Trips
J.M. Moore & I discovered "Turtle Room" & the connection of Specimen Route with the Cataract & Guide's Discovery Routes. I discovered mineral crystals in the left wing of the Main Circle.

Guides Discovery Route
1 Trip
J.M. Moore, Elmer & I discovered the circle in the lower part of the route. J.M. Moore & I discovered the connection with the Cataract & Specimen Routes.

Bee Hive Route
1 Trip

Number of Trips in Cave: 33
Hours Spent in Cave: 119:45
Average time of each trip in cave 3-83/132 hours

 

Top of Page

March 1891

Sunday March 1st
(6:25 in cave) (Sampson's Palace Route, 1 trip)
At 1:00 P.M. J.M. Moore arrived from Hot Springs. At 3:20 P.M. M.A. Moore, Father & I started in the cave with the intention of getting some geodes & crystallized box work. We went the Monte Cristo's Branch of the Sampson's Palace Route. At Monte Cristo's Palace we stopped about an hour & got some fine geodes (on our way in). At Mound Builders Last Resting Place we got some good pieces of crystallized box work. We got out of the cave at 9:45 P.M.

Monday March 2nd
Elmer has been getting wood today & I have been trying to keep the st..e warm. J.M. & M.A. Moore left us for Hot Springs about 10:00 A.M. this morning. Capt Willard made us a visit this afternoon & reports stock looking well.

Tuesday March 3rd
(9:40 in cave) (Monument Hall Route, 2 trips)
At 6:00 o'clock this morning I came well nigh freezing up, I don't know how cold it was but imagined about 40 below zero Farienhight. At 9:20 A.M. Father & I started in the cave to do some blasting between Roe's Misery & Red Hall on the Monument Hall Route. We put 1, 10 inch hole in with success & by the time we got it cleaned & got out of the cave it was 1:30 P.M. At 2:25 Father & I started in the cave again to work in the same place as in the forenoon. We put in 1, 11 inch hole with success & found a beautiful crystal with both calcite and quartz in it. After cleaning out the first shot we put a 1 foot hole in the rock just through the crevice from Roe's Misery. We got out at 7:55 P.M.

Wednesday March 4th
(8:50 in cave) (Monument Hall Route -- 2 trips)
Today is inaugaration day. Elmer found a steer calf in the barn this morning & I guess it belongs to us. At 9:00 A.M. I went in the cave to load & shoot the hole that Father & I drilled yesterday afternoon. I lit the fuse and went off & left it, when I returned I found but very few pieces of rock in the way. After I build about a rod of path Father came in to help me & we drilled a hole, about 14 inches in the first rock that was in our way (being within about 7 feet of our last shot). The shot shattered the rock in good shape but left plenty of work to do with the sledge. We came out of the cave for something to eat at 1:30 P.M. At 2:25 P.M. I started in the cave to work out the remainder of the shot that we put in this forenoon. After I worked out the shot I dug out the path at this end of Red Hall as much as I could with the pick & shovel & then fixed about 4 rods of path (or less) in Red Hall. Elmer came in & told me it was about time to go out and get some supper. When we got out of the cave I was surprised to see that it was 7:50 P.M.

Thursday March 5th
(2:50 in cave) (Monument Hall Route --1 trip)
(2:35 in cave) (Sampson's Palace Route --1 trip)
At 2:15 P.M. I started in the cave with the intention of fixing the path in the Post Office which I did after 2: hours of hard work with the sledges. I saved four specimens of bracket work & one calcite crystal which I laid up for somebody else to carry out as I didn't want to bother with them. I arrived at the entrance at 5:05 P.M. After supper Father & I "made up" our minds to go in the other side of Sampson's Palace and get his large specimen of box work that I discovered on the 6th day of August 1890 at the same time that I discovered the Sampson's Palace Route. At 7:40 P.M. we started in the cave to get it. We took a short piece of board about 12 x 36 inches with a strap nailed on each end for a handle & the board was none too long for we bruised our hands a little on each end of the specimen, coming out. We packed it. for the voyage as follows: first laying a grain sack on the board, then two newspapers on the sack, then three more newspapers on the first two. We then laid the specimen on the packing & put two sacks over it, tying & strapping the packing to the specimen & the specimen to the board. We had but very little more trouble getting it out then any other load of its weight. We got out of the cave at 10:25 P.M.

Friday March 6th
(4:00 in cave) (Monument Route 1 trip)
Elmer hauled up three or four logs with the horse this forenoon & I sawed them up as I had nothing else to do but always manage to keep busy at something. At 6:25 P.M. Father & I started in the cave with the intention of exploring the latest discoveries of the Monument Hall Route but we failed to carry out our intention after 3 hours of dangerous climbing. I got a fine quartz crystal between the [B]ells and Red Hall on our return trip & a curious geode in Snow Ball Room. I discovered on this trip (to my rage & disgust at somebody) that the head of the petrified swan was broken off. I felt like having a settlement with someone because the petrified Swan was the only attraction of the room that contained it. We named the latest discoveries of the Monument Hall Route the "Potter's Shop" because of the shape of the sediment crust. In this room a person can get stone in almost any shape they want it some of the vessels being large enough for watering troughs. We got to the entrance at 10:25 P.M.

Saturday March 7th, 1891
Elmer went to Hot Springs about noon & does not expect to get home tonight as Moore's folks will probably come out here from that place tomorrow. I have not been in the cave today because I could not think of anything to go in after.

Saturday March 8th
(5:10 in cave) (Sampson's Palace Route 1 Trip)
After noon an hour or two J.F. Moore, M.A. Moore & Elmer came up from Hot Springs. A 3:25 P.M. J.P. Moore, Father & I started in the cave to get some specimens. We went the Monte Cristo's Branch of the Sampson's Palace Route. We went around the large rock in Moss' Palace and came to the conclusion that it would weigh more than 3,000 tons. At Monte Cristo's Palace we stopped to get some specimens and got some fine geodes in the extreme North end. We left our can and sack in Monte Cristo's Palace and went to Mound Builder's Rest. At the north end of this room I accidentally discovered a beautiful quartz crystal. Father found some good sized geodes & a curiosity (I got the latter) in the South end of Mound Builders Last Resting Place & we all got a good load to take to our transporting implements. We loaded up and made our way towards the entrance, arriving there at 8:35 P.M. and plenty hungry for we had a heavy load to carry out all around. M.A. Moore accompanied us as far as Sparkin Alley on our way in, where I told him that there was a block formation & likely quartz crystals. When we got out he told me that he found plenty of the formation but very few quartz.

Monday March 9th, 1891
(8:45 in cave) (Sampson's Palace Route 1 trip)
(1:35 in cave) (Snow Ball Route 1 trip)
I got at 6:30 this morning (an uncommon incident). At 9:00 A.M. J.F. Moore, M.A. Moore, Elmer & I went in the cave to get specimens & explore the Geode Hall Division of the Sampson's Palace Route. When we got just the other side of "Sparkin Alley" M.A. Moore climbed up in a crevice after his hammer and chisel which he left at that place last night. When we got to Roe's Misery J.F. Moore stopped to get a load of calcite crystals which I & Father had left at that place for whoever might think that they was worth carrying out. When we had passed the West end of Summer Avenue about 650 feet & got into our first climb I discovered a fine ledge of Wind Cave Marble the first that has been discovered in that division of the Route. When we arrived at the second room of any note we read the
following inscription:

F.L. McAdam
Robert McAdam
A.F. McDonald 1890
Discovered this room on the 25th day of October
Fallen Flats Sampson's Palace Route Geode Hall Branch

This being the date that the way was discovered around the Giant’s Causeway (then known as the fall). when we got into the next room I left M.A. Moore & E1mer while I went on an exploring trip for my own benefit. Going to the left of this room I came into a place that there were a great many geodes and plenty of mud. I left the place intending to explore it further some other time. We got to Geode Hall in good shape but had "bad luck", finding geodes that were filled with mud. Elmer soon left M.A. Moore & I to make his way out of the cave. We soon struck several good geode and after loading up we started for the entrance and arrived there at 5:45 P.M.
At 7:25 M.A. Moore & I went in the cave to try to find some quartz crystals. We went on the Snow Ball Route but not until we got to the Post Office, turning to the right at this end of the room. We discovered quartz crystals at the top of a crevice nearly over the Fair Maids Pathway but they were imbedded in the rock so that it is nearly impossible to get them out. We gave it up however and started out of the cave, arriving at the entrance at 9:00 P.M.

Tuesday March 10th, 91
(4:45 in cave) (Crystal Route 2 trips)
We got up late this morning as we generally do when we are in the cave the most of the time the day before. Father & I got a box of specimens packed this forenoon & I got started in the cave at 11:45 this forenoon. We went the Crystal Route with the intention of getting the crystals that I discussed on the 13th & 15th of February 1891. When we got to the second large room on the main passage I left M.A. Moore & Father & came out ahead of them in Crystal Palace by a private passage of my own discovery. When we got to the South End of Crystal Palace I discovered a fine quartz crystal similar to the "Fairie's Palace". I worked out the most of the first division of the pocket & we loaded up & started for the entrance arriving there at 2:00 P.M. At 4:00 P.M. M.A. Moore, Elmer & I went to the south end of Crystal Palace after a load of quartz crystals. I worked the pocket out that we discovered this forenoon & M.A. Moore explored quite a while to find another one but failed to find it. While Elmer was packing his can with specimens M.A. Moore made a discovery of importance which connected the South end of crystal Palace with the Old Stalactite Rooms by way of the Rope that we put in there two or three months ago. We got out alright at 6:30 P.M.

Wednesday March 11th, 1891
(7: 5 in cave) (Crystal Route - 2 trips)
At 7:35 A.M. M.A. Moore & I started in the cave to get the quartz crystals that we left in the South end of Crystal Palace. We first worked out the 1arge specimen that I left on the bank of stone near the pocket & I got it in two pieces. We loaded up with quartz crystals & pulled out for the entrance, arriving there at 10:40 A.M. with our specimens in good shape. At 1:00 P.M. M.A. Moore & I started in the cave with the intention of getting the remnant of the quartz crystals in the South end of Crystal Palace. When we got to the North end of the Palace we determined to explore for quartz pockets and did explore for nearly an hour without finding a quartz pocket but I found a small hole 1eading down to the North east of the North end of Crystal Palace and found lots of popcorn work as well as good signs of a main passage, wind being the main sign which was coming out of the hole. Near the second 1.. at the South end of Crystal Palace M.A. Moore climbed up to the right and found a pretty, (little) stalactite room. We got out of the cave at 5:00 P.M. Elmer & M.A. Moore started in the cave after supper.

Thursday March 12th, 91
(9:25 in cave) (S P Route - 1 trip)
(4:00 in cave) (Cataract Route - 1 trip)
At 11:00 A.M. M.A. Moore & I started in the cave after frost work and we went the Cataract Route. I found a passage 1eading South west of the farther chamber of popcorn work that needs exploring. We got out at 3:00 P.M. & found Mr. & Mrs. J.C. West here from beaver valley on a visit. At 8:00 P.M. M.A. Moore & I started in the cave with the intention of getting some boxwork. We went to the side rooms to the left of the Sampson's Palace Route & near Sampson's Palace. We got out at 11:25 P.M.

Friday March 13th, 1891
(3:03 in cave) (Sampson's Palace Route - 1 trip)
At 10:40 A.M. M.A. Moore, Elmer & I started in the cave to get some boxwork & went the Sampson's Palace Route. At the left of the second room on the other side of Sampson’s Palace we crawled through a small hole and came into a room filled with box, lattice & bracket work of beautiful design. We got a 1oad of specimens apiece & M.A. Moore & Elmer left me & I started for the entrance but I caught up with them at the Church Steeple. M.A. Moore & Elmer made another trip after boxwork & put a shot in the narrow passage just this side of the Bride's Chamber this afternoon. I got out at 1:45 P.M. Father worked this end of Red Hal1 this afternoon.

Saturday March 14th
(8:25 in cave) (Sampson's Palace Route - 2 trips)
(9:55 in cave) (Monument Hall Route - 1 trip)
At 8:05 A.M. M.A. Moore & I started in the cave to get a load of boxwork on the Sampson's Palace Route. Just this side of the Brides Chamber we stopped to clean out the shot that him and Elmer put in last night. It did not take us long to clean the shot out, for it did not bring down more than 250 lbs of rock. We got our box work in the side room near Sampson's Palace. We arrived at the entrance at 11:55 A.M. Elmer went to Hot Springs at 8:30 this morning. At 1:35 I started in the cave to put a shot in the narrow passage just this side of the Brides Chamber. The shot brought down about 1200 lbs of rock & I got out of the cave at 2:30 after clearing up the loose rock. At 7:05 P.M. J.F. Moore, M.A. Moore, Father & I started in the cave after a load of specimens. We got one load near Crystal Spring & the dining room & got out of the cave at 11:40 P.M.

Sunday March 15th, 1891
(8:45 in cave) (Sampson's Palace Route - 1 trip)
Monument Hall
O.B. Chesley, a reporter of the Minnekata Herald of Hot Springs, came about noon. After discussing scientific facts about Wind Cave we got started in the cave at 2:45 P.M. Father went to Monument Hall with us & after turning in the Sampson's Palace Route He went as far as Crystal Spring & then turned back towards the entrance 1eaving O.B. Chesley & I to go the rest of the way alone. We got as far as the Chamber of Bells & got out of the cave at 11:30 P.M.

 

Monday March 16, 1891
(4:30 in cave) (Crystal Route - 1 trip)
At 10:30 A.M. O.B. Chesley & I started in the cave with the intention of going the Crystal Route. We went to Crystal Palace Circle V.I.A. the old Stalactite Chambers & returning V.I.A. the "main passage". We arrived out the entrance at 3:00 P.M. I was over to the "Wind Cave Ranch" this afternoon & Elmer has gone over to J.C. West at Beaver Valley this evening.

Tuesday March 17, 1891
(1:50 in cave) (Monument Hall Route --1 trip)
At 3:20 P.M. I started in the cave to open Hard Scrabble as much as I could with the sledge hammer. After breaking out all the rock that could be broken out with the hammer I resolved to hunt up a certain chisel, that I have told some people that "I had no doubt but what it was going yet" because Father & I did not hear it strike the bottom of the crevice in which it dropped at this end of the Partition. I went through a passage to the left that was similar to the Oven but not so long & found the crevice that I was in search of, at the other end of it. I found the chisel that I was in search of, after climbing down about 150 feet, & also found good specimens of lattice work. The passage still led downward when I left it and came back to the main passage. I found an old string in the crevice, after I got down about 30 feet. I arrived at the entrance at 5:10 P.M. After I came out of the cave I took a stroll on the hills and unexpectedly met our neighbor Mr. Gordon who presented a blacktail deer hide to me & of course did not refuse it.

Wednesday March 18th, 1891
(0:40 in Cave) (Monument Hall Route -- 1 trip)
At 9:35 A.M. I went in the cave to get some tools to work on the spring with, which situated just South of A.M. Willards spring and went the Monument Hall Route. It is just one year since I made my first trip in the cave, going a little beyond the Orchard on the Bee Hive Route & thought I had seen the most of the Wind cave but have learned better since that time. The spring is getting stronger as we go farther in the bank (to the north) but we had to put a shot in the rock in order to work it. The spring seems to come out of a crevice, in the rock, that is filled mostly with live & dead roots. We found some excellent pottery clay while digging for the main of water.

Thursday March 19th, 1891
I put up the notices for two stone claims, down the gulch this morning & have 4 or 5 more notices to put up tomorrow, on the South end of the squatter right. When I got home I got my dinner eat, (a slim article in these days), Mr. J.C. West of Beaver Valley was here on a visit. I went home with him to look up some placer & found signs of placer gold. I got home about 8:30 P.M. Cloudy Weather

Friday March 20th, 1891
I wrote several notices for stone claims & wrote a letter to grandmother this forenoon. Elmer went to town about noon & will stay in town tonight. I put up 5 notices for stone claims this afternoon. We have had a high Wind from the North West all day and all night last night.

Saturday March 21st 3:00
(M. Hall Route 1 trip)
Father made a flutter wheel this forenoon that runs about 100 revolutions per second. J.C. West came over this afternoon on a visit & to get his mail, but Elmer did not get home tonight with the mail. He went home about 6:00 O'clock. About 7:00 Mr. Davis, Mr. Butterfield & two of the McAdam boys of Beaver Valley came over to see the cave but we got to the Devils Lookout only, on account of the scarcity of lights. We started in the cave at 7:35 & returned at 10:35 P.M. Very little snow left in sight.

Sunday March 22nd, 1891
We have had a heavy wind from the north west. Most all day but it has quieted down this evening & the weather looks threatening & dark. J.C. West was over on a visit this forenoon & went back about noon. He spoke of "finding the marks of some "old time" prospector & in one place there is a prospect neatly covered up as if it were hidden". Elmer came home about 6:00 P.M. but did not bring any grub with him.

Monday March 23rd
I was some what surprised to see the ground white with snow when I got up this morning but it seems to be clearing up now. It has been a wet snow and if it turns cold it will probably be pretty hard on stock. Mr. J.C. West sent some rock over last night which I examined today & found it to contain Gold.

Tuesday March 24th, 1891
It was still snowing this morning with a North East Wind. I started to Hot Springs at 1:45 P.M. When I got in town I put the horse in J.F. Moore's stable & prepared to stay in town all night. I learned that J.F. Sidey was very anxious to see me but he did not get to as I was not anxious to see him. I did not go around town much for I did not want to let everybody know I was there.

Wednesday March 25th, 1891
(3:00) (Sampson's Palace Route 1 trip)
At 10:00 A.M. J.M. Moore, M.A. Moore & I started in the cave to get specimens. We went the Sampson's Palace Route & got our specimens near the Giant's Causeway. We got out of the cave at 2:10 P.M. I went over to J.C. Wests this evening to take his mail to him and to take back some borrowed flour. We did not spend the evening in the cave but passed it pleasantly away outside as we were all pretty tired. The most of the snow melted on the hill today & the wind came out of the cave.

Friday March 27th, 1891
J.M. Moore, M.A. Moore & Father went to town & took 4 boxes of specimens that we had packed for future use, with them. J.F. Moore & Father have went in partnership in the specimen business & expect to operate in Hot Springs Fall River Co. S.D. for the next summer. We expected Father back tonight but he did not come. I dressed some Wind Cave Marble on a sandstone slab this forenoon (5 pieces). After dinner I started over to beaver creek to see J. Davis the school teacher. I went to the school house but he was not there so I went around in the hills prospecting. I found him at J.C. Wests & he said that he was coming over alone in the morning. He is boarding at W.F. Roe's place.

Saturday March 28th, 1891
(5:30 in cave) (Sampson's Palace Route - 1 trip)
(3:10 in cave) (Cataract Route - 1 trip)
At about 8:30 this morning J.D. Davis & I started on the Sampson's Palace Route and went by way of Natural D...., coming back V.I.A Mound Builder's Rest and going V.I.A. J.M. Moore's discoveries of February 10th 1891. We arrived at the entrance at 2:00 P.M. At 6:35 P.M. J.D. Davis & I started in the cave to explore the Cataract Route. We found 5 or 6 chambers in the Southern Division of the Cataract Route to the right of the Barren Chambers. We arrived at the entrance at 9:45 P.M. Father was at home when we got out.

Sunday March 29th, 1891
It has been snowing & blowing out of doors all day. J.D. Davis went home at 11:00 o'clock this morning. This is a wet snow and will probably make the feed for "range" cattle a good deal better, and I think that they need it for some of them are beginning to look pretty thin.

Monday March 30th, 1891
(9:45 in cave) (Monument Hall Route 4 trips)
At 8:00 A.M Elmer & I started in the cave after specimens & returned at 10:00 A.M. We got a load of boxwork apiece under the fallen rocks in the Post Office & of a rich brown color. We brought our loads out, emptied our cans, & started in the cave after another load at 10:30 A.M. & returned at 11:50 A.M. after getting our loads in the Post Office & in the same place as we did this morning. After dinner Elmer & I started in the cave at 1:20 & went to the South End of Red Hall. While Elmer was getting his load I explored a deep crevice straight ahead & found it to be the crevice that Father lost a chisel some months ago and I found it on the 17th inst.. After we had loaded up & got started we met M.A. Moore of Hot Springs. S.D. in the Post Office. He had a gasoline light of about 8 candle power with him. We got of the cave at 4:10 P.M. At 8:10 M.A. Moore & I started in the cave after specimens & returned at 11:55 P.M. We went to the South of Red Hall and I got my load of box work in the deep crevice that I explored this afternoon & lost my chisel. As we were coming out M.A. Moore's gasoline lamp caught, in Red Hall, on fire and melted to pieces. J.M. Moore came out with M.A. Moore from Hot Springs.

Tuesday March 31st, 1891
(2:30 in cave) (Crystal Route 1 trip)
At 9:45 P.M. Elmer & I went in the cave & returned at 12:15 P.M. We got our loads on the "Main Passage" & near the place where the water is dropping so fast.

Monthly Review

Trips in Cave 35
Time Spent in Cave 134:30
Average time of each trip in cave 3-59/7O hrs

Crystal Route
Trips 6
Hours Spent in route 18

Discoveries
I discovered a pocket of quartz crystals, a little ways to the North East of the North West end of the third South division of Crystal Palace & also discovered a way from the North West end of the third division of Crystal Palace, that leads to the rope that Elmer & I put in the Crystal Route last year (1890). M.A. Moore discovered a small stalactite room to the South West of the middle of the of the middle division (about 25 feet) of Crystal Palace. I discovered a passage leading to the North East of the 1st or North (North West End) division of Crystal Palace.

Cataract Route
Trips 2
Hours Spent in Route 7

Discoveries
J.D. Davis & I discovered a passage to the South West of the "South division" but we followed it a half mile only, and, that being through barren rooms.

Monument Hall Route
Trips 14
Hours Spent in Route 42
No discoveries of any value to any body

Improvements
Father & I opened the passage between Red Hall and Roe's Misery & I broke up rock with the hammer & built a path in Red Hall, also opening Hard Scrabble a little with the sledge hammer.

Sampson's Palace Route
Trips 12
Hours Spent in Route 49-1/12

Discoveries
I discovered a number of passages leading to the North East of Fallen Flats, in the Geode Hall Branch and also discovered an upper room at this end of summer avenue.

Snow Ball Route
Trips in Route 1
Hours Spent In Route 1-3/5
No Discoveries of any value

 

Top of Page

April 1891

Wednesday April lst, 1891
(4:20 in cave) (Sampson's Pa1ace Route - 2 trips)
At 9:20 A.M. Elmer & I started in the cave to get specimens. Elmer stayed in the Post Office, while I went to the South East Corner of the Amphitheater and got a load of fine box work. When I came out I found E1mer, Father & two visitors in the Post Office. Elmer & I left Father & left Father & the two visitors in the Post Office. (man & woman) & came out because the house was left. We got out of the cave at 11:20 A.M. At 1:00 P.M. Elmer & I started in the cave after specimens & was intending to go to the Amphitheater but when we got as far as Crystal Spring I stopped & got my load while Elmer went on. When on my way out I met Father in the first room this side of Crystal Spring with two visitors (men) & he told me to hurry out, for Mr. & Mrs. J.C. West of Beaver Valley were here. Mr. West took a pick & shovel over with him to prospect with. He has good hopes of finding another lode as good as the Lost Cabin. I got out of the cave this afternoon at 3:20 o'clock.

Thursday April 2nd, 1891
(3:30 in cave) (Sampson's Palace Route 2 trips)
(3:30 in cave) (Monument Hall Route 1 trip)
At 8:25 this morning I started in the cave after Specimens while Elmer got up some wood. I got load of box work in the SE by E corner of the Amphitheater on the Sampson's Palace Route. After getting nearly loaded up I went to the SE end of the room after some calcite crystals & got them in a crevice leading from the SE by S corner of the amphitheater, that, I think is another way to the "Fa11en Flats" on the Geode Hall Branch. I got out of the cave at 10:05 A.M. At 12:30 P.M. I started in the cave after specimens, but when I got to "Devil's Lookout" I worked out the passage at this end with the sledge hammer. I got my load of specimens near there and got out at the entrance at 3:50 p.m. At 6:40 P.M. Elmer & I started in the cave after specimens. I left Elmer at the Cataract & went on down to Milton's Study (named by Miss Ada Brown of Hot Springs) after my load. I got out of the cave at 8:30 P.M. with a good load. J.C. West came over from Beaver Creek this evening & brought some letters over for Father to take to town tomorrow. He said got a color of gold in a pan of gray wash today, the first pan of dirt that he ever washed.

Friday April 3rd, 1891
At about 8:00 o'clock this morning I started over to J.C. West's place on Beaver Creek to prospect for placer gold. We first prospected a small draw about 20 rods from the house (west or up the creek to the right) but found nothing. We then went up the creek near the notice of the "Lost Cabin" lode, and started to sink our shaft. We were down about 2 feet when Elmer came from the West to see what we were doing & only stayed with us a few minutes until he got ready to go down the crack. We struck what we thought was bed rock at 2( feet. It was clay. When we dug down about 2( feet and struck some smooth wash boulders that indicated wash below. We went down about a foot farther (6 ft in all) & struck a good gray wash. I tried a pan of the dirt and found that it prospected very good.

Saturday April 4th, 1891
(7:50 in cave) (Sampson's Palace Route 2 trips)
Father went to Hot Springs early this morning on business at 7:30 A.M. I started in the cave after specimens. At the North East Side of Milton's Study there is a passage leading to the North East. After I went on this passage about 15 feet I found a branch of the Sampson's Palace Route, with a good breeze in it but I did not follow it far because it was difficult traveling. I got out with a good load of specimens at 11:00 A.M. At 1:15 P.M. I started in the cave after specimens. I broke out the path in & near Milton's Study, near where I got my load. I got out of the cave with a load of boxwork at 4:35 P.M. M.A. Moore arrived from Hot Springs at 5:30 P.M. J.C. West came over from Beaver Creek this evening but did not stay long. Father got home from Hot Springs while we were eating supper.

Sunday April 5th, 1891
This is the warmest day that we have had since January. M.A. Moore & Elmer left this place Hot Springs this morning & they will probably start from there tomorrow morning for the Crystal Banks on the Cheyenne River. They will go to the same place that I & M.A. Moore went on January. I went over to J.C. West's place on Beaver Creek this afternoon & saw "Whiffle Tree Jim" & Bill Roe there visiting. Mr. West dug out a good spring yesterday.

Monday April 6th, 1891
Father went to Hot Springs with J.C. West of Beaver Valley, this morning on business. The wind from the cave has acted most strange to me than I ever saw it act before. It was going in (light) this morning and kept getting lighter until about noon. It was then still for about 2 hours, when it started out violently, firly making the big wheel buzz but it stopped all at once in about (10) ten minutes after starting. It was then still until evening & was going in (lightly) at dark.

Tuesday April 7th, 1891
About 9:00 A.M. I put the Harness on the horse and went after a log of pitch wood. I got the wood on the hill south of our spring. After getting the wood I took a couple of 5 gallon cans, fixed on a yoke & went to A.M. Willard' s spring for some water. When I was drawing the water from he tank I heard something that sounded like the hum of a top or the noise of a threshing machine getting up speed but it stopped in a few seconds. After I had drawn the water and was preparing to start home with it, (a little over half a mile), I heard the same noise again, but this time it lasted about three (3) minutes & then I knew it was the hum of the large wind wheel at Wind Cave. This afternoon I went upon the hill South of our spring & got another log of wood. When I got home I found J.L. Downs here.

Wednesday April 8th, 1891
(1:45 In cave) (Crystal Route - 1 trip)
(1:30 in cave) (Monument Hall Route - 1 trip)
(2:00 in cave) (Wind River Circle - 1 trip)
At 8:00 A.M. J.L. Downs & I started in the cave to see Crystal Palace. We went there by way of the old stalactite rooms & came back by way of the main passage. We arrived at the entrance at 9:45 P.M & did not go in the cave again until after dinner. At 12:30 P.M. J.L. Downs & I started in the cave to see Monument Hall. As we went in we lit up Red Hall with a red light. We also lit up Monument Hall with a red light. We got back to the Post Office at 2:00 P.M. & then took the Wind River Circle, coming out by way of the Guides Discovery. I looked at the passage near "Turtle Room" that I intended to explore as soon as I get somebody to help me do it. The passage between the Guide's Discovery & the south dressing room we named "Bou1der Passage, because there is a beautiful conglomerate of block flint, lime boulders & red keel, (keel is a kind of stone that is rarely visible on the surface of the Earth),. When I got up this morning it was raining but it soon turned into a wet snow, which it kept up all day, (so father says), & we have about 4 inches of snow on the ground as a consequence. It snowed on the 12th day of April 1890, about the same as it did today. J.L. Downs & Father went over to Capt. A.M. Willards this evening, partly on a visit and partly on business. The business was probably about to see if the report were true, "That Scholfield had been up to 'Custer City' S.D. trying to sell Wind Cave. He will get scared out of his share.

Tuesday April 14th, 1891
Having nothing else to do I went down to our stone quarry (about three quarters of a mile below here) & got a load of variegated sandstone of extra quality, but it is not very extra in quality.
After dinner I took a hammer, chisel and sack and went down to George McManus' coal prospect. From there I went up a deep canon to the left, in search for samples of sand stone, flint & conglomerate. I went up the canon about 2 miles before it opened up into more level country. In one place I saw a thin layer of white sandstone between two thick ledges of yellow oil stone (sandstone) . In another place farther up the canon I saw an immense specimen of boxwork in the sandstone and in this place also I saw more plainly than ever before how boxwork is formed and also found that it can be manufactured out of some kinds of stone. I got home in the evening with 44 samples of stone (all different kinds).

Wednesday April 15th, 1891
Father & I fixed up the "Fairies Palace" and put e few other small specimens in with it & he took it to town with him (afoot) today. I got a few samples of flint & agate this forenoon. This afternoon I went down to our stone quarry & brought up my rabbit trap that has been down there ever since last December. I have over a hundred samples of stone in my geological collection now and I am adding more to it every day.

 

Thursday, April 16th, 1891
(4:00 in cave) (Sampson's Palace Route - 1 trip)
About 1 hour after dinner Elmer went over to Capt. Willards on a visit. He came back at 3:45 P.M. with the information that J.L. Downs & Mr. Wicher of Custer were to be here at about dark. Father got home at 6:00 P.M. with the horse. At 7:30 P.M. Mr. Ed L. Grantham & Mr. Belle of Custer came to see the cave but Mr. Downs did not come on account of not being in extra health. At 8:00 P.M. Mr. Belle, Mr. Grantham, Father & I started in the cave. We got as far as Fallen Flats, on the Geode Hall Branch of the Sampson's Palace Route. We also visited the place that J. L. Downs & I discovered to the North West of Fallen Flats. Mr. Grantham & I found a passage 1eading to the east of the middle of Fallen Flats. Mr. Belle expressed himself as well satisfied with his trip & the scenery in the cave was much better than he expected to see it.

Friday April 17th, 1891
(1:00 in cave)
We got out of the cave at 1:00 A.M. & went to bed immediately. Father went to Hot Springs with J.C. West this morning & got back about 5:00 P.M. I went over to Capt. Willard's this afternoon to make an explanation of the map to Mr. Belle who is going to Chicago this afternoon. I now have 209 different kinds of rock in my geological collection.

Saturday April 18th, 1891
I just had time to get wood enough cut to last a day or two when it begun to rain (about 11:00 A.M.) & it is raining yet. I have staid in the house all day but Elmer & Father have been gone most of the afternoon.

Sunday April 19th, 1891
(5:00 in cave) (Cataract Route - 1 trip)
About 10:30 A.M. Joseph Duhmiel & Mr. Oscar Huff came over from Willards to go in the cave. At 11:00 A.M. Mr. Huff, Mr. Duhmiel, Elmer & I started in the cave. We were going on an exploring trip in the Cataract Route and explored the passage that I discovered on the 8th inst.
From near Turtle Room we started directly south, first turning to the right into a small room & then to the left into a large one. In this room I saw the most beautiful lime formation that I ever found. We named it the "Chamber of Frost" & it is a very suitable name, for single shreds of frost sometime attain the length or 6 inches in this room. Here we saw passages leading in every direction imaginable. We took an immense oven leading to our right. It kept getting smaller all the time until we had to crawl flat at about 100 feet from the Chamber of Frost. We had to crawl about six or eight feet only until we came out into a nice little room, perhaps 20 feet in diameter and very irregular. There we saw a large passage leading to the left and a1so a large one leading to the right. Choosing the passage that led to the right I told my companions to wait until I saw whether it would pay to explore or not. I first went on a divide to the right and then down to the left. Here I found 5 or 6 small passages leading downward, these I determined to explore. Joe Duhmiel joined me at this moment & helped me explore the passages. We found that they all came together in a small hole leading down. Here Joe call Mr. Huff & Elmer and they brought the string. We all went down the hole and came into pretty room about 30 or 40 feet in diameter nearly round and about 8 or 10 feet in height. We found a great many passages leading from this room but they were all too small to encourage traveling in. After having more difficulty then we expected to have, we all got up through the small hole in safety. Here Mr. Huff & Elmer left Joe & I and went towards the entrance while Joe & I determined to explore more. At the very spot that our party divided Joe found an oven leading to the south. east with wind coming out of it. Went through it & found a very large room. I left my companion & started to explore it alone not getting out of hearing of Joe because we had stretched all of our string. I found this room to be about 125 feet long in the largest place and about 55 feet wide in the broadest place that I could see. The room laid north west & south east. At the farther end of the room I found a passage leading to the south east, but I did not follow it far because I was about out of hearing of my companion. When I got nearly back to where I started from I found some stalacites on the floor of the room and proceeded to investigate as to its source. I went around to the other side of the pile of rocks and begun to climb up. As I climbed up the stream of stalacites began to get more perfect & it finally down a small hole at the angle of 45( degrees. I forced my way up this hole the best I could & after while I came into a very small room that had a few small & curious stalactites in it. I broke off three small ones and brought them out with me. After I came part way down I discovered a passage leading directly out over the large room that I had discovered but 15 minutes before. I went on my hands & knees in this passage for about 50 feet in hopes of finding some stalactites but did not find them. We then returned to where our party had discovered the second room on this trip in this room. I left Joe & went on the large passage leading to the east to see what I could find. After I went about 75 or 100 feet in an open passage I came into an enormous excavation. On examination I found good floor and good conglomerate room (arched). I advanced into the room about 200 feet before I could see the south wall but in this place the walls were not over 30 or 40 feet across. The roof would average about 12 feet high but it was irregular in height. At the place where I was then standing the roof was about 35 feet high & on the east side of the raise there was a stream of water formation, about 8 feet wide streaming down. I was then about out of hearing of my companion & I returned to him without any trouble to speak of. We both went into the place that I had discovered & lit one red fire in the room so that we could see it by a bright light.
I then went down in the East end of the room and carved the following inscription on a limestone boulder:

Joseph Duhmiel,
&
A.F. Mac Donald
discovered this room
on the 19th day of March 1891

in black characters shaded with red.

We then concluded to start for daylight but just before we got to the Chamber of Frost, we found a hole that we wanted to explore. We climbed up about 30 feet but found nothing but hard climbing. When we got to the Chamber of Frost I thought that I would explore the passage leading north east of the room. I climbed up about 50 or 60 feet and found more curious popcorn work but the passage got too small for further exploration until it was opened up. We got out of the cave at 4:00 P.M. & spent the evening at Capt. A.M. Willards.

Monday April 20th, 1891
About 11:00 o' clock this morning Mr. Elliot, Deputy sheriff for Buffalo Gap came here and showed us a notice notifying us to remove from the claim of J. Scholfield of that small (very small) berg. Of course we laughed at the idea. But at 2:00 P.M. I started for Moss City with the notice in my pocket. I got to moss City at 6:20 & put the horse in Moss' barn. I then went up to Thomas Bro.....'s cabin and staid all night.

Tuesday April 21st, 1891
I went to Custer this morning & there saw Ed. L. Grantham, & J.L. Downs also H.B. Swain but he did not recognize me. At 2:00 P.M. I started home coming by way of the big high park south east of Custer.

Wednesday Apr. 22nd
Father started to Hot Springs at 3:30 this morning but this useless because Mr. Moore did not get started west until afternoon (so father told me). I believe he is starting to Utah or Nevada or most likely to the place where there is the richest mines as he is (I understand) going out on a prospecting tour. After dinner I concluded that I would try my hand at snaring a prairie dog. I went to the town that is in Capt. Willards pasture but got left after waiting about three hours. Father returned the Springs with J.C. West.

Thursday April 23rd, 1891
Not having any else to do this morning I commenced cleaning the yard in front of the house. I got through at 3.00 P.M & to my estimation I done a good job. Father & I then started on a prospecting trip, & explored the canon south east of us. When we got down to the delta we made up our minds to go on down to George McManus' as it was only a half mile. We went down there & luckily found him at home. We got home at sundown. I got a few samples for my "Geological collection of every kind of stone."

Friday April 24th, 1891
Elmer went over to Capt. Wiillard's this morning & about the time I thought that he would be back. I shouldered the pick & shovel & started over to Beaver Valley (J.B. West's place) with the intention of working an hour or two on the Lost Cabin lode No. 1. When I got over there I put off working at the mine until it was some cooler, so I helped Mr. West plant potatoes until about 2:30 P.M. We then went up to the mine
I first tried the placer clay that I found & threw away on the 3rd day of April l89l & discovered a new ..itch in the placer mining of the Black Hills. There was a coat of Verdigrease in the bottom of the .... & indications of lots of gold but the Verdigrease had floated it off. We then went up to our stone prospect & found that the ledge is rich in Galena (silver bearing). I went home in the moonlight.

Saturday April 25th, 1891
(2:30 in cave) (Sampson's Palace Route - 1 trip)
After breakfast this morning Father got the horse and went to Hot Springs. At about 8 o'clock this morning I went out on the hills in search of stone as usual. At 8:30 P.M. Johnnie Raver, Mr. Reaves and two Deadwood gentlemen came in from the North. I went down to the barn to show them where to put their horses & when we got down to the barn we found Father & Mr. Gorden of Beaver Valley there. At 9:30 P.M. the four visitors started in the cave & went the main part of the Sampson's Palace Route.

Sunday April 26th, 1891
(5:00 in cave) (2:30 in cave) (Sampson's Palace Route)
At 10:00 A.M. I started in the cave with Underhill & 5 other gentlemen from Hot Springs. We went the Geode Hall Branch & got to the first room this side of Geode Hall. We got out at 3:00 P.M.
I and the Raver outfit got out at 2:30 A.M.

Monday April 27th, 1891
I went over to J.C. West's this morning to do some staking (mineral). We got several stakes up up this forenoon & Elmer came over to help us this afternoon. George Mac Manus was over about noon to see how we was getting along & to hunt up his oxen also. We got a commencement of 9 claims staked & all showing good mineral. We got home after dark.

Tuesday April 28th, 1891
I & Mr. West have been staking claims on the "Lost Cabin" group today and this evening. We found a rich gold lode, lying west of the Magpie & Wind Splitter lodes. I met Mr. J.D. Davis & John Seevers this afternoon. There is a fair prospect of an excitement over our find which is rich in silver & gold. When I got home tonight (after putting the horse in the barn that Mr. West let me ride over) I found a visitor from Kimball's Mill (1 ..) here on a visit & to see the cave. Mr. J.C. West & I located the following lodes today: Pactolus, Wind Splitter, Mati.. Silver), Caribou & the Magpie.

Wednesday April 29th, 1891
I discovered a vein of gold ore on the Mount Heela lode this forenoon & also located the Hawkeye, Blue Bird & Yellow Jacket. Today Father came over about noon & I went up the gulch with I & Mr. West to see what I supposed to the remains of a 49ers camp.

Thursday April 30th, 1891
Father & J.C. West went to Hot Springs this morning & returned this evening. I went over on the hills north west of McAdams this afternoon. T.L. McAdam was over on a visit this evening.

Monthly Review

Trips in Cave 16
Hours Spent in Cave 49:25
Average time of trips 3-17/192

 

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May 1891

Friday May 1st
I started a drift in the lost cabin lode today.

Saturday May 2nd
(3:00 in cave) (Sampson's Palace 1)
Mr. West was intending to go to Hot Springs today but we had a snow storm last night & he did not go. We put up a water right on the creek near the Lost Cabin prospects today & when I got home I found Henry Hume, William Hartman & Mary here. At 6:00 P.M. H. Hume, William Hartman & I started in the cave & returned to the entrance at 9:00. We went to Fallen flats on the S.P.R. (G.H.B.)

Sunday May 3rd, 1891
I rode over to J.C. Wests, with H. Hume this morning to bring Mary home as she staid at Wests last night. Hartman took a lot of specimens up to Moss this morning. I met Mr. J.D. Davis at Wests this morning.


Monday May 4th, 1891
We have had some snow for the last three days but today the sun never shone for there was a thick fog all day & tonight.

Tuesday May 5th
I & J.C. West staked the Saint Mary, Helena & Lisbon lodes today. We found a good spring on the Pelena lode & also found a ledge of galena bearing quartz. Elmer was hunting another entrance to the cave today but did not find it.

Wednesday May 6th, 1891
I started over to J.C. Wests this morning but did not get there because I met Mr. West & rode back with him. Father was waiting for us on the hill east of the cave. I rode with Father & Mr. West to Cold Brook canon & there left them to look for the cave that Levi Crum told about. I hunted all the forenoon without success & then went home to dinner. After dinner & went in search of the cave again but this time with the horse. I found several holes in the limestone but none of them was the one that I was looking for. When near Will Jone's spring, on my way home I killed a Prairie Sauger Rattler.

Thursday May 7th, 1891
I guess somebody got benefit from the cow before I got up this morning because I didn't get much milk. I have been helping J.C. West fence the north end of his farm today. Mary came home with me this evening.

Friday May 8th, 1891
I & J.C. West fenced most of the north end of his field and would have fenced it all but ran out of wire. We dig post holes on the west side this evening. Elmer is over to Crum's chopping wood for their coal pit (charcoal).

Saturday May 9th
Mr. West & I finished the North end fence this forenoon. We changed our minds about the place to put the fence on the west side & got it about three quarters done this afternoon.

Sunday May 10, 1891
At about 9:00 o'clock this morning J. Gillespie & 3 others (2 ladies 1gentleman) came & went in the cave. After dinner I took a walk around the country going to Charlie Roe's & Mr. Wests before coming back. Mr. Layton & four Hill City gentlemen were in the cave when I got home. John Severs
brought over the horse this evening.

Monday May 11th, 1891
I & Mr. West has been building fence the most of the day. J.W. Layton & Father came over & examined the metal or mineral that we have staked.

Tuesday May 12th, 1891
Mr. West went to Hot Springs this morning & Mr. Layton went to Moss' City this afternoon. Capt Willard. I have been working on the Lost cabin drift the most of the day. We have two visitors this evening (photographers). Father has gone in the cave with them.

Wednesday May 13th, 1891
Mr. West & I finished building fence for a while at least. We built more fence on the Magpie lode running north & south. Father took the two visitors that were here last night in the cave again today. One of them discovered a Fairies Palace in Crystal Palace between the 2nd & 3rd division. They took a photograph of some specimens of ours this afternoon.

Thursday May 14th, 1891
I have been to work on the Lost Cabin lode today & Mr. West has been ploughing his garden. Mr. A. Alden & girl was up from Hot Springs this afternoon. (5:30 trip)

Friday May 15, 1891
(4:25 in cave) (Sampson's Palace Route 1)
I got to work in the Lost Cabin drift at about 9:30 this morning but found nothing worthy of note. I struck the fact of mineral at about 4:30 this afternoon and found it well charged with shiny truck. I have about 1200 lbs of ore saved. When I came home I met J. Frances Harris & took him to Castle Garden (& return) in the evening (6:45.....)

 

Saturday May 16th, 1891
(3:30 in cave) (S.P.R) (G.H.B.) 1 trip
I took three Hot Springs visitors through the cave this afternoon. We went in the cave at 3:20 P.M. & came out at 7:00 P.M. Father went to Hot Spring's & returned today. Elmer is at home from Crumms tonight.

A.D. Sunday May 17th, 1891
There Has been no one here today on account of the opening of the Plunge Bath at Hot Springs. I have been over to Crums & General Willards today. J.C. West was over this morning.

Monday May 18th, 1891
(3:50 in cave) (Crystal Route 2 trips)
(5:00 in Cave) (Cataract Route 1 trip)
I intended to work on the Lost Cabin lode today but changed my mind & started in the Cave at 8:00 A.M. I went to the New crystal pocket between the 2nd & 3rd Division of Crystal Palace. I returned at 10:00 A.M. with the Hanging Gardens for Mr. West. At 10:30 A.M. Father, Mary & I started to the new crystal pocket & returned with loads at 12:00 A.M. At 2:00 P.M. Father & I started on an exploring trip in the west wing of the Cataract Route. We went past the Chamber of Frost & in the discoveries that Joe Duhmie1 & I made on the 19th of March 1891. When we came out I got a small piece of the frosting in the Chamber of Frost & brought it out for Mrs. West.

Tuesday May 19th, 1891
Father went to town with Mr. West this morning. Mr. J.D. Davis went east today but will probably be back sometime sooner or later. I took the Hanging Gardens to Mr. West, this forenoon. I worked on the Lost Cabin lode today & the mineral seems to get better as I go in. We had about 1( hours of rain this afternoon. Mr. West was surprised when he saw the hanging gardens this evening.

Wednesday May 20th, 1891
I took about 1 tons of mineral from the Lost Cabin lode today making 6 or 7 tons in all of the lower dump. I expected A.M. Willard over today but he did not come as he was busy at something.

Thursday May 21st, 1891
I got up early this morning but did not get breakfast until late. I went over to Martins Valley with Mr. West this forenoon to look at the country. I saw Montgomery breaking prairie while there (in the valley). I took a specimen from the Chamber of Frost over to Mr. West this afternoon. Mary went over with one. I drilled the first hole ever dri1led in the Lost Cabin lode today (single handed). Elmer is over to Crums today & will not be back until tomorrow night.

Friday May 22nd, 1891
I have fired three shots in the Lost Cabin Drift today that loosened about 3( or 4 tons of ore. I do not know what the mineral is yet but will probably find out in a month or so. I expected A.M Willard over to the mine today but he did not come. Mr. West got him a cow this forenoon & help me in the mine this afternoon.

Saturday May 23rd, 1891
At 8.00 o'clock this morning A.M. Willard & W.W. Oles, his brother-in-law came over to go with me to the mine. Mr. Oles told me that he had tried every flux known to him but could not melt it consequently he does not know what the mineral is, but he is thinking of sending some of it to Professor Levit of New York City to have an assay made to satisfy his own curiosity as to what it is and how much there is of it. He thinks there is a powerful vein of the mineral on our claim, 13 in number which is named as follows: viz:

1. Yellow Jacket
2. Blue Bird
3. Hawkeye
4. Pactolus
5. Lost Cabin
6. Magpie
7. Caribou
8. Nature Silver
9. Wind Splitter
10. Mount Hecla
11. Saint Mary
12. Helena
13. Lisbon

Elmer was to Hot Springs this afternoon & got some Dynamite Caps.

Sunday May 24th, 1891
Mr. Van Tassel & son were our only visitors today. Father has gone over to Mr. West's this evening & Elmer has gone to Crums. Botts has got back.

Monday May 25th, 1891
Mr. West & I done the assessment on the water right this forenoon & got samples of mineral for assay this afternoon. I am preparing to go to Hill City tomorrow.

Tuesday May 26th, 1891
I got to Custer City this morning at about 9:50 & put the horse in the Livery stable. I had a talk with Palmer & Grantham & also had the Lost Cabin lode & the Beaver creek water rights recorded. I got to Hill City at 3:00 P.M. I found Mr. Bell at the H.P.I.Co.'s office. I will stay at the Harney Peak Hotel tonight.

Wednesday May 27th
I started to Custer City this morning at 9:00 but did not find out what our mineral was. I intended to see Grantham but found his office locked (office door). I saw Jack Smith who used to live at Moss City.

Thursday May 28th
I struck carbonate ore in the Lost Cabin drift this afternoon. Elmer & Mary went over to Wests with one this morning & Elmer helped me drill a two foot hole in the frift this forenoon. The shot tore out about 2 tons of rock.

Friday May 29th
(1:20 in cave) (Crystal Route - 1 trip)
At 7:00 o'clock this morning I started in the cave & returned at 8:20 o'clock. I went to the new crystal pocket between the second & third division of crystal palace & brought out a can full of the specimens from the pocket. Capt. A.M. Willard came over this morning & was here yet when I started to Hot Springs for the mail. I got to the Springs at about noon & started back about 3:00 o'clock. Father & I went over to A.M. Willards this evening & found W.W. Oles there. We had to start back soon on account of threatening rain. It is now raining outside.

Saturday May 30th
I slept the most of the forenoon away & got up about 12 o'clock. I started out in the country for a walk at 12:15 P.M. & went on the top of the four mountains (the north west one of the 4) north of here about 2 miles. I came back past J.B. West's place & cut two of one set of mine timbers for the Lost Cabin Drift. Mary was over to Wests this evening.

Sunday May 31st, 1891
(2:15 in cave) (Sampson's Palace Route 1 trip)
(1:45 in cave) (Cataract Route 1 trip)
At 11:00 A.M. I started in the cave with 4 Hot Springs parties & returned at 1:45 P.M. We went the Sampson's Palace Routes. At 6:15 Elmer & I went to the Chamber of Frost & got a load of specimens. We returned at 8:00 P.M. with a good load apiece.

Monthly Review

 

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June 1891

Monday June 1st
Elmer & I have been working in the lost Cabin Drift this afternoon & cutting timbers for it this forenoon. Mr. West got a load of slabs at Sutterfields sawmill this forenoon & helped me timber this afternoon.

Tuesday June 2nd, 1891
Elmer & I put two shots in the Lost Cabin tunnel today & took out about two feet of the face. The ore is getting richer every foot that we go in. Elmer has gone down to McManus' after a piece of steel to make a drill of as our longest drill is not long enough to suit us. We have had plenty of rain lately & the creek has rose about six inches today but it has went down now.

Wednesday June 3rd, 1891
Father went to Hot Springs today & Elmer staid at home, so I had to work in the Lost Cabin drift alone. Mr. West helped me to put in a shot this afternoon. Sidey paid Father $10 today & will pay him the rest some time through the week. I expected a letter from Hill City tonight but it did not come. Elmer got a letter from Fred Burlington this evening that was written in March at Iowa Falls.

Thursday June 4th, 1891 A..D.
(1:35 in cave) (Monument Hall 1 trip)
Elmer & I put two shots in the Lost Cabin Drift today. I took $10 over to J.C. West today on Fathers acct or .... . There is a stranger here tonight to go through the cave. I took the stranger down to Devils Lookout this evening.

Friday June 5th
I started to 4 mile (with the visitor that we had last night who was from above Hill City) early this morning. I got to 4 mile about noon & started over to the North Pole mine at about 2:00 o'clock. I stay with Fred Bussel tonight.

Saturday June 6th, 1891
I got 10 lbs of (C) dynamite & a drill of Moss this morning. The drill was nearly 4 feet in length. I came home past Wilson's Saw .... & J.C. Wests & left the dynamite & drill at the Lost Cabin lode. I got home at 8:00 P.M. Father was to town with J.C. West today.

Sunday June 7th
Joseph Duhmiel was the only visitor that we had today.

Monday June 8th
Elmer & I have been working in the Lost Cabin tunnel today. We expect Fred Russel & Albert W....... down tomorrow.

Tuesday June 9th
Elmer & I put in 9( hours on the Lost Cabin tunnel today. We expected Fred Russel down this evening but he did not come.

Wednesday June 10th
Elmer & I went 4 feet in the lost Cabin tunnel today. Wm. Hartman came down from 4 mile this evening.

Thursday June 11th
Will Hartman & Elmer went to town today.

June 12th
(4:00 in cave)(Sampson's Palace 1 trip)
Fred Russel & Albert Henoulet came down from the North Pole mine today. We started in the cave at 8:00 P.M. & returned

Saturday June 13th
(6:00 in cave) (Sampson's 1 trip)
We came out at 2:00 A.M. I went with Fred Russel over to the mine & he thought it was a good prospect. At about 5:00 P.M. a Custer photographer with 8 others came. We went in the cave at 8:00 P.M. & took 13 pictures in the cave.

Sunday June 14th
We got out at 2:00 P.M. 6 men came this morning and went in the cave. We took in $2l/00 today.

Monday June 15th
Frank Collwell & I started for Crystal Cave this morning & camped at Hill City tonight.

Tuesday June 16th
We got to McBride's safely this evening & camped there.

 

Wednesday June 17th
(C.C. - 2 trip)
Fred McBride went up to the cave with us today. We got there a little after noon & took 2 trips in the cave today.

Thursday June 18th
(C.C. 3 trip)
We made 3 trips in the Crystal Cave today. I left it at about 5 o'clock this evening. We camped on Elk Creek near Jones S. M.......

Friday June 19th
We only got as far as McBride's today on account of the heavy rains.

Saturday June 20th
We got to Hill City to camp this evening.

Sunday June 21st
We camped at Custer City this evening.

Monday June 22nd
(SPR C.G.B 1 trip)
We got home at about 2:30 P.M. safely. I went in with Crookam & exposed 12 plates.

Tuesday June 23rd
(Crystal P. 1 trip) (Monument Hall Route 1 trip)
I & Mr. Crookam went to Crystal Palace this forenoon & to Monument Hall this evening. We exposed 13 plates today.

Wednesday June 24th
Mr. Caldwall & I started in the badlands today & got there at noon

Thursday June 25th
We was to work in the gulch today near the ..... .

Friday June 26th
We got to prospecting this afternoon & found a good geode a quarter of a mile north east of the ......

Saturday June 27th
We got a good geode this morning & got within 2 miles of Hot Springs tonight & camped.

Sunday June 28th
(1 trip .........)
We got home at 3:00 P.M. We have had one load of visitors today.

Monday June 29th
(SPR 2 trips)
We have taken in $15.75 today. Mr. Titus of Hot Springs came here this McBrides folks came up from the Springs today.

Tuesday June 30
SPR (2 trips)
I took 2 trips in the Sampson's Palace Route today. One to the Fallen Flats & the other to the Photograph Gallery.

 

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July 1891

Wednesday July 1st
W. Hartman & Elmer got a flag pole in the timber today.

Thursday July 2nd
Father went to Hot Springs today but did not get back tonight.

Friday July 3rd
SPR (1 trip)
Mr. Crokam & G.W. Lee came here this afternoon & 4 of us started in the cave tonight. We went to the Marble Quarry to explore. Mr. Crookham let his boy down in Council Chamber by means of a rope. We discovered a large room to the north west of the Chamber of Council that we called the College. From the College we found a passage leading to Monte Cristo's Palace. We also found a passage leading from the Chamber of Council to Mound Builders Rest by way of the Tennis Courts.

Saturday July 4th
(Crystal 1 trip) (SPR 1 trip)
We got out from our exploring trip at 5:30 this morning, making an 11 hours trip the largest that I have taken this year. Mr. Crookham & son, Mr. Lee & I took a trip through Crystal Palace this forenoon. The same four started in the cave this evening with the intention of going to Beacon Heights, but did not get quite there. When we got to the top of the climb near the Photograph Gallery Mr. Crookam & I went on an exploring expedition which led to the discovery of "Silent Lake" by Mr. E. Crookam, & the Lakeside Sceneries by me.

Sunday July 5th
(Silent Lake 2 trips)
I took two ladies & two gentlemen to Silent Lake, the first crowd that ever went there. Their names are as follows:
Alma Lampert
Genevieve Patrick Rapid
George P. Bennit (?) City
George Lampert S.D.

We made the trip in about 4 hours. Mr. Crookam assisted me in making the trip.

Mr. Crookam, Fred McBride & I went in the cave on an exploring trip. We discovered the "Diamond Mine" to the South of the Lakeside Scenery.

Monday July 6th
We got out of the cave just as it was getting daylight. I got up & had breakfast at noon. Mr. Haften (?) a partner of L.C. Harris, was here today with a crowd of ladies & gentlemen.

Tuesday July 7th
Boss McBride was up from Hot Springs this forenoon with Will Hartman's road cart. On being questioned he said that Will had started for Montana and would leave the horse & cart with us. I wrote a letter to Miss Geneviev Patrick at Rapid City, today but I don't know whether I will get an answer or not as our acquaintance is so new. I came within a hair's breath of getting bit by a rattlesnake today. I could not fine her.

Wednesday July 8th
1 trip
Father has been to Hot Springs today & did not get back tonight. I went to Crystal Palace.

Thursday July 9th
SPR 1 trip
I went in the cave this evening with 2 gentlemen from near Fair-burn S.D. Lydia McBride & Mary came out from Hot Springs this afternoon.

Friday July 10th
SPR 1 Trip
I went in the cave this forenoon with two Oelrichs gentlemen & explored to the south west of the Sceneries of Wiclow.

Saturday July 11th
(SPR 1 Trip)
I took a crowd of 9 to the Garden of Eden today with the assistance of one of the party.

Sunday July 12th
We have had a good crowd here today but not so good as yesterday. I went in the cave this morning for some parties that I supposed were lost but did not get far until I found them. Mr. Crookam & two visitors got separated from me last night near the Garden of Eden. A.C. McBride & I found Mr. Crookam in the Roe's Misery & the two visitors in Capital Hall. .... Recovered Paradise.

Monday July 13th
Grand New Branch SPR 1 trip
A.C. McBride & I got in the Bad Lands near the Recovered Paradise on an exploring trip today. We found Grand View & the Snowy Arch & also a passage leading from Recovered Paradise to the Diamond Mine, Grand View is nearly above the Diamond Mine. We returned V.I.A. Silent Lake & the Lake Side Scenery.

Tuesday July 14th
Summer Ave SPR 1 trip
At about 8:00 this morning, two visitors came through from Hot Springs. A.C. McBride & I started in the cave with them at about 9:00 A.M. & came out at 4:15 P.M. We went V.I.A. the College, Council Chamber & the Marble quarry. C.F. McBride came out from the Springs with four visitors, two of which will stay with us until Saturday.

Wednesday July 15th
Drawing Room SPR 2 trips
C.F. McBride started work for us this morning. 8 of the Evans outfit were here today. Elmer went to Grand View with five visitors & was gone the most of the day.
Wednesday Evening
40.80 & 9.85

 

Thursday July 16th
MM.R.R. 2 trips
C.F. McBride & worked out the small oven between the oven & the brides Chamber today. We made $5.00 out of the Evans outfit today
Thursday Evening Assets
$45.85 & 10.30

Friday July 17th
11.30 S.A.B SPR 1 trip
C.F. MCBride & I worked near the Bride's Chamber this forenoon. At 1:30 P.M. R.N. Norcutt, William Ranger & I started on an exploring trip on the Summer Avenue Branch of the Sampson's Palace Route. We found good rooms leading from the ....... Marble Quarry.
Evans 5.35
Extra Traffic 3.00
54 - 20 -10.65

Saturday July 18th
We opened the passage near the wall today with 5 shots but will need more on Monday. 1.75
Evans 4.00
& 6.75
Suits up to date

Sunday July 19th
Fred & I went to the Chamber of Frost this forenoon & got a load of specimens.
Outside traffic 2.00

Monday July 20th, 1891
10 of the Hot Springs Co.'s outfit was out from the Springs today.
Evan's $4.00
Outside Traffic $3.00
Monday's .... $7.00

Tuesday July 21st, 91
Garden of Eden 1 trip
No stage today from the springs.
Day's Assets $7.00

Elmer, Matt & Fred have gone in the cave with two strangers from the State of Nebraska. I was about to start in the cave when Father & McBride's folks came from the Springs.

Wednesday July 22nd
McBride's folks & Mary started for Dansby Park this morning. Fred & I put in a shot at the other end of Snow Ball room this forenoon
Evan's 4-25 - 25
Outside Traffic 6.00
10.25 Spms. 25

Thursday July 23rd
Discovery of the Tabernacle & Catacombe
C.E. Holms, C.F. McBride & I went on an exploring trip this afternoon & evening. We discovered the largest room that has been found yet in the cave.
Evans 75
Specimens 3.35
. . . . . 5.00
11.10
Thursday eve 37.35

Friday July 24th
Fred & I opened the passage at the other end of Snow Ball Room today. Fred quit work for us tonight for the present.
Cave 4.00
Specimens 3.25
Friday evening 44.60 & 6.85

Saturday July 25th
Fred & I went to Hot Springs last night. I came out alone this morning & got home at 3:00 P.M. Evans has stopped the free stage.
Cave $4.00

Sunday July 26th
We got $3.25 out of a crowd of prospectors this forenoon. As I was about to post my book this evening (at about 9:00 o'clock) I heard a sound that was some like heavy wind, but I soon found that it was water. It surprised me because there had not been 5 minutes rain during the evening. As soon as I found that it was coming down the gulch from the spring, and that there was about three feet of it, I lost no time in getting on higher ground because I expected there wou1d be a great deal more water come down the main gulch shortly. I got me a seat and waited for it but it did not come. On about 20 minutes I could cross the gulch (the water having subsided). I then went up to meet what I supposed to be the main volume of water. After giving up the gulch about a quarter of a mile, I could hear the roar of water distinctly but after waiting an hour and a half it and finding that the roar got no nearer me than when I first heard it, I came home & went to bed.

Monday July 27th
Cave $4.00
Specimens 1.20
I went over to the Lost Cabin Mines visiting this afternoon. I went up the main gulch this morning to see where the water went to that I heard last night and found that the bottom of the in a certain place was like a sieve therefore the water went through it.

Tuesday July 28th
We have had no visitors today. Father went to Hot Springs this morning.

Wednesday July 29th
Father came from Hot Springs this evening.
Cave $5.00

Thursday July 30th
Cave 7.50
Specimens 1.10

Friday July 31st
Cave 2.00
Specimens 1.10

 

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August 1891

Saturday August 1st
Cave 2.00
Assets for week ending Aug 1st
$27.30 3.80

Assets for Month of July
$177.60 Specimens 35.55

Sunday August 2nd
- Cave $2.00 - .10

Monday August 3rd
Assets $3.00

Tuesday August 4th
$2.00

Wednesday - No Visitors

Thursday August 6th
Just one year since the S.P.R. was discovered. There was a man with two ladies here from the Springs today. We got the promise of $2.00 out of her.

Friday August 7th
Cave 4.00

Saturday August 8th
Four of West's folks were here today. I went to Castle Garden with Mr. & Mrs. J.C. West.
Re... for week 1610 - 10

 

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September 1891

September 6th Sunday $25.00

October - December 1891

Alvin McDonald did not write in his journal during these months.

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