• Photo of the continental divide blanketed in snow. NPS Photo by VIP Schonlau

    Rocky Mountain

    National Park Colorado

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  • Old Fall River Road will be closed in 2014 due to flood damage

    Damages on Old Fall River Road are extensive and the road will remain closed to vehicles through 2014. It is unknown at this time whether hikers and bicyclists will be allowed on the road. More »

  • Impacts from September 2013 Flood

    Due to recent flooding, there are still some closures in the park that could affect your visit. More »

USGS Open File Report 02-208

Ecological Evaluation of the Abundance and Effect of Elk Herbivory in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, 1994-1999

Table of Contents
Executive Summary

Part I - Empirical Findings

Chapter One: Dynamics of Interacting Elk Populations Within and Adjacent to Rocky Mountain National Park

Chapter Two: Long-Term Changes in Willow Distribution on the Winter Range of Rocky Mountain National Park

Chapter Three: Vegetation Responses to Natural Regulation of Elk in Rocky Mountain National Park

Chapter Four: Factors Influencing Plant Productivity in Shrub Communities on Elk Winter Range of Rocky Mountain National Park: Experiments on Elk Herbivory, Water Availability and Burning

Chapter Five: Changes Induced by Elk Herbivory in the Aboveground Biomass Production and Distribution of Willow (Salix monticola Bebb): Their Relationship with Plant Water, Carbon, and Nitrogen Dynamics

Chapter Six: Effects of Herbivory and Proximity to Surface Water on C and N Dynamics on the Elk Winter Range in Rocky Mountain National Park

Chapter Seven: Carbon and Water Relations of Salix monticola in Response to Winter Browsing and Changes in Surface Water Hydrology: An Isotopic Study Using ´13C and ´18O

Chapter Eight: Isotopic Evidence of the Effects of Herbivory and Landscape Position on Plant Nitrogen Sources in a Riparian Ecosystem

Chapter Nine: Response of Tannins and Phenolics of Willows to Simulated Herbivory, Water Dynamics, and Ambient Elk Herbivory on the Elk Winter Range of Rocky Mountain National Park

Chapter Ten: Influence of Elk Grazing on Soil and Nutrients in Rocky Mountain National Park

Chapter Eleven: Sustainability of Vegetation Communties Grazed by Elk in Rocky Mountain National Park

Chapter Twelve: Ecological Evaluation of Potential Overabundance of Ungulates in U.S. National Parks: A Case Study

Part II - Modeling

Executive Summary of Model-Based Assessment of Elk in the Rocky Mountain National Park Ecosystem


Did You Know?

a photo of a coyote

Kawuneeche Valley is on the west side of the Continental Divide and channels water into the Colorado River. Kawuneeche means Coyote in Arapaho.