The Philippine War - A Conflict of Conscience for African Americans
Following the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Spanish American War in December of 1898, the United States took control of the former Spanish colonies of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Companies from the segregated Black infantry regiments reported to the Presidio of San Francisco on their way to the Philippines in early 1899. In February of that year Filipino nationalists (Insurectos) led by Emilio Aguinaldo resisted the idea of American domination and began attacking U.S. troops, including the 24th and 25th Infantry regiments.
The 9th and 10th Cavalry were sent to the Philippines as reinforcements, bringing all four Black regiments plus African American national guardsmen into the war against the Insurectos.
Within the Black community in the United States there was considerable opposition to intervention in the Philippines. Many Black newspaper articles and leaders supported the idea of Filipino independence and felt that it was wrong for the United States to subjugate non-whites in the development of what was perceived to be the beginnings of a colonial empire. Bishop Henry M. Turner characterized the venture in the Philippines as "an unholy war of conquest." (21)
But many African Americans felt a good military showing by Black troops in the Philippines would reflect favorably and enhance their cause in the United States.
Editorials Against Fighting
"Ida Wells-Bartlett Against Expansion"
Ida Wells-Barnett spoke on "Mob violence and Anarchy, North and South." She said Negroes should oppose expansion until the government was able to protect the Negro at home.
"Colonization Against the Declaration of Independence"
"End the War in the Philippines"
"Black Troops Should Go to the Philippines"
"The Philippine War is No Race War"
Resistance finally collapsed with the capture of independence leader Aguinaldo and the eventual wearing down of the indigenous fighters by the better armed and trained American soldiers.
The African American regiments would be honored for their service in the Philippines, and several senior noncommissioned officers, such as Medal of Honor recipient Edward L. Baker, would become officers in the newly established Philippine Scouts. (26)
One Black infantryman described his duty with resignation, "We're only regulars and black ones at that, and I expect that when the Philippine question is settled they'll detail us to garrison the islands. Most of us will find our graves there." (27)
Following the war, Buffalo Soldier regiments continued to serve at a series of army posts in the United States, Hawaii, and the Philippines. It was in the following early years of the 20th century that these troops played a prominent role on the West Coast at the Presidio of San Francisco, Yosemite National Park, and Sequoia National Park.
Did You Know?
A young Jerry Garcia was stationed at the Presidio during his brief service in the U.S. Army. Over the course of his nine-month career, Garcia went AWOL eight times and received two court-martials.