• East view from Crissy Field overlook with old Coast Guard station on left and city on right

    Presidio of San Francisco

    California

Footnotes

1. Backgrounder; The Buffalo Soldiers, Fort Point and Presidio Historical Association, Presidio of San Francisco, CA 94129, April 1994, page 2

2. Frances M.A. Roe, Army Letters from an Officer's Wife, 1871-1888, New York, D. Appleton, 1909

3. Gail Buckley, American Patriots, The Story of Blacks in the Military from the Revolution to Desert Storm, Random House, New York, 2001, page 110

4. Historical Mission, 1st Cavalry Division, 9th Cavalry Regiment, www.metronet.com/~harryb/1st_team/9th_rgmt

5. Anthony Powell, The African American Soldier in the U.S. Army (Monograph, 1994), page 4

6. Frank N. Schubert, Black Valor, Buffalo Soldiers and the Medal of Honor, 1870-1898, Scholarly Resources Inc., Wilmington, Delaware, 1997, pages 21-22

7. Buckley, pages 127-128

8. Frank N. Schubert, On the Trail of the Buffalo Soldier, Biographies of African- Americans in the U.S. Army, 1866-1917. Scholarly Resources Inc., Wilmington, Delaware, 1995, pages 6, 14, 331, 338, 404

9. Monroe Lee Billington, New Mexico's Buffalo Soldiers, 1866-1900, University of Colorado Press, Niwot, Colorado, 1991, page 190

10. William A. Dobak and Thomas D. Phillips, The Black Regulars, 1866-1898, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, 2001, pages 108-109.

11. Frank N. Schubert, Black Valor, Buffalo Soldiers and the Medal of Honor, 1870-1898, Scholarly Resources Inc., Wilmington, Delaware, 1997, page 145

12. Willard B. Gatewood, Jr. "Smoked Yankees" and the Struggle for Empire, Letters from Negro Soldiers, 1898-1902. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, 1987, page 8

13. Buckley, page 149

14. Ibid., page 145

15. Schubert, Black Valor, pages 137-139

16. Ibid., page 153

17. Buckley, page 146

18. Ibid., page 152

19. Gatewood, page 96-97

20. Ibid., page xi

21. Ibid., page 13

22. Mary Lee Stubbs and Stanley Russell Connor, Armor-Cavalry, Part I, Army Lineage Series, Office of the Chief of Military History, United States Army, Washington, D.C., page 30

23. Robert W. Mullen, Blacks In America's Wars, the Shift in Attitudes from the Revolutionary War to Vietnam, Monad Press, New York, 1973, pages 38-40

24. Buckley, pages 158-159

25. Stan Cohen, Images of the Spanish American War, April-August, 1898, Pictorial Histories Inc., 1997, page 85

26. Schubert, Black Valor, page 158

27. Douglas Henry Daniels, Afro-Americans, The San Francisco Bay Area, 1850-1960, A Report for the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, March 13, 1980, page 18

28. Gregory P. Shine at NP-GOGA (manuscript) from Post Returns, Presidio of San Francisco, October 1902 to May 1903, page 3

29. San Francisco Call, May 12 & May 13, 1903

30. Shine, page 4, from San Francisco Call, May 13, 1903

31. Richard Bradley and Gordon Frye, The 9th Cavalry at the Presidio of San Francisco, Yosemite National Park and Sequoia National Park, 1902 to 1904 (manuscript), page 3

32. Ibid., page 4

33. Ward Eldredge, Archivist Sequoia/King's Canyon National Parks unpublished research based on articles in 1903 Daily Visalia Delta newspapers

34. Ibid.

35. Colonel Frank Tompkins, Chasing Villa, The Story of Pershing's Expedition Into Mexico, The Military Service Publishing Company, Harrisburg, PA, 1934, pages 145-146

36. John S.D. Eisenhower, Intervention, The United States and the Mexican Revolution, 1913-1917, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1993, page 297

37. Herbert Molloy Mason Jr., The Great Pursuit, Pershing's Expedition to Destroy Pancho Villa, Konecky & Konecky, New York, N.Y., 1970, pages 42-43

38. Ibid., page 246

39. W. Allison Sweeney, History of the American Negro in the Great World War, His Splendid Record in the Battle Zones of Europe, originally published in 1919 by G.G. Sapp , reprinted 1969, Negro Universities Press, a Division of Greenwood Publishing Corp., New York, page 74

40. The Birth of a Nation, Directed by D.W. Griffith, King Video Edition, 1992, King International Corp., 223 West 39th Street, New York

41. Sweeney, page 76. Colonel Denison was replaced by a Caucasian officer Colonel T.A. Roberts, an African American Otis B. Duncan was appointed Colonel to succeed Roberts.

42. Buckley, page 189

43. Morris MacGregor, Integration of the Armed Forces, 1940-1945, Defense Studies Series, Center of Military History, United States Army, Washington D.C., 1985, page 7

44. Ibid., page 312

45. Buckley, page 483

46. Colin Powell with Joseph E. Persico, My American Journey, Random House, New York, 1995, pages 556-557

47. Benevolent Assimilation: The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899-1903, Stuart Creighton Miller, (Yale University Press, 1982): p. 134

48. S Doc. 331, 57th Congress., 1st session., part 1, p.65-68; (The Philippine "Lodge committee" hearings (A.K.A. Philippine Investigating Committee) and a great deal of documentation were published in three volumes as S. Doc. 331, 57th Cong., 1st Session An abridged version of the oral testimony can be found in: American Imperialism and the Philippine Insurrection; edited by Henry F Graff; Publisher: Little, Brown; 1969. ASIN: B0006BYNI8); Miller p. 134

49. Wolff, Leon (1961). Little Brown Brother: How the United States purchased and pacified the Philippine Islands at the Century's Turn. Doubleday. ASIN: B0006AWZ6Q. p. 313; Stuart Creighton Miller describes the term being viewed by the military "with utter scorn". p. 134

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Did You Know?

The Officers' Club at the Presidio

The modern-day Officers' Club was part of the original Spanish Presidio. In the front section of the building, excavations have uncovered adobe walls dating from the 1790's.