• High Peaks and Big Berry Manzanita. NPS Photo|Sierra Willoughby

    Pinnacles

    National Park California

Lead and Wildlife

The primary emphasis of lead toxicological studies have focused on humans, although the negative impacts of lead on waterfowl has been known since 1872. Rigorous scientific studies documenting the degree to which lead rifle bullets fragment when hitting big game animals has only recently been completed. An increasingly number of studies have examined the implications of inadvertent ingestion of these lead bullet fragments by scavengers such as condors, eagles, and vultures.

Blood Lead Levels of Bald and Golden Eagles, Yellowstone
(pdf, 112 kb)

Causes and Consequences of Ingested Lead Pellets in Chukars
(pdf, 239 kb)

Exposure of California Condors to Lead From Spent Ammunition
(pdf, 1,498)

Experimental Lead Poisoning in Turkey Vultures
(pdf, 151 kb)

Evidence for the Source of Lead Contamination within the California Condor
(pdf, 93 kb)

Ammunition is the Principal Source of Lead Accumulated by California Condors Re-Introduced to the Wild
(pdf, 2,927 kb)

Blood Chemistry Values of California Condors Exposed to Lead
(pdf, 101 kb)

Examining Variability Associated With Bullet Fragmentation and Deposition in White-Tailed Deer and Domestic Sheep
(pdf, 136 kb)

Relationship Between Blood Lead Levels of Common Ravens and the Hunting Season in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem
(pdf, 208 kb)

Blood Lead Levels of Common Ravens With Access to Big-Game Offal
(.doc, 51 kb)

Blood-Lead Levels of Fall Migrant Golden Eagles in West-Central Montana
(pdf, 114 kb)

Recent and Chronic Exposure of Wild Ducks to Lead in Human-modified Wetlands in Santa Fe Province, Argentina
(pdf, 150 kb)

Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases - Birds. Ch. 43: Lead
(pdf, 3,704 kb)

A Review of Lead Poisoning From Ammunition Sources in Terrestrial Birds
(pdf, 233 kb)

Ingested Shot and Tissue Lead Concentrations in Mourning Doves
(pdf, 502 kb)

Biological and Societal Dimensions of Lead Poisoning in Birds in the USA
(pdf, 1,890 kb)

Assessment of Lead Contamination Sources Exposing California Condors
(pdf, 1,766 kb)

Lead Intoxication Kinetics in Condors From California
(pdf, 110 kb)

Long-Term Effects of Lead Poisoning on Bone Mineralization in Egyptian Vultures
(pdf, 110 kb)

Lead Bullet Fragments in Venison From Rifel-Killed Deer: Potential for Human Dietary Exposure
(pdf, 612 kb)

Bullet Fragmentation Study: Supplementary Data - Peregrine Fund
(pdf, 3,460 kb)

Bullet Fragments in Deer Remains: Implications for Lead Exposure in Scavengers
(pdf, 335 kb)

Lead Poisoning in White-Tailed Sea Eagles: Causes and Approaches to Solutions in Germany
(pdf, 2,995 kb)

Lead Poisoning in Steller's Sea Eagles and White-Tailed Sea Eagles
(pdf, 12 kb)

Carcasses of Shot Richardson's Ground Squirrels May Pose Lead Hazards to Scavenging Hawks
(pdf, 1,355 kb)

Lead Isotopes Indicate Lead Shot Exposure in Alaska-Breeding Waterfowl
(pdf, 92 kb)

Bald Eagle Lead Poisoning in Winter
(pdf, 696 kb)

A Global Update of Lead Poisoning in Terrestrial Birds from Ammunition Sources
(pdf, 384 kb)

Experimental Lead-Shot Poisoning in Bald Eagles
(pdf, 170 kb)

Lead Poisoning in Captive Andean Condors
(pdf, 196 kb)

Blood-Lead Concentrations in California Condors Released at Pinnacles National Monument, California
(pdf, 112 kb)

Technical Review of the Sources and Implications of Lead Ammunition and Fishing Tackle on Natural Resources
(pdf, 124 kb)

Potential Sources of Lead Exposure for Bald Eagles: A Retrospective Study
(pdf, 98 kb)

Lead in Griffon and Cinerous Vultures in Central Spain: Correlations Between Clinical Signs and Blood Lead Levels
(pdf, 157 kb)

Lead Ingestion by Scavenging Mammalian Carnivores in the Yellowstone Ecosystem
(pdf, 132 kb)

Survey of Lead Toxicosis in Free-Ranging Raptors From Central Argentina
(pdf, 205 kb)

Lead Poisoning of Steller's Sea Eagle and White-Tailed Eagle Caused by the Ingestion of Lead Bullets and Slugs: Hokkaido, Japan
(pdf, 303 kb)

Historical Perspective on the Hazards of Environmental Lead From Ammunition and Fishing Weights in Canada
(pdf, 213 kb)

Acute Lead Toxicosis and Experimental Lead Pellet Ingestion in Mourning Doves
(pdf, 126 kb)

Lead Shot Poisoning in Swans: Sources of Pellets Within Whatcom County, WA and Sumas Prairie, BC, Canada
(pdf, 415 kb)

Lead Concentrations in the Blood of Big Sur California Condors
(pdf, 1,367 kb)

Gunshot Wounds: A Source of Lead in the Environment
(pdf, 1,143 kb)

Bone Lead Levels and Lead Isotope Ratios in Red Grouse from Scottish and Yorkshire Moors
(pdf, 353 kb)

The Potential for Ingestion Exposure to Lead Fragments in Venison in Wisconsin
(pdf, 312 kb)

Lead Poisoning of Trumpeter Swans in the Pacific Northwest: Can Recovered Shot Pellets Help to Elucidate the Source?
(pdf, 162 kb)

Absence of Demonstrable Toxicity to Turkey Vultures of Copper and Tungsten-Tin-Bismuth-Composite Pellets
(pdf, 3,165 kb)

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Human Health Literature

Ammunition Literature

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