• Big-berry manzanita and the skyline of the high peaks greet visitors who explore the steep and narrow portion of the High Peaks trail. NPS Photo|Sierra Willoughby

    Pinnacles

    National Park California

Lead and Humans

Researchers have begun to review the incidence of bullet fragments in processed venison. Because historical information suggests that even low levels of lead exposure can be harmful, these studies have prompted great interest in developing a better understanding of how lead ammunition may affect human health.

Distribution of Venison to Humanitarian Organizations in the USA and Canada
(pdf, 161 kb)

Blood Lead Level Detection Techniques
(pdf, 109 kb)

Detection of Lead Bullet Fragments in Venison Packages
(pdf, 1,683 kb)

Elevated Blood Lead Levels in First Nation People of Northern Ontario Canada: Policy Implications
(pdf, 171 kb)

Monitoring of Umbilical Cord Blood Lead Levels and Sources Assessment Among the Inuit
(pdf, 90 kb)

The identification of Lead Ammunition as a Source of Lead Exposure in First Nations: Lead Isotope Ratios
(pdf, 457 kb)

Lead Shot Contribution to Blood Lead of First Nations People
(pdf, 234 kb)

Lead Bullet Fragments in Venison From Rifle-Killed Deer: Potential For Human Dietary Exposure
(pdf, 612 kb)

Health Effects of Low Dose Lead Exposure in Adults and Children
(pdf, 697 kb)

Assessment of Human Health Risk From Consumption of Wild Game Meat With Possible Lead Contamination
(pdf, 308 kb)

Lead Sources in Human Diet in Greenland
(pdf, 694 kb)

Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Levels of Mercury, Lead, and Cadmium in Arctic Canada
(pdf, 481 kb)

State Health Department Announces Preliminary Findings in Blood Lead Level Study, North Dakota
Press Release (pdf, 141 kb)

Lead Fragments in Ground Venison
FAQ, North Dakota (pdf, 39 kb)

Understanding Lead Uptake and Effects Across Species Lines
(pdf, 385 kb)

Assessment of the Environmental Toxicity and Carcinogenicity of Tungsten-based Shot
(pdf, 172 kb)

Impacts of Lead Ammunition on Wildlife, the Environment, and Human Health - A Literature Review
(pdf, 628 kb)

Human Exposure to Lead From Ammunition in the Circumpolar North
(pdf, 286 kb)

Hunters and Anglers At Risk of Lead Exposure in the United States
(pdf, 676 kb)

The Potential for Ingestion Exposure to Lead Fragments in Venison in Wisconsin
(pdf, 312 kb)

Lead Used in Hunting and Fishing Raises Health Concerns
News Article (.doc, 63 kb)


* * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Wildlife Health Literature

Ammunition Literature

Return to Scientific Studies page

Return to main Lead page

Did You Know?

Juan Bautista de Anza NHS logo

The Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail runs 1200 miles from Arizona to central California, passing close to Pinnacles National Park at the town of San Juan Bautista. Explore the trail by foot, or view the Anza Trail Guide online for more information. More...