Image of fish drying on rack during the winter time

Image of fish drying on a wooden rack in the winter.

NPS Photo

Today, as in the past, many Alaskans live off the land, relying on fish, wildlife and plants. Alaska Natives have used these subsistence resources for food, shelter, clothing, transportation, handicrafts and trade for thousands of years. Subsistence, and all it entails, is critical to sustaining both the physical and spiritual culture of Alaska Native peoples. It is an important tradition for many non-Natives as well.

When the first Europeans visited Alaska’s shores during the 1740s, all the local residents they met were living a subsistence lifestyle. As the population grew through the territorial days, many new and conflicting demands were made on Alaska’s natural and cultural resources. Development in various forms, such as harvesting marine and inland furbearers, commercial fisheries, mining operations, agriculture, development of military bases, along with establishment of cities and towns often impacted local resources and subsistence activities. By the time Alaska gained statehood in 1959, subsistence patterns in some of Alaska’s more populated areas had been greatly affected.

To learn more about subsistence in Alaska's National Parks, check out Promises to Keep, our brochure on subsistence in Alaska’s National Parks.

Did You Know?