• Structure 17, Glassblowing and Island Drive

    Historic Jamestowne

    Part of Colonial National Historical Park Virginia

Powhatan Indian Bibliography

Axtell, James. The European and the Indian: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial America. Oxford University Press, 1982.

Banner, Stuart. How the Indians Lost Their Land: Law and Power on the Frontier. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005.

Beverley, Robert. The History and Present State of Virginia (1705). Louis B. Wright, ed. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1947. (A description of the Virginia Indians at the end of the 17th century.)

Bradby Jr., Kenneth. Pamunkey Speaks: Native Perspectives. BookSurge Publishing, 2008.

Craven, Wesley Frank. White, Red, and Black: The Seventeenth-Century Virginian. Charlottesville: The University Press of Florida, 1971. (has some errors because of when it was written, but it still has good information and is a good resource).

Egloff, Keith and Deborah Woodward. First People: The Early Indians of Virginia. Charlottesville, The University Press of Virginia, 1992.

Feest, Christian. The Powhatan Tribes - Indians of North America. Chelsea House Publications, 1989.

Feest, Christian. "Virginia Algonquians" in Handbook of North American Indians: Northeast, Volume 15. Bruce Trigger, ed. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1978.

Fritz, Jean. Double Life of Pocahontas. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1983. (An excellent children's book.)

Gleach, Frederic W. Powhatan's World and Colonial Virginia: A Conflict of Cultures. Lincoln: The University of Nebraska Press, 1997.

Harriot, Thomas. Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia. New York: Dover Publications, 1972. (Includes the 1590 Theodor de Bray engravings (Roanoke).

Houck, Peter W. Indian Island in Amerherst County. Warwick House Publishing, 1993.

Hulton, Paul. America 1585: The Complete Drawings of John White. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984.

Kupperman, Karen Ordhal. Indians and English: Facing off in Early America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.

Kupperman, Karen Ordhal. Settling with the Indians: The Meeting of the English and Indian Cultures in America, 1580-1640. Rowman and Littlefield, 1980.

McCary, Ben C. Indians in Seventeenth-Century Virginia. Williamsburg, Virginia: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corporation, 1957. (has some minor errors because of when written (like saying Siouan speakers are Sioux when they are not), but still a good resource)

Nash, Gary B. Red, White and Black: The Peoples of Early North America. Los Angeles: University of California, Fourth edition 2000.

Rountree, Helen C. and E. Randolph Turner III. Before and After Jamestown: Virginia's Powhatans and Their Predecessors. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002.

Richter, Dr. Daniel K. Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America. Harvard University Press, 2003.

Rountree, Helen C. Eastern Shore Indians of Virginia and Maryland. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1997.

Rountree, Helen C. (editor) Powhatan Foreign Relations: 1500-1722. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993.

Rountree, Helen C. The Powhatan Indians of Virginia: Their Traditional Culture. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989. (Good secondary source on Powhatan ethnography.)

Rountree, Helen C. Pocahontas's People: The Powhatan Indians of Virginia Through Four Centuries. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990. (Good secondary source on Powhatan history.)

Smith, John. "Map of Virginia" in Complete Works of Captain John Smith. Philip Barbour, ed. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986. (Best primary source for Powhatan descriptions.)

Spelman, Henry. "Relation of Virginea" in Travels and Works of Captain John Smith. Edward Arber, ed. Edinburgh: John Grant, 1910. 1:ci-cxiv. (Good primary source from one who lived with the Powhatan Indians.)

Strachey, William. Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania (1612). Louis B. Wright and Virginia Freund, eds. London: Hakluyl Society, 1953.

Waugaman, Sandra F. and Danielle Moretti-Langholtz, PhD. We're Still Here: Contemporary Virginia Indians Tell Their Stories. Richmond: Palari Publishing, revised edition 2006.

Wood, Karenne and Diane Shields. The Monacan Indians: Our Story. Monacan Indian Nation, 1999.

Now available online through the National Park Service is A Study of Virginia Indians and Jamestown: THE FIRST CENTURY by Danielle Moretti-Langholtz, Ph.D.

Did You Know?

Powhatan Indians watching the newly arrived English built their fort.

The land the English settled in 1607 was already home to more than thirty Powhatan Indian tribes. Each tribe had its own chief (weroance/weroansqua) who was “ruled” by paramount chief (mamanatowick) Powhatan. This Powhatan Chiefdom spanned all of tidewater Virginia and parts of the Eastern Shore. More...