• Rifle Regiment arriving at Belle Point, 1817. Artwork by Michael Haynes

    Fort Smith

    National Historic Site AR,OK

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  • Road Construction I-540

    Traveling West on I-40? To avoid construction delays, do not take Exit 7 (I-540 S). Stay on I-40 west and take Exit 1 Dora. Stay on Hwy 64D for 6 miles and follow signs to Fort Smith. After crossing over the river, turn right on 4th ST & right on Garland. More »

Grounds Stop XV

Courthouse/Jail/Barracks Building


N 35° 23.298’
W 94° 25.772’

The first barracks on this site was completed in 1846 and burned three years later. It was rebuilt and remained in used until the Army left Fort Smith in 1871. In 1872 the Federal Court for the Western District of Arkansas moved into the building, using one room as a courtroom and the other rooms as offices for the clerk, U.S.Marshall, and U.S. Commissioner. The basement became a primitive jail.

In this building, Judge Issac C. Parker presided over the court cases from 1875-1889. In 1890, the court moved three blocks down the street to a new building. Public clamor over the conditions in the jail, which those confined there called "Hell on the Border," led in 1887 to the construction of a new jail with more modern cell arrangements. This building continued to serve as a federal jail until 1917.

The courthouse, which originally was a 1 1/2-story structure with full porches on two sides, was changed to its present appearance in 1890. The second story was added in 1891 for use as a hospital for the prisoners, and the long porches were removed and replaced with shorter ones.

Stop XV

Did You Know?

reproduction of keelboat on Arkansas River with first fort soldier reenactors

Fort Smith was established on Christmas Day, 1817. Approximately 70 Rifle Regiment soldiers arrived by keelboat after a long journey on the Arkansas River.