The monument is in a transition zone of several vegetation communities. The monument was created from the acquisition of private land that had been farmed and logged altering the native vegetation mosaic. Results of monument vegetation surveys combined with information from federal land surveys show that a mosaic of forest, savanna, and prairie covered the monument. Prairie and savanna dominated ridges and south facing slopes. Forests pockets were likely found on north facing slopes and in the river floodplain.
Did You Know?
Soldiers built a military road that eventually extended approximately fifty miles, connecting Fort Atkinson with Fort Crawford. The road — which passed through the monument's South Unit — was one of the first government-authorized roads within what would become the State of Iowa.