• A quiet summer walk through the Marching Bear Group of effigy mounds

    Effigy Mounds

    National Monument Iowa

Freshwater Plants

Nature and Science

Aquatics on Buffalo Pond

The Mississippi River, with its many islands, sloughs and backwaters, is rich in nutrients that sustain aquatic plants which make up the bottom of the food web for living organisms in the river ecosystem. Various species of pondweed along with water milfoil, elodea, watershield, duckweed, arrowhead, bulrush, cattail, and wild rice populate backwaters and ponds. These aquatic plants serve as an important food source and provide habitat. They produce oxygen and organic material to benefit other organisms. Their leaves and stems provide spawning habitat, food, and cover for a variety of fish and aquatic invertebrates.

Did You Know?

Bird Mounds: Effigy Mounds National Monument today - is a sacred site to many American Indians.

Effigy Mounds National Monument is located in territory that was hotly contested by Indians and the American government. In 1832, the U.S. forced the Sauk and Fox tribes to cede land south of the “Neutral Ground” along the Mississippi River, which included the lands of the present National Monument.