• A quiet summer walk through the Marching Bear Group of effigy mounds

    Effigy Mounds

    National Monument Iowa

Freshwater Plants

Nature and Science

Aquatics on Buffalo Pond

The Mississippi River, with its many islands, sloughs and backwaters, is rich in nutrients that sustain aquatic plants which make up the bottom of the food web for living organisms in the river ecosystem. Various species of pondweed along with water milfoil, elodea, watershield, duckweed, arrowhead, bulrush, cattail, and wild rice populate backwaters and ponds. These aquatic plants serve as an important food source and provide habitat. They produce oxygen and organic material to benefit other organisms. Their leaves and stems provide spawning habitat, food, and cover for a variety of fish and aquatic invertebrates.

Did You Know?

Fire Point Mound Group

Stephen H. Long, of the U.S. Army's Topographical Engineers, explored and described the Effigy Mounds National Monument region in expeditions undertaken in 1817 and 1823. Long was one of the first to document the presence of mounds in the Upper Mississippi River Valley.