Landslides and Slumps
A Dynamic Landscape
The trigger for the slide remains unknown. Ground, aerial, and satellite imagery of the site in the years and months before to the event indicate that a small slide had previously occurred here, groundwater seeped from the area, and the ground was beginning to move slightly (see imagery). In the days preceding discovery of the slide, the area was experiencing temperatures that fluctuated near the freezing point. Therefore, the forces associated with the expansion of ice during the repeated freezing and thawing of water near the surface may have triggered the slide. Alternatively, we also know that a thick layer of permafrost slid on an unfrozen layer of clay.
Regionally, permafrost is thawing; while the local trend is presently unknown, thaw in the area would be consistent with regional trends. Therefore, it is possible that the permafrost thinned through the clay layer, which triggered the slide. Many other triggers are also possible and are being examined.
The exact timing of the slide also remains under investigation. The last confirmed passage through the area before discovery of the slide occurred on October 12th. Anyone that traveled in the area of the slide between the 12th and the 23rd is encouraged to contact our park geologist. The Alaska Earthquake Information Center also attempted to determine the timing of the slide; however, due to its relatively small size and apparent slow movement, it is possible that the slide did not create a distinctive seismic signal like larger, faster events.
The future hazard to the Denali Park Road to debris slides and other mass movements is under active investigation. In the spring, when the ground thaws, additional activity at the Igloo Debris Slide can be expected. A ditch to capture these materials has been excavated. If deemed necessary, Denali National Park staff will institute additional protective measures with the assistance of the Federal Highways Administration. Denali staff has already begun the process of analyzing other sections of the Park Road for similar problems so that potential hazards can be mitigated.
Did You Know?
Recent climate warming has affected Denali in ways that are readily apparent, such as reduced spring snowfall, earlier snowmelt, earlier green-up and thawing of permanent snowfields. Subarctic ecosystems, like Denali, are extremely sensitive to climate variability and change.