• pond surrounded by green brush, reflecting a distant range of snow-covered mountains that are dominated by one massive mountain

    Denali

    National Park & Preserve Alaska

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    The Park Road is currently open to Mile 3, Park Headquarters. Wintry conditions beyond that point prevent vehicle travel, though pedestrian travel is permitted. More »

Fossils

Fossils in Denali National Park and Preserve

Many national parks and protected lands in the United States have fantastic fossils, but few people think of coming to Denali to see dinosaurs. After years of searching, the first dinosaur fossil was found in Denali in 2005 when a college student from Fairbanks found a footprint only a few yards from the park road!

The three-toed footprint belonged to a theropod (meat-eating dinosaur) that lived about 70 million years ago in what was called the Late Cretaceous time.

Click the links below to discover more fossils in Denali and what they can tell us about the Earth long, long ago.

- The Lower Cantwell Formation
- How Fossils Are Made
- Paleontology and Paleontologists
- Dinosaur Footprints
- Denali's Big Bird: Magnoavipes denaliensis
- Plant Fossils
- Other Fossils

 
fossilized dinosaur footprint with tape measure

NPS Photo

If you are lucky enough to find a fossil in Denali please leave it where you find it, but feel free to take pictures!

The Lower Cantwell Formation

The dinosaur fossils in Denali are found in the Lower Cantwell Formation. These rocks were formed 65 to 80 million years ago as small rocks, sand, and mud filled a large basin. Rivers and streams, similar to the ones we see today in the park, brought these sediments from the mountains into the basin for 15 million years. This process formed the fine and coarse layers of shale, sandstone, and conglomerate seen today in the grey outcrops throughout the park.cantwell formationcantwell formationcantwell formationImages: Nearly-vertical outcrops of the Lower Cantwell Formation with hundreds of dinosaur track imprints. (NPS Photo)

How Fossils are Made

Seventy million years ago, when dinosaurs, plants, and other creatures lived in the area we now call Denali, they left footprints, burrows, and leaves in the soft mud. Most of the fossils in Denali are trace fossils, also known as ichnofossils. Trace fossils record evidence of life left behind by animals, such as footprints or burrows, but do not preserve the body of the animal. In addition to animal traces, scientists have found whole pieces of fossilized wood and leaf imprints. Traces are preserved when the imprints are filled in with sediment that hardens into rock over many, many years. Later, the rock must be exposed by uplift and erosion so that humans can find the fossils hidden within the layers.

 

Paleontology and Paleontologists

Paleontology is the study of ancient life. Paleontologists study fossils for clues to how animals and plants lived in the past. Fossils can teach us about what types of ecosystems existed and how organisms evolved. They are also used to search for oil and date rock layers. Scientists can even use fossilized plants to tell what the climate was like 70 million years ago.

 
Montage of paleontologists in the field
Paleontologists at work
NPS Photo
 

Dinosaur Footprints

The first dinosaur footprint was found in Denali in 2005, and hundreds of dinosaur footprints have been found by both visitors and scientists since. In some places in the park there are thousands of dinosaur footprints on a single slab of rock! Dinosaur footprints are valuable because they give us clues to how dinosaurs moved and lived.

Denali's Big Bird: Magnoavipes denaliensis

These tracks were probably made by a bird that is five feet tall! The print, belonging to a wading bird, didn't match any previously known fossil, so paleontologist Tony Fiorillo had the honor of providing a name. Fiorillo named the large bird "denaliensis" after the very large mountain, Denali.

Plant Fossils

Wood, leaf imprints, and other plant remains are the most common fossils found in the Cretaceous Formation. When traveling through the park today, we see large areas covered by tundra and low lying bushes. 65 million years ago, however, a warmer climate allowed trees and other plants to grow much larger than they do now.

Other Fossils

The most common fossils in Denali are dinosaur footprints and plant material, but there were many other creatures that left evidence of their existence. The traces of these critters, although smaller and harder to find, are just as important as the large dinosaur footprints. They help to complete the picture of what the ecosystem in Denali looked like 65 million years ago.

Did You Know?

green forest in front of darker hills and a white capped mountain

Denali National Park and Preserve in Alaska is over 6 million acres (9,419 square miles) in size!