Wydeven, A.P. and Dahlgren, R.B. 1985. Ungulate Habitat Relationships in Wind Cave National Park. Journal of Wildlife Management 49(2): 805-813
Habitat relationships were examined for elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), and bison (Bison bison) in Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota. Elk and mule deer generally used range sites dominated by warm-season grasses (shallow and stony hills), whereas pronghorn and bison mainly used sites dominated by cool-seasason grasses (silty, clayey, and overflow). Elk used woodland sites moderately throughout the year. Pronghorn made greater use of stony hills sites in autumn and winter and the greatest use of prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) towns of all four ungulates. Mule deer use of overflow sites increased in autumn. Ungulates were broadly distrubuted over the park, except mule deer whose spatial distribution wa slimited. The combination of habitat overlap and spatial overlap indicates low potential for competition between all species except bison and pronghorn; differences in food habits probably reduces potential competition between these two species.