Davis. 1992. Soil water chemistry proposal with soil column chemical analyses. 5 p.
Wind Cave and Jewel Cave are located in a vadose zone several hundred feet thick. The vadose zone includes the cave-bearing Pahasapa (Madison) limestone, and the overlying Minnelusa formation. The regional climate is semi-arid and contributes to the sparsity of perennial streams. Average precipitation is about 17 inches per year. Evapotranspiration at Jewel Cave is enhanced by the ponderosa pine forest over the cave, while Wind Cave is primarily underneath a prairie grassland. Water flow in the caves occurs primarily as drips and seeps, which sometimes collects in pools. The water chemistry between the two caves is different, even though they are within the same rock formation.