Fredlund, Glen G. 1996. Late Quaternary Geomorphic History of Lower Highland Creek, Wind Cave National Park, SD. Physical Geography 17. pp. 446-464.
Mapping of late Quaternary geomorphic surfaces, and analysis of the soils and sediments buried within them, provides evidence for the history of a small study area within the Red Valley physiographic zone, Black Hills, SD. Geomorphic thresholds for this grassland system are correlated with periods of major climatic change. Well-developed soil dating back to the late Pleistocene and early Holocene (14,000 to 9000 yr. B.P.) suggest more mesic conditions and geomorphic stability. A mid-Holocene Altithermal (ca. 8000 to 4500 yr B.P.) denudation almost completely stripped the landscape of earlier Holocene sediments and soils. A prolonged, mid-Holocene (ca. 4500 to 3600 yr B.P.) mesic period of landscapre stability and soild development followed, but was abruptly terminated around 3600 yr BP. Late Holocene conditions approached stability about 1200 yr. BP. After this time, alluvial terrace surfaces remained stable, while alluvial fans experienced periods of stability punctuated by midslope aggradation.