Wydeven, A.P. and Dahlgren, R.B. 1983. Food Habits of Elk in the Northern Great Plains. Journal of Wildlife Management 47: 916-923.
Food habits of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were determined by 92 feeding-site examinations and examination of 30 rumen samples. Graminoids were the major forage class eaten in spring and summer. Forbs were the most important forage class in fall and winter, but moderate amounts of graminoids also were eaten. Elk seldom fed on browse throughout the year. Major plants eaten by elk included big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), Louisiana sagewort (Artemisia ludovisicana) and threadleaf sedge (Carex filifolia).