Marcus and Narcissa Whitman and the Opening of Old Oregon by Clifford M. Drury


Chapter 1: Whitman Volunteers for Oregon (pdf 3.4 mb)
The American Board; Samuel Parker; Oregon Indians in the Red River Mission School; Nez Perce Delegation to St. Louis; Spokane Garry; Methodists send Jason Lee to Old Oregon; Samuel Parker appointed; Marcus Whitman and Narcissa Prentiss volunteer.
Images for Chapter 1 (pdf 3.2 mb)

Chapter 2: Whitman’s First Eighteen Years (pdf 3.1 mb)
1802-1820 61 Ancestry, birth, and early years; Ten years in Massachusetts.
Chapter 3: Whitman’s Medical Training (pdf 3.0 mb)
Riding with Dr. Bryant; Whitman’s first term at Medical College; Whitman in Canada; Whitman returns to Medical College.
Chapter 4: Three Years at Wheeler, 1832–1835 (pdf 2.9 mb)
The cholera epidemic; Whitman commissioned by the American Board; Parker’s appeal for missionaries; Whitman leaves for the Rockies.
Chapter 5: Early Life of Narcissa Prentiss, 1808–1835 (pdf 2.9 mb)
Ancestry and early life; The church at Prattsburg; Her education; She rejects Spalding’s proposal; “Are Females Wanted”; Marcus and Narcissa engaged; Narcissa applies for appointment.
Chapter 6: Whitman’s First Journey to the Rockies, 1835 (pdf 2.8 mb)
His official commission; Differences of Whitman and Parker; Hostility of the men of the caravan; Cholera strikes; From Bellevue to the Rendezvous; At the Rendezvous; Whitman and Parker separate; “We could cross the mountains with a wagon.”
Chapter 7: Marcus and Narcissa are Married, 1836 (pdf 2.5 mb)
The search for associates; Henry H. Spalding; Eliza Hart Spalding; Spalding’s unfortunate remark; “We want you for Oregon”; Their personal appearance; Marcus and Narcissa are married.
Chapter 8: First White Women to Cross the Rockies, 1836 (pdf 2.5 mb)
Official passports for Oregon; Final instructions from the Board; From Narcissa’s letters; William H. Gray; Travel outfit assembled; On the march; Through South Pass, July 4, 1836.
Images for Chapter 8 (pdf 2.3 mb)
Chapter 9: From the Rendezvous to Fort Vancouver (pdf 2.2 mb)
At the Rendezvous; To Fort Boise; Narcissa’s diary; To Fort Vancouver; The missionaries at Fort Vancouver.
Images for Chapter 9 (pdf 2.1 mb)
Chapter 10: Waiilatpu, 1836–1837 (pdf 2.0 mb)
Mission site selected; Spalding selects Lapwai; Women return to Walla Walla; First house at Waiilatpu; Food supplies; Gray returns to the States; Agriculture and evangelization begin at Waiilatpu; Three Cayuse chiefs; Alice Clarissa born; Trials and triumphs.
Chapter 11: The Versatile Doctor, 1837–1838 (pdf 1.9 mb)Whitman, the doctor, farmer, and missionary teacher; Eliza Spalding born; First adobe house; Lee visits Whitman and Spalding.
Chapter 12: Jason Lee And Oregon Colonization (pdf 1.7 mb)
Lieutenant Slacum visits Oregon; Boundary issue; Methodist reenforcements; Lee leaves for New York; Whitman and Spalding ask for more missionaries; Methodists receive a government subsidy; The Lausanne reenforcement; Reaction of the Hudson’s Bay Company.

Chapter 13: A Year of Adjustments, 1838–1839 (pdf 1.5 mb)
Financial matters; First Presbyterian Church of Oregon; Reenforcement of 1838; Asa Bowen Smith; “A strange company of missionaries”; Columbia Maternal Association; Tshimakain selection; Coming of Roman Catholic missionaries; Whitman’s second house; Growing dissention in the mission; Alice Clarissa drowned; Reconciliation.
Images for Chapter 13 (pdf 1.2 mb)

Chapter 14: Fourth Year of the Oregon Mission, 1839-1840 (pdf 1.2 mb)
Gray demands a separate station; Independent missionaries arrive; First native converts; Thomas J. Farnham; Emigrant House erected; Spalding criticized; More missionaries; Arrival of Father DeSmet.
Images for Chapter 14 (pdf 1.0 mb)
Chapter 15: Fifth Year of the Oregon Mission, 1840–1841 (pdf 920 kb)
Critical letters against Spalding; First wagons over the Blue Mountains; Indian troubles; Proposal to sell out to the Methodists; Munger insane; Smiths and Rogers leave; Political developments; The Wilkes expedition.
Chapter 16: The Mission in Crisis, 1841–1842 (pdf 709 kb)
Red River migration; War, diplomacy, or emigration; Whitman’s life threatened; More dissention in the mission; American Board dismisses Spalding; Roman Catholic activities; Elijah White and the 1842 emigration; Gray resigns; Whitman leaves for the East.
Chapter 17: Narcissa’s Lonely Year, 1842–1843 (pdf 3.2 mb)
Attempted assault on Narcissa; Narcissa goes to Waskopum; Laws of the Nez Perces; Ellis made First Head Chief; Restlessness among the Cayuses; White’s return visit; Cayuses accept the laws.
Chapter 18: Whitman Rides, 1842–1843 (pdf 3.1 mb)
Crossing the Rockies in severe winter; Promotes Oregon emigration; Whitman in Washington; In New York and Boston; Board rescinds fateful order; Whitman plans for the Mission’s future.
Chapter 19: “WESTWARD Ho!” 1843 . . . (pdf 2.9 mb)
Whitman’s visit with relatives; Perrin Whitman; “My plans require time and distance”; Emigrants gather; “Travel, travel, travel”; Opening the wagon road to the Columbia; An appraisal of Whitman’s ride; Reaction of the Hudson’s Bay Company.
Chapter 20: A Changing Oregon, 1843–1846 (pdf 2.7 mb)
Narcissa sick and discouraged; Continued activities at Waiilatpu; More native converts; Indians becoming uneasy; 1844–1845; Arrival of the Sager orphans; Gospel of Matthew in Nez Perce; 1845–1846; Emigration of 1845; Andrew Rodgers; Reminiscences of the Sager girls; Whitman considers leaving Waiilatpu; Visit of Tom Hill; International boundary settled.
Chapter 21: Prelude to Tragedy, September 1846 to November 1847 (pdf 2.4 mb)
The emigration of 1846; Severe winter; Methodists give Waskopum to the American Board; Hinmans and Perrin Whitman move to Waskopum; Artists Kane and Stanley visit Waiilatpu; Introduction of measles; Catholics establish two missions near Waiilatpu; Oregon emigration of 1847; Last Whitman letters; Crowded Waiilatpu; Joe Lewis, chief villain; Roll‑call at Waiilatpu.
Images for Chapter 21 (pdf 2.1 mb)
Chapter 22: The Whitman Massacre (pdf 2.1 mb)
The measles epidemic; Whitman accused of poisoning the Indians; Conspirators identified; Serving Oregon through death; Ride to the Umatilla; The massacre; Some were weeping; Hudson’s Bay Company informed; Those who escaped; Father Brouillet visits Waiilatpu; Summary of the fate of those at Waiilatpu.
Images for Chapter 22 (pdf 1.7 mb)
Chapter 23: Congress Establishes Oregon as a Territory (pdf 1.3 mb)
Hudson’s Bay Company acts promptly; Experiences of the captives; Ogden secures their release; Lapwai Mission abandoned; Discovery of Stanley’s portraits; In pursuit of the murderers; Waiilatpu burned; Joe Meek goes east; End of the Oregon Mission; Territorial status.
Chapter 24: Epilogue (pdf 1.0 mb)
Apprehension of five alleged murderers; Their trial and execution; Waiilatpu inventory; Monuments, memorials, and anniversary occasions; Mystery of the skulls; Whitman literature; Whitman Mission National Historic Site; Continuing First Presbyterian Church of Oregon; I Baptize You Marcus Whitman.
Images for Chapter 24 (pdf 793 kb)

Last updated: March 1, 2015

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