Teacher Reference Materials

Three Affiliated Tribes History: Education and Spirituality

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Grade Level:
Middle School: Sixth Grade through Eighth Grade
Social Studies


Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site preserves and protects archeological, cultural and natural resources related to the Three Affiliated Tribes, Hidatsa, Mandan, and Arikara, who lived at this site for 500 years prior to the 1837 smallpox epidemic which forced them to relocate to Like-a-fishook village. Many of the cultural and spiritual practices of the tribes were lost in institutionalized boarding schools. This background reading focuses on the resilience of the Hidatsa, Mandan and Arikara and the progress they are making toward reestablishing their cultural identity through education and traditional spiritual beliefs. 


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Last updated: July 21, 2015